2 Policy Analysis Essays, political science homework help

  

* Before you start, I want to communicate that both of my policy analysis essays have been graded by my school. Revision will be needed to improve grade and I’m looking forward to both A’s 🙂 * Make all the changes that are necessary according to what needs to be revised. The instruction for both are below, just because they will be needed, since they are boh based on the essays. POLICY ANALYSIS #1 INSTRUCTIONS 

  Follow the specific instructions of data analysis for each question.

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  There are three questions listed in this assignment. The highest possible score for

completing this assignment is 100, 30 points for each question, and 10 points for writing

and presentation style.

  Write your discussion in a concise and precise way. Your discussion should be supported

by the data analysis and empirical findings.

  For each question, you are required to generate tables and figures. Tables and figures

should be self-contained.

o Each table and figure should have a title.o Each table and figure should have a footnote for data sources.o If you need to present multiple lines or bars in a figure, the layout for lines and bars should be differentiable.o Axes should go with self-contained titles.o Use legends and labels if they help to clarify your figures.QUESTION #1: In Chapter 2, Kettl presents a comparative figure (Figure 2.4), ranking government
outlays as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). What would the comparison
look like if we take a further step to evaluate government outlays based on different
spending categories? Finish the following data analysis and provide a short write-up on
what you find.(1)  Go to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
database, http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx. Check the category, “Health”. You can
find data on health expenditures and financing for OECD countries. Generate a
similar figure to Figure 2.4 based on total health spending (as a percentage of
GDP) in 2012. Where does the U.S. stand in this cross-country comparison based
on total health spending? Discuss what you find. (10 points)(2)  Now, analyze the health expenditure that is only financed by government. How
does the cross-country comparison look if you only compare government health
expenditure? Discuss what you find. (10 points)(3)  Repeat step (2), but assess the finance agent, “private sector”. Do you find
different cross-country comparison based on (2) and (3)? Discuss what you find.
(10 points)

QUESTION #2.   Government employment is one of the empirical measures to evaluate government size.
The size of government employment, moreover, varies substantially across states. The
U.S. Census Bureau produces annual national data books, from which we can find data
on government employment in each state.(1) Go to the 2012 U.S. Census Bureau “State Government Employment and
Payroll” Data, http://www.census.gov/govs/apes/historical_data_2012.html. Then,
check the category, “State Government Employment and Payroll Data”. Find out,
in your home state, what was the total state government full-time equivalent
employment in 2012? Make a state-ranking figure based on total state & local
government employment (similar to Figure 2.3 in Kettl) and discuss where your
home state stands in the cross-state comparison. (10 points)(2) List all the neighboring states of your home state and list the total state and full-
time employment in 2012 in these neighboring states. Make a table of the
comparative statistics. Discuss how your home state compares to its neighboring
states. Why do they have different sizes of full-time government employment?
(10 points)(3) Now, take a further look at the profile of your home state’s full time-employment
(i.e. full-time employment by functions). In which functions do you observe large
numbers of full time employment in your home state (report the top 5 functions)?
Repeat this step for all the neighboring states and produce a table to compare their
government employment profiles to that in your home state.(10 points)QUESTION #3: Kettl mentions in Chapter 2 that much governmental activity occurs between levels of
government. Inter-governmental grants have been used widely to aid state and local
governments. Moreover, state government revenues and expenditures vary substantially
by functions. Check out the U.S. Census Bureau “Government Finance Statistics”,
http://www.census.gov/govs/financegen/index.html.(1)  Analyze inter-government revenue in California and Texas in 2013. What are the
major sources of inter-government revenue in these two states (i.e. from federal,
state and local level). In these two states, how did the inter-governmental revenue
compare to the general revenue from states’ own sources in 2013? Which state
relies more on inter-governmental revenue? Discuss what you find.(10 Points)(2)  Now, turn to the expenditure category, “Governmental Administration”, analyze
and discuss how these two states compare with each other based on their 2013
expenditures on governmental administration? Which states spent more on
governmental administration in 2013? Why? (10 Points). Find out the population
size of these two states in 2013, then covert total governmental administration
expenditures into per capita expenditures. Would you draw the same comparison
between CA and Texas based on per capita expenditure on governmental
administration?(3)  Reconsider the total expenditures and expenditures by functions in California and
Texas in 2013. Compare what administrative function(s) drove these two states’
expenditures on governmental administration. Discuss what you find (5 points). 

POLICY ANALYSIS 2 INSTRUCTIONS

  Follow the specific instructions of data analysis for each question.

  There are two questions listed in this assignment. The highest possible score for

completing this assignment is 100, 45 points for each question, and 10 points for

writing and presentation style.

  Write your discussion in a concise and precise way. Your discussion should be

supported by the data analysis and empirical findings.

  For each question, you are required to generate tables and figures. Tables and

figures should be self-contained.o Each table and figure should have a title.o Each table and figure should have a footnote for data sources.o If you need to present multiple lines or bars in a figure, the layout for lines and bars should be differentiable.o Axes should go with self-contained titles.o Use legends and labels if they help to clarify your figures.

QUESTION #1: In previous lectures, we discussed that descriptive representation can be evaluated
based on different social identities. For example, Kettl illustrates minority
representation in the federal civilian workforce based on a comparison between the
percentages of minority and non-minority federal employees. Use the 2009
Government Workforce Statistics (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
EEOC) to complete the following analyses.
http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/statistics/employment/jobpat-eeo4/2009/index.cfm

(1) Choose the category “Aggregated by Government Type—Type: 3 City”. You
could find three tables, “Total Full Time Employment”, “Total Part-Time
Employment”, and “Total New Hire Employment”. Use the data in the first table,
“Total Full Time Employment”, to generate a similar figure (i.e. a pie chart) as Figure
8.3 (Kettl, page 245). In this figure, you should only use the data based on total full-
time employment. Also, make sure to present information for each race group (i.e.
White, African American, Hispanic, Asian, Native American). (10 points)

(2) Compare the figure generated in 1-(1) to Figure 8.3 (Kettl, p.245), do you find a
different pattern of minority representation among civilian public employees in city
governments? (5 points)

(3) Repeat the analysis in (1) (i.e. generate another figure similar to Figure 8.3) by
using the data on total part-time employment. Discuss the pattern of minority
representation among part-time employees in city governments. (10 points)(4) What is the pattern of minority representation among newly hired public
employees in city governments? Use relevant data in the third table “Total New Hire
Employment” to generate a third figure similar to Figure 8.3, and briefly discuss what
you find. (10 points)

(5) Compare the three figures you produced in (1), (3), and (4). How does minority
representation in city governments vary across employment types (i.e. full-time, part-
time and new hire employment)? Discuss what you find for each race. (10 points)

QUESTION #2: Kettl contends, “Doing the public’s work—and doing it well—requires finding,
recruiting, and retaining good people (p.231).” Do you know that, despite salaries and
position-classifications, government employees’ perceptions on their own
organizations also matter for retaining talented people? The Best Places to Work
rankings provide most in-depth analysis of employee satisfaction. It could be a
valuable information-source for people who are interested in seeking a federal job.
Go to the homepage of “Best Places to Work in the Federal Government”,
http://bestplacestowork.org/ and read the background information by clicking “About
Best Places to Work”. In the following part of the assignment, you will explore how
federal employees rate federal agencies.

(1) Find the data for the 2015 Overall Index Scores. List the top 3 large agencies with
the highest overall index scores in 2015. List the top 3 small agencies with the highest
overall index scores in 2015. Which large agency made the greatest improvement
from 2014 to 2015? Which small agency made the greatest improvement from 2014
to 2015? (10 points)

(2) Choose one agency from the following list and make a table for its 2015 rating
scores based on all specific categories (including 10 major categories and 4 sub-
categories under “Effective Leadership”). (5 points)

  Department of Veterans Affairs

  Department of State

  Department of the Treasury

  Department of Transportation

  Department of Labor

  Department of Education

  Department of Homeland Security

  Department of Health and Human Services

  Department of Energy

  Department of Justice

  Department of Agriculture(3) Based on the category-specific index scores you analyzed in 3-(2), which
categories would make the selected agency a good place to work? Which aspects do
you think the agency needs to be improved on? (5 points)(4) Use the same agency you chose in 3-(2), and make a table by comparing how
female and male federal employees evaluate this agency. (5 points) Do you find any similarity (or dissimilarity) based on gender? Which group’s rating do you trust more,
men or women? Why? (5 points) (5) Use the same agency you chose in 3-(2), and make a table by comparing how
different race groups rate the agency. (5 points). Do you find any similarity (or
dissimilarity across the 6 race/ethnicity groups)? (5 points). Then, make a table by
comparing how this agency is rated based on teamwork, support for diversity, and
fairness (this is a sub-category under Effective Leadership). Discuss what you find. (5
points)
policy_analysis_1.doc

policy_analysis_2.doc

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Gonzales 1
Policy Analysis Assignment I
Government Outlays based on Different Spending Categories
Often, government outlays are ranked as percentages of the country’s GDP. For instance,
government expenditure and financing in health can be presented as a percentage of GDP as
shown in table 1 below.
Table 1: Government expenditure and financing in health for OECD
Country
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Chile
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
%GDP
8.8%
10.1%
10.2%
10.2%
7.0%
7.1%
10.4%
5.8%
8.5%
10.8%
10.8%
9.1%
7.5%
8.7%
8.0%
7.0%
8.8%
10.1%
6.7%
6.6%
6.1%
11.0%
9.8%
8.8%
Gonzales 2
Poland
Portugal
Slovakia Republic
Slovania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
6.3%
9.3%
7.7%
8.7%
9.0%
10.8%
11.0%
5.0%
8.5%
16.4%
Table 1 shows government expenditure and financing in health for OECD countries as a
percentage of each country’s GDP1.
The above data can be presented in a bar chart as follows:
Figure 1: Government and other financing in health care expenditure for OECD
Figure 1 above shows government expenditure and financing in health for OECD countries as a
percentage of each country’s GDP2.
1
The data was retrieved from http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=HEALTH_STAT
Gonzales 3
From the data above, the United States has the highest percentage GDP in government
expenditure and financing. The United States government spends 16.4% of its GDP to finance
the national healthcare sector. Further given that the US has the largest GDP, it implies that the
amount of GDP allocated to healthcare is larger than any of the other OECD member countries.
Financing usually comes for the government and other financiers. Considering a situation
whereby the health care sector is only financed by the government, the healthcare expenditure
for each OECD country would be as follows:
Figure 2: Government financing in health care expenditure for OECD
Figure 2 shows financing in health care expenditure from government funding only for OECD
countries as a percentage of each country’s GDP3.
The last column on figure 2 represents the United States. The percentage of GDP from
direct government financing by the United States government for healthcare expenditures is
2
Figure 1 was formulated using table 1 data in Excel spreadsheet.
3
Figure 1 was formulated using table 1 data in Excel spreadsheet.
Gonzales 4
7.9%. The Netherlands has the largest percent with 9.6% of its GDP going to healthcare
expenditures from government funding .4
When the private sector is the only financing agent, a difference cross-country
comparison based on the government as the financing agent (2) and the private sector as the
financing agent (3) is realized as shown below:
Figure 3: Private Sector financing in health care expenditure for OECD
Figure 3 above shows private sector financing in health care expenditure for OECD countries as
a percentage of each country’s GDP5.
Figure 3 shows the United States now leads the other OECD countries with a significant
margin. The private sector in the US contributes to 8.5% of GDP on health care funding.
Netherlands now records one of the lowest percentages from private sector funding. From the
4
Retrieved from http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=HEALTH_STAT
5
Figure 1 was formulated using table 1 data in Excel spreadsheet.
Gonzales 5
percent of GDP presented in Figure 3, it is evident that the private sector contributes to a higher
healthcare funding than the federal government. Most of the other countries rely of the
government to finance their healthcare expenditures.
Question 2: Government Employment Analysis
Government employment can be used as an empirical measure of evaluating government
size. In the United States, employment size varies significantly across states according to the
United States Census Bureau. In my home state, Texas, the total state government full-time
equivalent employment in 2012 was 310,549.
The following is an analysis of total state governments full-time equivalent employment
in 2012 and state ranking based on total state and local employment.
Table 2: State ranking based on full-time equivalent employment
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
State Full-time Equivalent Employment
281,798
55,584
284,163
173,198
1,734,723
273,293
186,197
49,291
44,423
886,808
520,149
72,572
77,721
631,078
329,630
177,857
Gonzales 6
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
192,890
248,786
266,842
72,027
300,350
327,076
449,351
264,790
194,054
317,851
56,331
120,912
103,107
71,609
486,498
123,775
1,175,295
563,791
44,623
587,476
211,591
192,468
584,407
49,280
258,511
45,648
331,560
1,415,301
143,700
42,384
451,689
335,239
103,772
282,864
51,504
Gonzales 7
Table 2 shows the state and local government employment levels based on the full-time
equivalent employment.6
The tabulated data can be presented graphically as shown in figure 4 below.
Figure 4: State ranking based on full-time equivalent employment
Figure 4 shows the state and local government employment levels based on the full-time
equivalent employment. States are in alphabetical order; hence, the names on figure 4 can be
identified.7
From the data above, Texas, my home state, is the second largest state government with
1,415, 301 level of full-time equivalent employment after California, which has 1,734,723 level
of full-time equivalent employment. It is closely followed by New York with 1,175,295. These
three states are the only states whose full-time equivalent employment level is above one million.
Among the American states, Vermont has the smallest government with its level of full-time
equivalent employment being.
6
The data was retrieved from
http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk#
7
From the corresponding excel data about state and local government employment
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The neighboring states to Texas, my home state, are Oklahoma, Louisiana, New Mexico,
and Arkansas. All these neighboring states have relatively small governments with their levels of
full-time equivalent employment being 211591, 266842, 123775, and 173198 respectively. New
Mexico is thus the smallest state government among my neighboring states while Louisiana is
the largest after my home state. In terms of full-time employment, Texas remains to be the
largest government within my neighborhood as shown in table 3 below.
Table 3: Comparison of Neighboring States to Texas based on Full-time employment
Home and Neighboring States
Oklahoma
Louisiana
New Mexico
Arkansas
Texas (My Home State)
Full-time Employment
57,853
72,132
39,561
57,847
274,987
Table 3 shows a comparison between Texas full-time employment level and the full-time
employment level in other states.
From the data, Texas full-time employment level is significantly higher than the full-time
employment level of any of the neighboring states. Louisiana has the largest level of full-time
employment among the neighboring states while New Mexico has the lowest level. The
information is further presented graphically as shown in figure 5 below.
Gonzales 9
Figure 5: Comparison of Neighboring States to Texas based on Full-time
employment
Figure 5 shows a comparison between Texas full-time employment level and the full-time
employment level in other states.
A further look at the profile of Texas’ full-time employment by functions shows that the
education function has the largest number of full-time employment, followed by corrections,
health, hospitals, and public welfare functions respective. A comparison with Texas’ neighboring
states also shows a significant difference in these states. This is done as follow:
Table 4: Full-time employment of five major functions in Texas and its neighboring states
Function
Texas
Arkansas
Louisiana
Oklahoma
New Mexico
Education
105,333
22,497
25,245
24,244
13,765
Corrections
37,877
5,308
6,280
4,719
3,616
Health
30,415
3,934
2,844
4,963
2,007
Hospitals
23,242
6,420
11,256
1,706
6,834
Public Welfare
22,160
3,931
4,950
5,682
1,668
Gonzales 10
Table 4 shows a comparison of four neighboring states to Texas in terms of the full-time
employment level in five major functions.8
Graphically, the data can be presented as follows:
Figure 6: Full-time employment of five major functions in Texas and its neighboring states
Table 4 shows a comparison of four neighboring states to Texas in terms of the full-time
employment level in five major functions.9
From the analyzed data above, Texas has the highest level of full-time employment in all
the five functions, education, corrections, health, hospitals, and public welfare. For Texas and all
its neighboring states, the highest full-time employment level is in the education function. New
Mexico shows the least full-time employment in all its functions compared to the respective
function of the other states within the neighborhood. In contrary to Texas, hospitals seem to be
the second largest functions in terms of full-time employment in all the neighboring states.
Considering the total full-time employment for the five functions, in the four states plus Texas,
8
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
9
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
Gonzales 11
Louisiana has the highest full-time employment among the four neighboring states while New
Mexico has the lowest level of full-time employment in the five functions as shown in figure 7
below.
Figure 7: Total full-time employment for the five functions in each state
Figure 7 show the total full-employment in the five functions with Texas having the highest level
followed by Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico respective.10
Question 3: Inter-Governmental Analysis
Much governmental activity takes place between government levels and that intergovernmental grants are highly used to aid local and state governments. Using data from the U.S.
Census Bureau, the following analyses can provide significant information about these claims.
An analysis of inter-governmental revenue between California and Texas shows a variation in
the sources of revenue between the two states. The major sources of inter-government revenue in
California and Texas include revenue from the local governments and revenue from federal
10
Obtained from Excel analysis for the data from
http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
Gonzales 12
government.11 A comparison of Texas and California in terms of these sources of revenue is as
shown in table 5 below.
Table 5: California and Texas main sources of revenue
Source of Revenue
From Local Government
From Federal Government
California
Texas
3,268,848
54,827,525
735,325
36,844,736
Table 5 shows revenues from local and federal governments as the main inter-governmental
sources of revenue for California and Texas states.12
California receives more revenue than Texas in both categories of revenue sources. This
information is presented graphically as follows:
Figure 8: California and Texas main sources of revenue
Figure 8 shows revenues from local and federal governments as the main inter-governmental
sources of revenue for California and Texas states.13
11
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
12
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
13
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
Gonzales 13
Compared to states own sources, the analysis would be:
Table 6: Major Sources of Revenue in California and Texas
Source of Revenue
From Local Government
From Federal Government
Total Taxes
Current Charges
Miscellaneous General Revenue
California
Texas
3,268,848
54,827,525
133,184,246
18,354,538
10,057,563
735,325
36,844,736
51,714,295
12,641,609
10,999,945
Table 6 compares inter-government sources of revenue and the major state revenue sources
including taxes, current charges, and Miscellaneous General Revenue.
Graphically, these data can be presented as in figure 9 below.
Table 6: Major Sources of Revenue in California and Texas
Figure 9 compares inter-government sources of revenue and the major state revenue sources
including taxes, current charges, and Miscellaneous General Revenue.14
From the data comparison, total taxes are the main sources of revenue to the two states.
California’s revenues from taxes and current charges are, however, higher than Texas hence it
14
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
Gonzales 14
relies more on its own revenue sources than Texas does. Texas reliance on inter-governmental
revenue is higher than California because the ration of inter-government revenue is higher in
Texas than in California.
From the expenditure category, the respective expenditure on governmental
administration is as follow:
Table 7: Expenditure on governmental administration for California and Texas
Expenditure on Government
Administration
California
Texas
95,069,461
27,590,295
Table 7 compares expenditure on government administration in California and Texas states.
Replicating the same graphically, the comparison is as follow:
Figure 10: Expenditure on governmental administration for California and Texas
Figure 10 compares expenditure on government administration in California and Texas states.
From the data, California spent more on government administration than Texas in 2013
because the California spent more than 3.4 times of what Texas spent on government
Gonzales 15
administration in 2013. Considering the per capita expenditure with regard to expenditure on
government administration, the gap becomes significantly narrower between the two states.
Table 8: Per capita expenditure on governmental administration for California and Texas
Expenditure on Government Administration
Population
Per capita Expenditure on Government
Administration
California
Texas
95,069,461
27,590,295
38,041,430
26,059,203
2.499103241
1.058754368
Table 8 shows the per capita expenditure on government administration between California and
Texas. California has a larger per capita expenditure than Texas.
Figure 11: Per capita expenditure on governmental administration for California and Texas
Table 8 shows the per capita expenditure on government administration between California and
Texas. As stated above, California has a larger per capita expenditure than Texas.
Considering the total expenditure by functions in California and Texas, a comparison can
be deduced on what administrative functions drove the two state’s expenditures on governmental
Gonzales 16
administration. The two main administrative functions in this case are education and public
welfare. Figure 12 shows this comparison.
Figure 12: Expenditures on Education and Public Welfare
Figure 12 above shows a comparison between major expenditures, Education and Public
Welfare, in Texas and California.15
Expenditure on education is quite different between the two states with California having
a higher expenditure on education than Texas. California also spends more on public welfare
than Texas does. Expenditure on both education and public welfare are almost equalized in
California while in Texas, more is spend on education than on public welfare.
15
Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk
Gonzales 17
Works Cited
OECD.Stat. OECD Health Expenditure and Financing. n.d. 13 March 2016
.
U.S. Census Bureau. Government Employment & Payroll: Historical Data 2012 . 2 Oct 2015. 13
March 2016 .
U.S. Census Bureau. State Government Finances: 2013 more information. 2 Oct 2015. 13 March
2016 .
Essay Question 1: 24/30
Essay Question 2: 25/30
Essay Question 3: 24/30
Writing: 8/10
Total Grade: 81/100
Overall, nice work on this assignment! You present good tables and figures, but next time add more discussion of
the data you present. Be sure to answer all of the questions listed on each part of the assignment. Also – make sure
to label the different sections of your questions – it was a bit difficult to follow your discussion for Question 3. Good
work!
POLICY ANALYSIS REPORT
Question 1
1
POLICY ANALYSIS REPORT
2
Choose the category “Aggregated by Government Type—Type: 3 City”. You could find
three tables, “Total Full Time Employment”, “Total Part-Time Employment”, and
“Total New Hire Employment”. Use the data in the first table, “Total Full Time
Employment”, to generate a similar figure (i.e. a pie chart) as Figure 8.3 (Kettl, page
245). In this figure, you should only use the data based on total full- time employment.
Also, make sure to present information for each race group (i.e. White, African
American, Hispanic, Asian and Native American).
Figure 1 – Pie Chart Male Annual Salary – Full time
By looking at the percentage we find that a chance of increasing in Male salaries as white
employees is having the highest salary rate on a full time basis.
Figure 2 – Pie Chart Female Annual Salary – Full time
POLICY ANALYSIS REPORT
3
By looking at the percentage we find that a chance of increasing in Male salaries as white
employees is having the highest salary rate on a full time basis.
Figure 3 – Pie Chart Female Annual Salary – Full time (Male and Female)
We also see that the majority in female rate is white and then followed by black origins.
Compare the figure generated in 1-(1) to Figure 8.3 (Kettl, p.245), do you find a
different pattern of minority representation among civilian public employees in city
governments?
Figure 8.3 above is from the Kettl textbook. Figure 8.3 presents minority representation in the
federal civilian workforce and shows the outcome of full time of non-minority and Black
origin comes second in applying for full time. It seems that its the sector that they are mainly
tend to have jobs and not move from one to another easily. The pattern for minority and non-
POLICY ANALYSIS REPORT
4
minority seems to be the same, there may be slight variance, but it does not affect the overall
picture.
KW: You are missing a figure – where is your figure and discussion for total part-time
employment of the different racial groups? Your response for 1.3 is missing,
What is the pattern of minority representation among newly hired public employees in
city governments? Use relevant data in the third table “Total New Hire Employment”
to generate a third figure similar to Figure 8.3, and briefly discuss what you find.
New hire
Figure 4 – Pie Chart Male New Hire
We found here that for new hiring the majority are of Hispanic origin after whites.
POLICY ANALYSIS REPORT
5
Figure 5 – Pie Chart Female New Hire
Same applies to the new hire rate for women.
Question 1.4
What is the pattern of minority representation among newly hired public employees in
city governments? Use relevant data in the third table “Total New Hire Employment”
to generate a third figure similar to Figure 8.3, and briefly discuss what you find.
The difference be …
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