2 quiz essays about leisure


of the leisure theories discussed in the text and/or lecture do you understand
the most? Describe this theory and explain why you think it is the best theory
for explaining your own leisure choices, behavior, and aspirations. Lastly,
what does this theoretical explanation provide as a commentary about you? (Required Question)2. According
to the ancient Greeks, within leisure there is a “spiritual” context that is
aligned to the four ideal qualities of culture (lecture). Name and define these
four ideal qualities. How do these ideals and the ancient Greeks’ perception of
spiritual leisure relate or not relate to our culture’s leisure today? Is there
evidence that quality of life, healthy well-being, and sustainable living has an
older history?


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R110 Exam #1
Review Session
Today’s Agenda
Exam Format
Terms & Concepts
Exam Questions #1-8
Things to Know
 Quizzes
 The exam is in the “Quizzes” section of Canvas. It will be
available from 8:00pm on Wednesday March 23 to
11:59pm on Sunday March 27. You will have a 180 minute
window to submit the exam.
 Failure to report a submission error during the time of the exam will
result in automatic zero.
 (email: bforist@Indiana.edu or call/text & leave message: 219-916-7830 if you have any
difficulties during the submission period)
 Follow Directions
 When “Best” answer is requested, this does not mean any
possible answer
 Requirement to answer three does not mean answering
two very well or four partially well.
Things to Know (Continued)
 Read Questions carefully
 Points will be deducted if there are parts of the question
that remain unanswered regardless of the quality of the
 Provide Detail
 Whether a response requires length or brevity, always
show knowledge of content in your answer
 In the case of length, lack of detail will be an automatic
zero (i.e. bulleted responses when full sentences are
 You MUST quote the book with proper citation (i.e. Russell,
2013, p. 61)
Things to Know (Continued)
 Check Technology
 Make sure that your web browser allows pop-ups or cookies from
Canvas (otherwise you will not be able to submit).
 Make sure that you are submitting in a secure WiFi hotspot.
 Make sure that your web speed is not slow.
 Make sure that you open and complete the exam in one sitting (you
cannot save or log back in).
 Make sure that you have your responses saved in an MS Word file.
Basic Format of Exam,
Chapters 1-4
 30 Points (comprised of three sections):
 Section 1) Multiple Choice
 15 Multiple Choice Questions (1 point each) ;
 Section 2) Short Answer
 2 Short Answer Visual Interpretations (1 & 2 points
respectively); and,
 Section 3) Short Answer Essay
 8 Essay Questions (3 for 4 points each)
 One question is required of all students
 Two additional questions (of the remaining seven) are
required of all students)
 One additional question may be submitted for extra credit
Exam #1 :
Section 1, Multiple Choice
Format of Exam
 There will be fifteen questions within Section 1. Each worth
one point. You must select the BEST answer, not a
possible answer.
 The following slides highlight the topics and sub-topics
that the multiple choice questions will draw upon. If it is
not covered here, the content will not be in any of the
questions for Section 1.
Leisure has Meaning
 Leisure defined as:
 (1) Free Time; (2) Recreational Activity; and (3) A State of Mind.
Leisure is Contextual
 Leisure’s meaning is depended on the context of:
 (1) place, (2) time, and (3) people.
Leisure has History
 Leisure in older societies (Greece and Rome) and art
(Humanities) have different meanings than contemporary
Leisure is Unique
 Leisure has important Qualities (12 Qualities: Freedom,
Intrinsic Meaning, Happiness, Pleasure, Play, Humor,
Relaxation, Solitude & Silence, Ritual, Commitment, Risk,
Leisure is Situational
 Based on demographics and lifestyles
 For example: Ethnicity, Veteran Status, Gender, Age, among
Leisure is Theoretical
Based on looking at: optimal experiences, inconsistencies
in behavior, special rituals of existence, and perceptions of
experiences (and others)
Leisure is Generational
Based on development in stages across the life span:
Physical, Emotional, Intellectual, and Social
Meanings of Public Health
 Definition (WHO)
 “A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQkGx6gRGIY
 Models of Health
 Medical Model – Symptom assessment focus based on biological
testing. Diagnosis is followed by treatment protocol.
 Environment Model – A combination of hereditary factors and
lifestyle factors are impacted by social networks and environmental
conditions. Changes in the environment could impact behavior.
 Holistic Model – Disease, injury, and disorders are exemplars of an
imbalance in all aspects within and around a person. Optimal health
is achieved when all aspects of people’s needs and experiences are
accounted for.
 Public Health – “The collective assurance of the conditions in
which people can live healthy and achieve social, mental,
and physical wellness.”
Meanings of Sustainability
 Definition (World Summit on Social Development in 2005)
 “Meeting the needs of the present generation without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
 Three Pillars/Principles
 Economic Demands – Levels of consumption, wealth, welfare,
and utility must be sustainable economic activity.
 Social Equity – The social challenge of achieving balanced,
fair, and distributive relationships of power, human rights,
human development, and citizen representation.
 Environmental Impacts – A healthy ecosystem can provide
necessary foods, products, and services to humans and other
species if sustainably managed.
Exam #1:
Section 2,
Examples of Visual
Format of Exam
 There will be two questions/images within the Section 2.
 One image will have two parts to it, each worth a point
 There will be another image that requires only one
 This section requires you to submit words or short phrases
(not complete sentences or paragraphs)
Romantic Artwork, Why?
Theories & Leisure Behavior
Exam #1:
Section 3, Short Answer
Essay Questions
Format of Exam
 Essay Questions will incorporate the contents of the study
guide into questions or statements that will assess your
knowledge of the first part of R110 into a 250 word minimum
response (500 words and two quotes from Russell for Honors
 All students will be required to answer 3 of 8 questions.
 All students will be required to answer the essay question on Theory
among the 3 of 8.
 All students will be granted the opportunity to answer one additional
question (thoroughly) for 3 extra credit points. No Partial Points.
 Students must cite book (as a quote), do not cite notes or
lecture Power Point presentations. Examples:
 According to Russell (2013) “…solitude” (p. 34).
 Russell (2013) mentioned, “…Roman ludi” (p. 18).
 For leisure meant pleasure, for the Greeks “…schole means leisure”
(Russell, 2013, p. 40).
Format of Exam
 There will be a separate box on Canvas for you to type or cut
& paste each of your short essay responses.
 After these boxes, there will a box to submit the extra credit
short essay response.
 Make sure that you are clear on which question your response
is addressing with these suggested Headings:
 Question on Theory:
 Question #1:
 Theory:
 Failure to meet the 250 (500) word minimum will result in a zero
for that response, not partial credit.
 Failure to not cite (quote) Russell will result in a zero for that
response, not partial credit.
Model Essay
 Model #1: Social development is a complex series of changes that take place in
an individual’s life as he or she become aware of the “various environmental
changes” that take place (Russell, 2013, p. 75-76). An individual’s life consists of
childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and older
adulthood; in these categories, various social changes take place that enhance an
individual’s quality of life. Throughout childhood, a child’s social development is
most influenced by play, which “assists a in a child’s understanding of social
expectations, norms, and traditions” (Russell, 2013, p. 76). Additionally, children
enhance their social development through peer interaction, which teaches
children about important qualities such as empathy and sharing.
 Model #2: A personal example of such a situation would go back to this summer,
when I babysat my younger cousins. Through their peer interaction, both children
were able to learn to share and even console each other when they were hurt.
Next, adolescents’ change in social interactions are related to both physical and
environmental changes. Perhaps the largest change in social development is pure
physical change, which trigger emotional change. For adolescents, this emotional
change forces them to deal with their emotions in a positive manner, helping social
development. During adolescence, social groups become more defined. This type
of leisurely socializations helps adolescents find autonomy in the world. Next,
during early adulthood, young adults face the world with more adult
responsibilities, such as “family, community, and the economy” (Russell, 2013, p.
Model Essay
 Model #3: Many young adults develop socially through interactions in
commercial locations, such as bars, clubs, and restaurants. In this manner,
they further develop their relationship skills and behavior in social situations.
These skills are necessary at this age to find a job, build a family, and be
personally satisfied. Moving on, middle adulthood expands on the social
development seen in young adulthood. For many adults, the “empty nest”
syndrome after the departure of their “children can lead them to indulge in
new social groups and activities,” furthering social development (Russell, 2013,
p. 79). Also, some adults will experiment with new careers or begin
volunteering to fill their leisure time, while also developing socially. Lastly,
contrary to popular belief, social development continues through older
adulthood. During this time, adults continue to connect with people of their
own age.
 Model #4: Studies show that “feeling connected with individuals of the same
age increases the morale of older adults, enhancing social development”
(Russell, 2013, p. 79). A great example of this would be the laughing club that
my grandfather joined. He engages in this social activity for not only health
reasons, but also to be around people his own age and to stay connected.
Overall, one can see that social development and leisure activities do not
cease after the “prime” of one’s life; it continues to make one a stronger, more
aware, and conscientious individual.
All Students:
Required Exam Question #1
 Which of the leisure theories* discussed in the text and/or
lecture do you understand the most? Describe this theory and
explain why you think it is the best theory for explaining your
own leisure choices, behavior, and aspirations. Lastly, what does
this theoretical explanation provide as a commentary about
 * Remember, I am allowing you to use leisure concepts (Biophilia,
Self-As-Entertainment, Core Plus Balance, Symbolic Interactionism,
and Serious Leisure) as well as leisure theories (Neulinger’s Paradigm,
Anti-Structure, Flow, Reversal Theory, Spillover and Compensation,
Theory of Planned Behavior).
Thoughts on Exam Question on
 Self-As-Entertainment
 Woman accused of using Facebook while driving is charged with homicide
Exam Question #2
 Which of the three contexts of leisure most connects to
the pillars of sustainability? Which of the three
contemporary definitions of leisure most connects to the
WHO definition of health? Defend your choices with a
specific examples.
Thoughts on Exam Question on
Context and Meanings
 Sustainability
 Majora Carter: Greening the Ghetto
Exam Question #3
 The ancient Greek term for leisure was “schole” as
mentioned in Pastimes. What does this term suggest for
leisure’s meaning for the ancient Greeks? How is this
ancient Greek meaning of leisure different from that
experienced by the ancient Romans, in particular, “ludi”?
In your opinion, which has the most evidence of existing
today, “schole” or “ludi”?
Thoughts on Exam Question on
Greeks and Roman Influence
 Ludi Today
 The Depressing Spectacle of Trump Rallies
 Donald Trump: Bernie Sanders supporters “harassed”
Chicago rally-goers
Exam Question #4
 Today, there remains much of the legacy of Romanticism
about leisure. What is Romanticism? What are some
aspects of art and culture that reflected the Romantic
attitude? Discuss an example of the Romantic legacy in
both outdoor preservation and tourism.
Thoughts on Exam Question on
Romantic Legacy
 Modern Romanticism
 Celebrating Wildflowers: Buffalo Gap National Grasslands
Visitor Center
Exam Question #5
 According to the ancient Greeks, within leisure there is a
“spiritual” context that is aligned to the four ideal qualities
of culture (lecture). Name and define these four ideal
qualities. How do these ideas and the ancient Greeks’
perception of spiritual leisure relate or not relate to our
culture’s leisure today? Is there evidence that quality of
life, healthy well-being, and sustainable living has a older
Thoughts on Exam Question on
Leisure Qualities (Ancient)
 Ideal Qualities
 Goodyear Arizona Parks & Recreation Department
Exam Question #6
 Name and describe the three ways in which leisure
contributes to freedom “to” as opposed to freedom “from,”
according to Bregha’s investigations. Then, based on these
three determine whether you have leisure as freedom “to”
or freedom “from” in your own life. Why?
Thoughts on Exam Question on
Leisure Qualities (Modern)
 Freedom
 Free museum days at the best Chicago museums
Exam Question #7
 Thinking of demographic profiles in marketing, do you
think gender influences leisure interests or leisure interests
influence gender? How? Also, according to the text
reading on situational factors, how useful overall is gender
as an explanation of leisure behavior?
Thoughts on Exam Question on
Situational Expanations
 Gender
 South Bend Parks and Recreation 16th Annual Daddy-Daughter Dance
 The Buzz: Father-Daughter Dance Banned
Exam Question #8
 Select one of the developmental categories presented
in the text and class (physical, social, emotional and
intellectual) and summarize how leisure enables an
improved quality of life across the life span (from life to
death). Provide a personal example to illustrate.
Thoughts on Exam Question on
 Life-Span Development
 France Rocks to 69-Year-Old DJ
 Sue Teller Mashes it Up
Exam #1
Wednesday March 23, 8:00pm
to Sunday March 27,11:59pm
on Canvas
You will have a 180 minute
window to submit the exam
R110 Projects
Project #1 – Social Equity (10 Points):
Conceptualizing Leisure – Time,
People, and Place
(Individual or Pairs Only)
|Overview of all Six Projects
 Unit One: Leisure as a Condition of Being Human
 PROJECT #1 – Equity: Conceptualizing Leisure – Time,
People, and Place
 PROJECT #2 – Economic: Theoretical Explanations
 Unit Two: Leisure as a Cultural Mirror
 PROJECT #3 – Equity: Cultural Impacts
 PROJECT #4 – Environment: Societal Impacts
 Unit Three: Leisure as a Functional System
 PROJECT #5 – Environment: Critique on Constraints
 PROJECT #6 – Economic: Critique of Society
|Overview of all Six Projects
 As a set of Project –
 Each project is connected to and based on the three pillars of Sustainability:
Environmental (Impact), (Social) Equity, and Economic (Demands)
 Individuals or Groups are required to do all projects
 In terms of Grading –
 Each project is graded independently of the other; the grade for one project
cannot affect the other grade(s). Failure to submit results in a grade of zero (DO
 Projects are worth varying points based on difficulty:
 Project #1 – 10 points
 Project #2 – 20 Points
 Project #3 – 30 Points
 Project #4 – 20 Points
 Project #5 – 30 Points
 Project #6 – 10 Points
 Partial credit is only given for incorrectly submitted/completed projects (#1-4)
 As a Creative Exercise –
 All projects range in activities and pull on different learning strengths (Research
Study, Creative Writing)
 Must connect your explanations to course topics
|Purpose of Project #1
 Project Related to Social Equity: Conceptualizing Leisure
 The purpose of this project is three-fold:
 1) Introduce you to a research technique called guided openended interview (meaning, a set of questions are asked but the
responses will be varied or open to any way the interviewee seeks
to respond;
 2) Assist you in beginning to think that people are monolithic or
one-dimensional which is so important in providing programs and
services; and,
 3) Establish for you that direct contact with people is necessary
for program planning or service delivery.
|Background for Project #1
 Typical Demographic Profiles in marketing the United States
 Represents a quantifiable subset of a population at a specific moment in
time. The range of demographics that have been examined is wide and
includes identity-related (i.e. gender), economic behavior-related (i.e.
home owners), and ability-related (disability) indicators. However marketers
examine the following five when determining services and products:
See the next slide on Generational Cohorts
A range of qualities, roles, and characteristics based
on physical, mental, and behavioral dimensions that
distinguish masculine and feminine.
Income Level
The expression in monetary terms the status of an
individual (or their household or family) based on
their consumptive and saving behaviors within
specific time frames and intervals.
A human classification system and color metaphor
that groups larger clusters of a population along
genetic, anatomical, cultural, historical, linguistic,
etc lines.
The social categorization of people based similar
cultural behaviors, common histories, and shared
national origins.
|Background for Project #1
 Generational cohorts for the United States
 A grouping of individuals that have experienced similar life events, in a
similar fashion, during the same period of time within a population. The
perceptions of life events and the behavioral response is based on
achieving social consciousness and reaching maturity from one’s youth. Thus
cohorts are said to have a distinctive consciousness.
Silent generation
Baby Boomers
Gen X
Millennial (Gen Y)
Influencing Events
Adaptive, patriotic, practical problem
solvers, civically conscious, industrious,
conformists when young, adherence to
rules, sacrifice
Great Depression, World
War II, The New Deal,
Korean War
Retired from paid work,
duty before pleasure,
civic volunteers,
snowbird lifestyle
Socially confident, ecology minded, well
educated, global viewpoint, healthy,
personal growth, involvement, driven
Vietnam War, Rock ‘n
Roll, television, suburbia,
Cold War, civil rights
Accept diversity, individualistic, reject
rules, mistrust institutions, use
technology, multi-taskers, unimpressed,
Personal computers,
latch-key childhoods,
Active, wellness focus,
hectic lifestyle, no free
time, rejecting full-time
Fun, informality, friends
focused, risk-takers,
strive for balance
between work and
Celebrate diversity, optimistic,
individualistic, irrelevance of
institutions, nurtured, team-oriented,
uninterested in work, self-confident
The Internet, most childcentric time of history,
school violence, World
Trade Center attacks, Gulf
War, Iraq
Sociability, prefer
collective activities,
media & technology
based leisure
|Instructions for Project #1
 Instructions:
 As an Individual o …
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