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History 2111 Study Guide
How to Use this Study Guide
The reading assignments for each week are listed as a starting point for your
study. Following the reading assignments, the guide is divided into a section for
each lecture. You will see that the lectures have titles based on their general
topics. Within each section, you will see a group of statements. Each of these
statements corresponds with key points made in the lectures. Following each
statement is a set of questions geared toward enhancing your understanding of
the statement. After you have finished the readings and before you have listened
to a lecture, take a look at the statements for each lecture. When you listen to the
lecture, make note of these statements and the discussion that relates to them.
After you have completed the lecture, return to the study guide and try to answer
the questions following each statement.
Before the each exam revisit the study guide. Review the questions. You will have
a more detailed review sheet for the exam that will help you to narrow down the
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 1-19
Preludes to European Colonization
No Lecture
I. Paleo-Indian societies spread across the Western Hemisphere well before the
Indian civilizations of the historical period and European contact with the
A. What events caused transitions from one period to another in ancient
B. What was the significance of maize (corn)?
C. What were the effects of the decline of the urban centers such as Cahokia and
II. Conflict and competition in Europe gave rise to distant exploration and
colonization—including in the Western Hemisphere.
A. How did Christopher Columbus’ voyages change Europe?
B. How did Portugal and Spain resolve their conflict and competition?
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 19-34, 38-39, 52-59
The Beginnings of European Settlement
Lecture 1
I. England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada caused Spain to fall and England to rise
in European power—making England a rival for colonial power in America
A. What role did religion play in European rivalries?
B. What economic transformations contributed to England’s status as a colonial
C. Who was Richard Hakluyt and why was he important in England’s colonial
II. Royal support for joint-stock companies led to the colonization of Virginia
A. What was Virginia’s main economic interest at first?
B. Why did Virginia nearly fail?
C. Why was the introduction of tobacco cultivation significant?
D. What was the relationship between Virginians and Native Americans like?
III. The Puritan movement in the Church of England influenced English
colonization in America.
A. Who were the Separatist Puritans and why did they come to America?
B. What were the differences between Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay
Lecture 2
I. The weakening of Spain also allowed Frances and the Netherlands to plant
colonies in North America.
A. How did French and English settlement in North America differ?
B. How was the Dutch settlement in North America organized?
II. A plantation system took root in Virginia and adjacent colonies and brought
prosperity to the southern portion of England’s North American domain.
A. Why was land important to early English settlers?
Land was important because it was used for growing cash crops which were
used as raw materials for the industries. Land was also important for the
growing of food crops which was used for feeding the increasing
B. What was indentured servitude and why did it develop?
Indentured servitude referred to the labor system in which people paid for their
passage to the new world by working for an employer for a fixed term of years. It
developed so that the servitudes could provide labor in the plantations of the
C. How were the first slaves introduced to the colonies?
The first slaves were the children of the servitudes and were taken from Europe
to the new world by the Spaniards and the Portuguese.
D. What was the importance of tobacco to the plantation system?
Tobacco fetched a lot of money which was used to run foreign colonies
Which they had acquired.
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 34-38, 40-45, 63-65
The Colonies Grow
Lecture 3
I. Dissension among the Puritans and economic ambitions led to the expansion of
the New England colonies.
A. Who was Roger Williams, and what was his connection to Rhode Island?
B. What role did Anne Hutchinson play in the diffusion of New England’s
C. How was Connecticut settled?
D. How did the Half-Way Covenant reflect the loosening hold of Puritanism on
New England?
II. Tensions between New England settlers and Native Americans led to conflict.
A. What caused the Pequot War?
B. Why was the New England Confederation, and why was it formed?
C. Who was Metacom, and what was his strategy?
Lecture 4
I. Maryland was founded as a haven for English Catholics.
A. Who led the creation of Maryland?
B. What was the Toleration Act?
II. Carolina was formed as a proprietorship
A. Who were the first settlers of Carolina?
B. What differences existed between the two main areas of settlement?
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 39-40, 59-60, 65-70, 80-84
Harnessing Mercantilism
Lecture 5
I. The Middle Colonies developed with diversified cultures and economies.
A. What was the fate of New Netherland?
B. How was New Jersey organized?
C. Why was Pennsylvania founded?
II. As the Middle Colonies developed, Bacon’s Rebellion took place as a sectional
conflict in Virginia.
A. Who was Nathaniel Bacon?
B. How did Bacon’s Rebellion relate to events in New England?
C. How might Bacon’s Rebellion be considered a step toward the American
III. Another sectional conflict, Culpeper’s Rebellion played out in Carolina.
A. In what ways was Culpeper’s Rebellion a sectional conflict?
B. What did the rebellion have to do with taxes?
Lecture 6
I. As England restored its monarchy, it tightened its reins on New England, whose
Puritan rulers had favored the opponents of the monarchy.
A. What was the Dominion of New England?
B. How did the Glorious Revolution play out in New England?
C. How did political and religious upheaval in late seventeenth-century New
England manifest itself in witch hunts?
II. Plentiful resources, a strong labor supply, and innovation made New England
an inter-colonial and international economic power.
A. What role did fishing play in New England’s economic development?
Fishing was an economic activity and an economic resource that brought
foreign exchange for New England. This led to growth of economy which was
used to run African colonies. Triangular trade was the trade which took place
between three continents of Africa, the Americas and Europe whereby slaves
were obtained from Africa to go and work in the Americas after which the
finished goods were transported to Europe for sell, hence the name triangular
B. What was triangular trade?
C. How important were the production of wheat, silk, ships, and iron to New
III. England’s emergence from the internal conflicts of the seventeenth century
freed it to pay more attention to the flourishing economies of its North American
A. How did England’s colonial system change in the late 1600s?
B. What was mercantilism and how did England apply it to its colonies?
C. What were the Navigation Acts, and why were they passed?
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 70-76, 90-91
Glorious Revolutions
Lecture 7
I. The growing diversity of the colonies gave rise to conflicts with England over
culture and politics in the atmosphere of the Glorious Revolution.
A. What was Leisler’s Rebellion about?
B. Why did Coode’s Rebellion take place in Maryland?
C. Who was John Peter Zenger?
D. Was the uprising of the Paxton Boys a sectional conflict?
Lecture 8
I. After the Glorious Revolution, growing economic and territorial conflict
between England and France brought about a series of wars
A. What role did American colonists play in King William’s War?
B. What areas of colonial North America were involved in Queen Anne’s War?
C. What was the War of Jenkin’s Ear?
D. Why were New Englanders upset about the treaty that ended King George’s
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 48-52, 60-63
Interlude of Expansion and Peace
Lecture 9
I. While the British expanded their presence in North America, New France
competed just to the north and west.
A. What were the reaches of French territory in North America?
Newfoundland in the northeast down across the great lakes through the Ohio
valley, southward along Mississippi river to the Gulf of Mexico. Far west to Rocky
B. Who were the people who settled New France? How did that differ from
British North America?
John Winthrop, Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, and Thomas Hooker
Jesuit priests, Ursuline nuns, fur traders, seigneurs, habitants, filles du roi,
indentured servants, criminals, and slaves.
French were catholic and tolerated no other religions but British were
puritan/protest and didn’t allow other religions
C. What was the mainstay of the economy in New France?
II. In the eighteenth century Spanish settlement expanded on the opposite side of
the continent from British North America while it diminished in Florida.
A. What were the key Spanish settlements in the West?
B. How did these settlements differ from British settlements?
C. What setbacks threatened the Spanish on the east coast?
Lecture 10
I. Frontier societies continued to expand in British North America in the early
eighteenth century.
A. Who were the Scots-Irish, and what role did they play in the American
B. Where were the major pockets of German settlement in North America?
C. Why did North Carolina and South Carolina split?
D. How and why did Georgia develop?
II. Slavery became entrenched in British North America in the early eighteenth
A. Why did slavery increase in the southern colonies?
B. Why did colonial governments make stricter distinctions between European
and African servants?
C. What was the Stono Rebellion?
III. As life in British North America became more stable, social structures became
more pronounced?
A. Who were in the upper classes in Northern and Southern colonial society in the
early eighteenth century?
B. How did the middle class develop?
C. How did the frontier affect class development?
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 77, 85-90
Colonial Identities and Rivalries
Lecture 11
I. As creations of mercantilism, land companies spurred western development.
A. What relationship did the land companies have to the Anglo-French Wars?
B. Why was the Loyal Company formed?
C. Who was Christopher Gist?
D. How did the land companies relate to Native Americans?
II. Agriculture accounted for many of the differences between colonies and
colonial regions.
A. What agricultural products did Southerners experiment with?
B. How did slavery determine agricultural development in the South?
C. What were the agricultural trends in the North?
III. Industry continued to grow in the colonies in the mid-eighteenth century.
A. What industrial products were produced in the colonies?
Some industrial products produced included metals which were used to
make items such as knives, ploughs, vehicles. Industrial products also
included clothes from the textile industries.
B. How did colonial industry benefit Great Britain?
Colonial industry benefited Great Britain in that it led to increased farm produce
due to the production of steel, copper and iron implements that were used for
cultivation. The metals helped Great Britain in the production of weapons which
were used to conquer nations in the first and second world wars.
IV. The rise of banking and paper money contributed to economic progress but
also resulted in rivalries.
A. What effect did the circulation of paper money have on the economy in New
B. What was the Land Bank? Who opposed it?
Lecture 12
I. Societal unrest in the early and mid-eighteenth century culminated in the Great
Awakening, the first in a cycle of religious revivalism.
A. What were the major religious sects in early eighteenth-century America?
B. Who were the ministers who sparked the Great Awakening?
C. What was the Ephrata Society?
D. What was Rationalism?
E. What was Methodism?
II. Religious reflection and experimentation in America coincided with intellectual
A. What contributions did Cotton Mather make to science? What about John
Winthrop IV? What about Benjamin Franklin?
B. What were some major inventions in colonial North America?
C. What was the state of medicine and public health in the colonies?
D. What were colonial colleges were formed because of religious influence? Why?
III. The arts took on an American character in the early eighteenth century.
A. What were the main themes of colonial literature?
B. How did Mother Goose originate?
C. What was the New England revival?
D. What transformations took place in music?
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 79, 91-106
From Allies to Antagonists
Lecture 13
I. Rivalry between Great Britain and France in North America climaxed with the
French and Indian War.
A. How did the French and Indian War begin?
For control of certain lands in North America
Washington threw up a defensive position, aptly named Fort Necessity, but the ground was ill chosen; the French easily surrounded the fort
and Washington had to surrender. After tricking the young officer, that couldn’t read French, into signing an admission that he had
“assassinated” the leader of the reconnaissance party, his captors, with the gateway to the Ohio country firmly in their hands, permitted him
and his men to march off. Washington returned to Virginia a hero, still undeclared this was a war and he had struck the first blow against the
B. What was significant about the Braddock Expedition?
II. The French and Indian War was the only war which began in America and
engulfed Europe.
A. What was this war called in Europe?
7 years’ war
B. What role did William Pitt play in the war?
English prime minister whose policies helped England win the French and
Indian war
C. What British victories brought an end to the war?
Great expansion of British territorial claims in the New World.
They were deep in debt which made them raise taxes on colonists. It angered
the colonies and led to the American Revolution.
D. What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris?
France gave up all its territories in mainland North America, effectively ending any
foreign military threat to the British colonies there.
The terms stated that France should give up her territories in mainland North
America, leading to effective end of foreign military threat against British
Lecture 14
I. Following the French and Indian War, Great Britain became the leading world
power, but it also carried a major burden from the war.
A. What was the effect of the war on Great Britain’s finances?
B. What rivalries between the colonies plagued the British?
C. What was the British opinion of colonial leadership?
D. Why were British leaders not up to the task of dealing with post-war problems?
II. As often happens when wars end, the winner had to deal with disgruntled allies
and with unresolved problems with former enemies.
A. What caused Pontiac’s War?
B. What was the reaction to the Proclamation of 1763?
III. Great Britain tried to solve its financial problems by placing the burden on the
American colonies.
A. What was the Sugar Act?
B. Why did Americans oppose it?
C. What was significant about the Stamp Act Congress?
D. What was the Quartering Act?
E. How did Great Britain respond to American protests against the Stamp Act?
F. What were the Townshend Acts, and how did Americans respond?
IV. American protests against taxes and British reactions took on a life of their
own that cycled out of control.
A. What triggered the Boston Massacre?
B. How did the attack on the Gaspee aggravate tensions between the Americans
and the British?
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 106-141
The Revolutionary Era
Lecture 15
I. The Tea Act Crisis proved to be the breaking point for the American colonies and
Great Britain.
A. What brought about the crisis?
B. Why did Parliament pass the Coercive or Intolerable Acts?
C. Why was the meeting of the First Continental Congress a turning point in
American and British relations?
II. Warfare which broke out in New England pulled in all of the colonies.
A. Why did fighting break out in Massachusetts?
B. How did the Continental Congress respond?
C. How did the American and British forces compare?
D. What was significant about the Battle of Bunker Hill?
E. Who were the Loyalists?
F. Why did the British leave Boston for New York?
III. The Declaration of Independence permanently separated the American
colonies from Great Britain and placed the rights of the people above the rights of
the sovereign.
A. What steps by the British government during the war accelerated the split of
the Americans from Britain?
B. What effects did the writings of Thomas Paine have on the independence
C. How was the declaration drafted?
D. Whom did Thomas Jefferson make the villain in the declaration? Why was that
Lecture 16
I. The British defeat at Saratoga was the turning point of the American Revolution.
A. What was the British strategy which led them to Saratoga?
B. What had been the position of the French in the war before 1777?
C. Why did the battle cause the French to enter into open alliance with the United
D. What was the British reaction to the battle?
II. With the failure of their campaign in New York, the British shifted attention to
the South.
A. What advantage did the British think they had in the South?
B. What was the course of the war in the South?
C. What happened at Yorktown?
III. The British defeat at Yorktown revealed frustrations in Great Britain that
resulted in an end to the war.
A. What were the terms of the peace agreement?
B. How did the treaty affect European affairs?
IV. The Americans fought the war through a confederation of the states which
had emerged from the colonies, and that confederation continued after the war.
A. What were the Articles of Confederation?
B. How did the states govern after independence?
C. What changes took place in American attitudes toward politics and society
after independence?
D. How did Congress deal with conflicts between the states over claims to the
Ohio Valley?
Reading Assignment: American Destiny, pp. 143-168
A Nation Is Born
Lecture 17
I. The weakness of the Articles of Confederation contributed to economic and
political instability and led to reform of the national government.
A. What were the inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation?
B. What relation did Shays’ Rebellion have to weak government?
C. How did the constitutional convention at Philadelphia come about?
D. What were the major changes which the convention made to the national
E. Why did some Americans oppose the new constitution?
II. George Washington’s presidency set patterns for the federal government which
continue to the present day.
A. What economic programs went into effect under Washington?
B. Why was the Whiskey Rebellion significant in establishing federal authority?
C. Why was the Bill of Rights important in defining the new government?
D. How did the Washington Administration apply the national government’s new
authority over “Indian” affairs?
Lecture 18
I. Continuing rivalry between France and Great Britain threatened to embroil the
United States during Washington’s presidency.
A. Who was Edmond Genet?
B. What was the impact of the Proclamation of Neutrality?
C. Why was Jay’s Treaty significant?
D. What was the Treaty of San Lorenzo?
II. During John Adams’ presidency, a “quasi-war” broke out between the United
States and France when the …
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