Annette observed that if she put salad dressing on her salad in the morning before leaving home, by lunch time she found excess liquid in her container and the greens were wilted. Why does this happen?A)Condensation from the refrigerator accumulates in the salad container.B)The dressing creates a hypertonic solution around plant cells, which causes water to diffuse out of the cell plasmolysing the cells.C)The dressing creates an isotonic solution around plant cells, which causes water to diffuse into and out of the plant cells making them flaccid.D)The dressing creates a hypotonic solution around plant cells, which causes water to diffuse into the cell creating an increase in turgor pressure.2) Your science teacher has asked the class to make a cell city model. Which building or business in the city could represent the mitochondria, and why?A)city dump – waste storageB)city hall – control centerC)roads – transportation systemD)power company – produces energy3)Proteins destined for extracellular release are packaged in specific vesicles. After packaging, the vesicles bud off and are stored in the cell until a signal is given for their release. When the appropriate signal is received they move towards the membrane and fuse to release their contents. Once proteins have been produced at the ribosomes, what two organelles work together to aid in the secretion process described above?A)ribosome and ERB)Golgi apparatus and rough ERC)Golgi apparatus and lysosomeD)mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum4) Identify the name of the cell organelle G in the graphic.A)lysosomeB)mitochondriaC)Golgi apparatusD)endoplasmic reticulum5) To study osmosis, a student placed a thin potato slice in a salt solution. The slice became soft and shriveled. Then, he placed the shriveled slice in water. The slice regained its original shape. Based on the observations, which of these statements is correct?A)The slice regained its shape because salt moved into the potato.B)The potato slice shriveled because water moved from the salt solution into the slice.C)The potato slice shriveled because water moved out of the slice into the salt solution.D)The slice regained its shape because the concentration of salt inside and outside the slice became equal.6)Students performed an experiment using eggs to observe the effect of osmosis on cells. The egg represented a typical cell. Before beginning the experiment, students soaked the raw eggs overnight in vinegar to remove the shells. What they had in hand, then, was actually a raw, shell-less egg. Osmosis is the movement of water from an area of greater to lower concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. Water moves in and out of cells without any expenditure of cellular energy. Solution concentration can be described in terms of tonicity. Solutions are hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic to cells. A hypertonic is one that has a greater concentration of solute outside the cell and therefore a lower concentration. Water will leave the cell and move to the outside environment. This is one reason organisms that live in fresh water cannot survive in salt water, such as the ocean. Water will leave the organism’s cells and eventually the cells will undergo plasmolysis and the organisms will die. An isotonic solution is a balanced solution. That is, the solution concentration is balanced with the solution inside the cell. Finally, when a cell is surrounded by a hypotonic solution, concentration of solute is greater inside the cell, concentration of water greater outside. Water moves into the cell and the cell swells. If enough water enters, the cell can burst.Procedure: Day 1 – Students found the mass in grams of their shelled eggs, recoding the mass in the data table. The eggs were placed in a beaker and covered with 200 mL vinegar to remove the shells. Day 2 – The eggs were removed from the vinegar. Visual observations were recorded. The shell-less eggs were wiped dry, massed, and the mass was recorded in the data table. The eggs were placed in a clean beaker and covered with a 10% salt- water solution. Day 3 – The eggs were removed from the salt water and visual observations were made and recorded. The eggs were wiped dry , massed, and the mass was recorded. The eggs were placed in a clean beaker and covered with sugar (Kayro) syrup. Day 4 – The eggs were removed from the syrup and visual observations were made and recorded. The eggs were carefully wiped with a damp cloth, massed, and the mass was recorded. The eggs were placed in a clean beaker and covered with colored (red, green, or blue) distilled water. Day 5 – The eggs were removed from the water and visual observations were made and recorded. The eggs were dried, massed, and the mass was recorded. Students organized their data and made a bar graph comparing how the solutions affected their egg’s (cell’s) mass. Data: One student group’s data is recorded here.￼Solutiontype￼Egg initial mass (g)￼Egg mass 24 hoursin solution (g)Observations￼Vinegar4586Shell disappearedEgg appeared swollen￼10% salt water8686No change in eggKayro syrup8641Egg is shriveled up, much smaller￼Blue distilled water4186Egg is blueWrinkles gone, egg seems normal sizeGraph comparing cells by day: Click to Enlarge According to the text, we might expect to find this egg in which solution just before taking the photograph?A)egg in blue distilled waterB)egg in 10% salt waterC)egg in vinegarD)egg in syrup7) A cell with chloroplasts and a cell wall made of cellulose would likely belong to a(n)A)frog from Kingdom Animalia.B)mushroom from Kingdom Fungi.C)oak tree from Kingdom Plantae.D)paramecium from Kingdom Protista.8)Solution A: Egg swells to about twice its original size. Solution B: Egg absorbs bright green color, but remains original size.Solution C: Egg shrivels to about half of its original size.Solution D: Egg remains largely unchanged. A typical egg contains about 2% dissolved solids. Douglas places de-shelled eggs in four unknown solutions provided by his biology teacher. Based on this fact, predict which solution contains 10% saltwater, from the observations of the egg.A)Solution AB)Solution BC)Solution CD)Solution D9) Bacteria are one celled organisms, and so they do not reproduce sexually, like mammals. Instead, most bacterial reproduction comes in the form of simple cell division, where the parent bacteria basically makes a copy of itself.However, some bacteria have developed a way to increase the genetic diversity of their population. They do this using smaller, circular strands of DNA, that can be passed along from one bacterium to the next without the need for cellular division.These small DNA strands are known as what?A)AminosB)CodonsC)EukaryotesD)Plasmids10) The cell is taking in substances through membrane proteins, without any energy expenditure of its own. The substances naturally follow their concentration gradient. However, they must go through the protein channels, because they are too large to squeeze through the cell membrane. This process is calledA)osmosis.B)endocytosis.C)active transport.D)facilitated diffusion.11)Blood pressure results from the force of blood fluids pressing against the walls of blood vessels. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is often caused by a constriction of the blood vessels by fatty deposits in artery walls. However, another cause of high blood pressure can be the intake of too much sodium in foods and table salt. Why would too much salt intake cause someone to develop high blood pressure?A)Salt in the bloodstream causes fluids to enter the blood from surrounding cells, due to osmosis.B)Salt in the bloodstream causes fluids in the blood to leave and go to surrounding cells, due to osmosis.C)People that take in too much salt will drink more water to balance out the salt, which raises blood pressure.D)Extra salt solidifies in the bloodstream and blocks the blood vessels, causing them to narrow, and blood pressure to go up.12) ___________ can be used by cells to store energy, form biological membranes, and serve as chemical messengers.A)CarbohydratesB)FructoseC)GlucoseD)Lipids13) This simple bacteria cell has the same structure as more complex cells. It controls what comes in to and leaves the cell and also maintains homeostasis. It is theA)capsule.B)cytoplasm.C)membrane.D)wall.14) One difference between mitochondria and chloroplasts isA)mitochondria use NADH while chloroplasts make NADH.B)mitochondria produce water from oxygen while chloroplasts produce oxygen from water.C)mitochondria are only found in animal cells and chloroplasts are only found in plant cells.D)the Calvin cycle occurs in the mitochondria while the Krebs cycle occurs in the chloroplast.15) Living matter is at least sixty percent water. It makes sense, then, that cell membranes are made of phospholipids becauseA)phosphates dissolve in water.B)the bilayer acts to repel water.C)the lipids form an insoluble barrier.D)the lipids mix easily in a water environment.16) The picture shows an experimental set up for the process of osmosis.The potato has a cavity on top, as shown in the picture. Some sugar solution is poured into the cavity and the potato is placed in a beaker of water. After some time, it is observed that there is a rise in the level of liquid in the cavity. This confirms thatA)water from the beaker has moved into the cavity.B)sugar has moved out of the sugar solution in the cavity.C)the sugar solution in the cavity has become more concentrated.D)there is equilibrium between the liquids in the beaker and the cavity.17) When biologists speak of a universal genetic code they are referring to the fact that, in nearly all organisms,A)the DNA sequences are identical.B)RNA information is transcribed.C)RNA specifies proteins the same way.D)phenotype is dependent upon genotype.18) Fill in the missing blanks in the equation below:Active Enzyme + (1)______ → (2)______ + (3)______A)(1) Product (2) Substrate (3) Active EnzymeB)(1) Substrate (2) Product (3) Active EnzymeC)(1) Substrate (2) Product (3) Inactive EnzymeD)(1) Product (2) Substrate (3) Inactive Enzyme19) Hormones; cholesterol. Which group of lipids represents steroids?A)A.B)B.C)C.D)D.20) In cells, hydrogen peroxide is converted to water and oxygen through the activity ofA)enzymes.B)fats.C)lipases.D)pigments.
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