Answer the following questions.

  

Answer the following questions.  Please be specific and upload a word document.  All questions are mandatory.Q 1 – What are data ?  How is it different from information?  What is knowledge?  (5 points)Q 2 –  Provide an example of data, information and knowledge in health care. Start by discussing the data first and how that might/can be turned into information (continue the example) and how that might generate knowledge.  ( 5 points)Q 3 –  List the five most important challenges faced by HIT today, and why  ( 5 points)  ( hint – chapter 1)200 words each answer
chapter_1and_2_connect_strategic_dots___external_environment_proofed.pptx

data_information_knowledge.ppt

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Answer the following questions.
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Chapter 1: Connecting the
Strategic Dots: Does HIT Matter?
Overview
• Data, Information and Knowledge
• HIT strategic alignment
• Operational effectiveness: making HIT work
• Strategic competitive advantage: building HIT for
the future
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Learning Objectives
• List and define five major challenges facing healthcare
delivery systems today.
• Describe the complexity of these interrelated challenges for
healthcare and HIT.
• Illustrate the history, development, and current state of
healthcare information systems.
• Name and describe the four categories of healthcare
information systems.
• Analyze the key priorities of healthcare information systems
today that will affect their future.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
The Future Is Now!
• The healthcare industry is information intensive,
and the management of healthcare organizations
is improved by strategic use of information for:




Quality patient care
Financial management
Strategic planning
Operations management
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Current Challenges





Healthcare costs
Medical errors and poor quality
Access and health disparities
Evidence-based medicine
Broad organizational changes
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Healthcare Costs
• Trend of upward costs for 45 years
• Cost increases may make the US economy
less competitive
• Government and private payers implement
cost controls
• Variance in use and costs provides indirect
evidence that we can control costs
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Medical Errors and Poor-Quality Care
• Excess of preventable deaths demonstrated
by Institute of Medicine in 1999
• Problem persists today despite greater
awareness and discussion
• Solutions are elusive
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Access and Health Disparities
• Information systems can assist in providing
better access to care.
• Solving access problems will strain the
system, however.
• Providing care to approximately 50 million
will require better information exchange
and coordination of care.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Number of Uninsured Fell by 1.3 Million in 2011
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Evidence-Based Medicine
• Defined:
“An information management and learning
strategy that seeks to integrate clinical
expertise with the best evidence available to
make effective clinical decisions that will
ultimately improve patient care”(Landry and
Sibbald 2001)
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Evidence-Based Medicine
• Evidence-based medicine is changing
clinical processes
• Use of information is essential but has
both benefits and costs
• Book helps managers collect and provide
evidence for more informed management
decisions
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Broad Organizational Change




Market-driven healthcare reform
Increased market competition
Managed care was the solution in the 1990s.
The future is uncertain, and organizations need
leadership to adapt to an uncertain future.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Future Challenges for Healthcare Information Systems
Five major challenges:
• Healthcare system change
• Consumer empowerment
• Connectivity
• Transparency
• Tourism
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Healthcare System Changes
• Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010
had initial emphasis on access for uninsured
• Other elements have broader seeds for change, such
as






Access to care for uninsured primary emphasis
Bundled payments
Payment for outcomes
Accountable care organizations
Patient-centered medical homes
Comparative effectiveness research
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Consumer Empowerment
Consumers taking active role in care decisions:
• Internet provides access to information, giving
patients more control
• Need for uniform, national information
infrastructure, such as electronic health records,
evidence-based clinical practices, and quality
information
• Generating need for information management in
healthcare
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Connectivity
• Social media adding to the ability to send and
receive information




E-mail
Text
Tweet
Other
• Federal Communications Commission
exploring opportunities and challenges
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Transparency
Driven by value-driven healthcare
• Interoperable HIT
• Public reporting of provider quality information
• Public reporting of cost information
• Incentives for value comparisons
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Tourism
International and regional tourism
• Send historical patient health information
• Receive patient health information
• Compete with centers of excellence
• Financial incentives from employers (Walmart)
contracting for care on the basis of price and
quality
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Categories of Information Systems
1.
2.
3.
4.
Clinical information
Management information
Strategic decision support
Electronic networking and e-health
applications
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Healthcare Information System Priorities Today






Ch. 2: External Environment
Ch. 3: Government Policy and Healthcare Reform
Ch. 4: Leadership
Ch. 5: HIT Governance and Decision Rights
Ch. 6: HIT Architecture and Infrastructure
Ch. 7: HIT Service Management
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Healthcare Information System Priorities Today
(cont’d)
• Ch 8: Systems Selection and Contract Management
• Ch. 9: Electronic Health Records
• Ch. 10: Management/Administrative and Financial
Systems
• Ch. 11: HIT Project Portfolio Management
• Ch. 12: Knowledge-Enabled Organization
• Ch. 13: HIT Value Analysis
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Web Resources
• Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (www.ahrq.gov)
• Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov)
• Care Continuum Alliance
(www.carecontinuumalliance.org/index/asp)
• Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (www.cms.gov)
• Institute for Healthcare Improvement (www.ihi.org)
• National Association for Healthcare Quality (www.nahq.org)
• National Committee for Quality Assurance (www.ncqa.org)
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Chapter 2: External Environment
Learning Objectives
• Define the ways in which the external environment influences the operation of
the healthcare delivery system.
• Define the healthcare triangle, and demonstrate how it relates to management of
healthcare organizations and the healthcare information technology function.
• Describe the interdependent challenges of cost, quality, and access currently
facing the US healthcare system.
• Analyze the implications of the cost, quality, and access challenges for the
management of healthcare information systems.
• Assess the relative importance of evidence-based management, organizational
change, and international comparisons in the current and future management of
healthcare delivery organizations.
• Assess how well healthcare system challenges and their implications align with
healthcare information system priorities.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Overview




Healthcare triangle: cost, quality, and access
Evidence-based management
Organizational change
International comparisons
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
The Healthcare Triangle
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Triangle: Overall
• Systems approach—interrelated goals:
– Cost,
– Quality, and
– Access.
• Consequently, information systems need to
report:
– More data
– Wider ranging data on all three dimensions
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Triangle: Overall (cont’d)
Management implications:
• HIT and leadership must collect, analyze, and
report clinical and administrative data
• Include conventional and new types of data
demanded in the future
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Triangle: Costs
National health expenditure (NHE)
• NHE reached $2.6 trillion in 2010.
• NHE represented 18% of GDP in 2010.
• Exhibit 2.4 shows historical levels and expected
increases in NHE per capita and as percentage of GDP.
• Exhibit 2.5 demonstrates that change in NHE exceeded
change in GDP in all decades since 1960.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Per Capita NHE and NHE’s Share of GDP:
1960–2015
$12,000
$10,000
$8,000
$6,000
$4,000
$2,000
$0
$10,272
$8,402
$4,878
$2,854
$147
$356
1960 5.2%
1970 7.2%
*Projection
$1,100
1980 9.2%
1990 12.5% 2000 13.8% 2010 17.9% 2015* 18.2%
Year and Percentage of GDP
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
NHE and GDP Growth Rates, 1970–2015
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Major Components of Healthcare Costs
Percentage of NHE by major components in 2010:
• Hospital services accounted for 31.4%.
• Physician services accounted for 19.9%.
• Prescription drugs accounted for 10.0%.
• Nursing home care accounted for 5.5%.
See Exhibit 2.6.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
NHE by Major Service: 2010
27.5%
31.4%
5.7%
5.5%
10.0%
19.9%
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Hospital Services
Physcian Services
Prescription Drugs
Nursing Home Care
Research/Construction
All Other
Increases in Components of NHE
Components of care increased at different
annualized rates between 2000 and 2010:
• Prescription drugs increased most rapidly at 7.6%
per year.
• Hospital services increased more per year than
overall NHE (6.7% versus 6.3%, respectively).
• Nursing home care increased at 5.2% per year.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Annualized Changes in Major Categories
of NHE and GDP: 2000–2010
8.0%
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
7.6%
6.7%
6.3%
5.7%
5.2%
3.8%
Hospital Services
Physician
Services
Prescription
Drugs
Nursing Home
Care
NHE
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
GDP
Decomposition of NHE Increases
Between 2000 and 2010:
• Population increases contributed to 14.4% of
overall NHE increase.
• General inflation increases contributed to 37.3%
of overall NHE increase.
• Real GDP increases contributed to 22.4% of
overall NHE increase.
• Relative healthcare price increases contributed to
25.6% of overall NHE increase.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Triangle: Quality
• Quality assessment and improvement is a primary challenge
as indicated by IOM report in 1999.
• Healthcare quality was conceptualized by Donabedian in
the 1960s.
• Multiple domains, including:






Patient safety
Patient-centeredness
Timeliness
Efficiency
Effectiveness
Equity
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Triangle: Quality (cont’d)
• Quality measurement is data and information intensive.
• National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (Exhibit 2.10):
– Thousands of metrics collected
– Classified by scheme:
• Disease/condition
• Treatment/intervention
• Health administration
• Many other organizations collect and present quality and
quality improvement information for healthcare.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Quality Improvement Organizations
Select quality improvement organizations:
• Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ): www.ahrq.gov
• National Association for Healthcare Quality (NAHQ): www.nahq.org
• National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA): www.ncqa.org
• National Quality Forum (NQF): www.qualityforum.org
• American Society for Quality (ASQ): www.asq.org
• The Joint Commission (TJC): www.jointcommission.org
• Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI): www.ihi.org
• Institute of Medicine (IOM): www.iom.edu
• Leapfrog Group: www.leapfroggroup.og
• National Initiative for Children’s Healthcare Quality (NICHQ): www.nichq.org
• American Medical Association Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement
(AMA-PCPI): www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/2946.html
• Ambulatory Care Quality Alliance (AQA): www.aqaalliance.org
• Nursing Quality Network: www.nursingqualitynetwork.org
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Triangle: Access
Multiple types of access problems:
• Remote, rural locations based on distance or
travel time
• Underdeveloped resources causing crowding
• Lack of insurance
• Fear of public programs
• Literacy and cultural competence
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Triangle: Access (cont’d)
Financial access is major focus (see chart in Chapter 1).
Those without insurance:





Use emergency department as their regular source of care
Obtain fewer health screenings and less preventive care
Delay or forgo medical services
Are typically sicker and die younger
Pay more for medical services
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Number of Uninsured Fell by 1.3 Million in 2011
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Triangle: Impact on HIT
• Documentation of the value obtained for care
delivered requires detailed data on outcomes and
resources consumed.
• Improving quality requires greater accuracy,
reliability, and timeliness of clinical information.
• Access will require capacity expansion to care for
approximately 50 million additional people and
collecting and sharing information across diverse
organizational settings.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Evidence-Based Management (EBM)
• Like medicine, management needs a foundation
in empirical evidence.
• Evidence can partially replace experience,
judgment, intuition, and political sense.
• New method of managerial decision making
relies on systematically gathered, stored,
analyzed, and reported information.
• EBM can reduce variation in care.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Organizational Change
Use of information technology is needed to support:
• Secure information from physicians, hospitals, and
post-acute providers on cost, quality, and outcomes
• Employing scientific evidence for recommended
treatment
• Coordination of care
• Actualizing consumer decision making regarding
type and location of care delivery
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
International Comparisons
International comparisons create stress on US
healthcare delivery system:
• Growing evidence that US does not compare
favorably, based on





Patient perspectives
Outcomes
Access
Efficiency
Expenditures
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
International Comparisons (cont’d)
International firms compete for patients by
advertising that you can:
• Save on medical costs
• Avoid long waits for medical services
• Receive better quality medical or diagnostic
services
• Protect patient privacy
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
International Comparisons (cont’d)
Reasons for adverse international comparisons
concentrate on HIT and other challenges:
• USA is a decade late in making HIT a national
priority.
• USA has not relied on centralized government
role in supporting HIT adoption.
• USA invests less per capita on HIT than other
countries do.
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Web Resources







American Health Quality Association (www.ahqa.org)
American Society for Quality (http://asq.org/index.aspx)
The Commonwealth Fund
(www.commonwealthfund.org/About-Us.aspx)
Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (www.kff.org)
Institute of Medicine (www.iom.edu/About-IOM.aspx)
National Quality Measures Clearinghouse
(www.qualitymeasures.ahrq.gov/index.aspx)
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (www.rwjf.org/en/aboutrwjf.html)
Copyright 2013 Health Administration Press
Data, Information &
Knowledge 1
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Data

Data are raw facts and
figures that on their
own have no meaning

These can be any
alphanumeric
characters i.e. text,
numbers, symbols
Note the “are” bit above? What does this mean?
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Data Examples




Yes, Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes
42, 63, 96, 74, 56, 86
111192, 111234
None of the above data sets have any
meaning until they are given a CONTEXT
and PROCESSED into a useable form
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Data Into Information



To achieve its aims the organisation will
need to process data into information.
Data needs to be turned into meaningful
information and presented in its most
useful format
Data must be processed in a context in
order to give it meaning
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Information

Data that has been processed within a
context to give it meaning
OR

Data that has been processed into a
form that gives it meaning
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Examples

In the next 3 examples
explain how the data
could be processed to
give it meaning

What information can
then be derived from
the data?
Suggested answers are given at the end of this presentation
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Example 1
Raw Data
Yes, Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes,
No, Yes, No, Yes, Yes
Context
Responses to the market
research question – “Would
you buy brand x at price y?”
Processing
Information
???
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Example 2
Raw Data
42, 63, 96, 74, 56, 86
Context
Jayne’s scores in the six
AS/A2 ICT modules
Processing
Information
???
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Example 3
Raw Data
Context
111192, 111234
The previous and current
readings of a customer’s
gas meter
Processing
Information
???
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Exam Tip

You’ll nearly always be asked to give
examples of data processed into
information

Don’t use:
• Traffic lights
• Dates of birth
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Knowledge

Knowledge is the understanding of rules
needed to interpret information
“…the capability of understanding the
relationship
between
pieces
of
information and what to actually do
with the information”
Debbie Jones – www.teach-ict.com
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Knowledge Examples

Using the 3 previous examples:

A Marketing Manager could use this information to
decide whether or not to raise or lower price y

Jayne’s teacher could analyse the results to determine
whether it would be worth her re-sitting a module

Looking at the pattern of the customer’s previous gas
bills may identify that the figure is abnormally low and
they are fiddling the gas meter!!!
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Knowledge Workers

Knowledge workers have specialist
knowledge that makes them “experts”
• Based on formal and informal rules they have
learned through training and experience

Examples include doctors, managers,
librarians, scientists…
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
1-14
FatMax 2007. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License
Expert Systems

Because many rules are based
on probabilities computers can
be programmed with “subject
knowledge” …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code ESSAYSHELP