Chapter 11 Discussion Psychology

  

“Have
you ever gotten a fund-raising appeal from a charity that included a
little gift, such as address labels with your name? If so, did the gift
make you mover inclined to donate money to the charity? If so, you were
subject to the reciprocity norm; because the charity did something for
you, you felt more obligated to do something for the charity. The same
norm applies when stores offer free samples of a product they are
selling. It can feel rude not to reciprocate by buying the product, even
though these are strangers trying to sell us something, and not friends
doing us a favor. What about in everyday life? can you think of times
when the reciprocity norm influenced how likely you were to help a
friend? Have you found that doing a favor for a friend makes it more
likely that your friend will do a favor for you? Give this a try and see
if it works.”I have attached the rubric as well as the PowerPoint provided for this chapter.  That is all the teacher provided this week. Thanks!
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chapter_11_powerpoint.pptx

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Chapter 11
Prosocial Behavior:
Why Do People Help?
Slides prepared by JoNell Strough, Ph.D. & Philip Lemaster, M.A.
West Virginia University
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.
The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display,
including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any
derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;
any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Multimedia Directory
Slide 6
Slide 26
Slide 75
Prosocial and Altruistic Behavior Video
Waiting Room Video
Random Acts of Kindness Video
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Basic Motives Underlying
Prosocial Behavior—Why Do
People Help?
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Prosocial Behavior and
Altruism
• Prosocial Behavior
– Any act performed with the goal of
benefiting another person
• Altruism
– The desire to help another person even if it
involves a cost to the helper
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Prosocial and Altruistic
Behavior Video
Click on the screenshot and consider whether the foundation established by
Bill and Melinda Gates is an example of prosocial behavior, or if it could be
considered altrustic?
Back to Directory
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Evolutionary Psychology:
Instincts and Genes
• Any gene that furthers survival and
increases the probability of producing
offspring likely to be passed on
• Genes that lower chances of survival
and reduce the chances of producing
offspring less likely to be passed on
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Evolutionary Psychology:
Instincts and Genes
• Evolutionary Psychology
– The attempt to explain social behavior in
terms of genetic factors that evolved over
time according to the principles of natural
selection.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Evolutionary Psychology:
Instincts and Genes
• Darwin realized early on that there was
a problem with evolutionary theory:
– How can it explain altruism?
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Evolutionary Psychology:
Instincts and Genes
• If people’s overriding goal is to ensure
their own survival, why would they ever
help others at a cost to themselves?
• Genes promoting selfish behavior
should be more likely to be passed on
—or should they?
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Evolutionary Psychology:
Instincts and Genes
• Kin Selection
– The idea that behaviors that help a genetic
relative are favored by natural selection
• Increase chances genes will be passed
along by ensuring that genetic relatives
have children
• Natural selection should favor altruistic
acts directed toward genetic relatives
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
According to evolutionary psychology, prosocial behavior occurs in part because of kin
selection.
Source: wavebreakmedia ltd/Shutterstock
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Evolutionary Psychology:
Instincts and Genes
• Survey research found that people
reported that they would be more likely
to help genetic relatives than
nonrelatives in life-and-death
situations, such as a house fire.
• Anecdotal evidence from real
emergencies is consistent with these
results.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
The Reciprocity Norm
• Norm of Reciprocity
– The expectation that helping others will
increase the likelihood that they will help
us in the future.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Learning Social Norms
• Adaptive for individuals to learn social
norms from other members of a society
(Simon, 1990)
– Best learners have a survival advantage
– Ability to learn social norms has become
part of our genetic makeup
• Gratitude as an evolved emotion to facilitate
reciprocity
– Evolution favors groups whose members
help each other
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Social Exchange: The Costs
and Rewards of Helping
• Social exchange theory
– What we do stems from desire to maximize
rewards and minimize costs
– In relationships with others, try to
maximize the ratio of social rewards to
social costs
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Social Exchange: The Costs
and Rewards of Helping
• Helping can be rewarding in a number
of ways:
– The norm of reciprocity
• Increase likelihood of future help
– Investment in future
• Someone will help us when we need it
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Social Exchange: The Costs
and Rewards of Helping
• Helping can be rewarding in a number
of ways:
– Relief of bystander distress
– Gain rewards
• Social approval
• Increased feelings of self-worth
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Social Exchange: The Costs
and Rewards of Helping
• The other side is that helping can be
costly:




Physical danger
Pain
Embarrassment
Time
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Social Exchange: The Costs
and Rewards of Helping
• Social exchange theory argues that
true altruism does not exist
– People help when the benefits outweigh the
costs
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Helping behavior is common in virtually all species of animals, and sometimes it even
crosses species lines. In August 1996, a 3-year-old boy fell into a pit containing seven
gorillas, at the Brookfield, Illinois, zoo. Binti, a 7-year-old gorilla, immediately picked up
the boy. After cradling him in her arms, she placed the boy near a door where
zookeepers could get to him.
Source: AP Photo/WLS-TV
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Empathy and Altruism:
The Pure Motive for Helping
• Empathy
– The ability to put oneself in the shoes of
another person and to experience events
and emotions (e.g., joy and sadness) the
way that person experiences them
• Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis
– The idea that when we feel empathy for a
person, we will attempt to help that person
purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of
what we have to gain
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Figure 11.1
Empathy-Altruism Theory
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Figure 11.2
Altruism Versus Self-Interest
Under what conditions did people agree to help Carol with the work she missed in her
introductory psychology class? When empathy was high, people helped regardless of the
costs and rewards (i.e., regardless of whether they would encounter her in their
psychology class). When empathy was low, people were more concerned with the
rewards and costs for themselves—they helped only if they would encounter Carol in
their psychology class and thus feel guilty about not helping. (Adapted from Toi &
Batson, 1982)
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Three Basic Motives
Underlying Prosocial Behavior
• Evolutionary psychology
– Pass on genes
• Social exchange theory
– Maximize rewards, minimize costs
• Empathy-altruism hypothesis
– Powerful feelings of empathy and
compassion  selfless giving
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Waiting Room Video
Click on the screenshot and look for examples that illustrate basic motives for
helping behavior.
Back to Directory
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Personal Qualities and
Prosocial Behavior
• Why do some people help more than
others?
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Individual Differences:
The Altruistic Personality
• Altruistic Personality
– The qualities that cause an individual to
help others in a wide variety of situations.
– Surprisingly, studies of both children and
adults indicate that people with high scores
on personality tests of altruism are not
much more likely to help than those with
lower scores.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Individual Differences:
The Altruistic Personality
• Individual differences in personality not
the only predictors of helping
• Other critical factors:




Situational pressures
Gender
Culture
Current mood
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Gender Differences in
Prosocial Behavior
• Consider two scenarios:
– In one, someone performs a dramatic,
heroic act, like storming the cockpit of
United flight 93 to fight the terrorists.
– In the other, someone is involved in a longterm helping relationship, such as assisting
a disabled neighbor with chores around the
house.
• Are men or women more likely to help
in each situation?
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Whereas men are more likely to perform chivalrous and heroic acts, women are more
likely to be helpful in long-term relationships that involve greater commitment.
Source: Tomas Rodriguez/PicturePress/Glow Images, Inc.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Gender Differences in
Prosocial Behavior
• The answer is no.
• Males are more likely to help in the first
situation.
• Females are more likely in the second.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Cultural Differences in
Prosocial Behavior
• People in all cultures are more likely to
help anyone they define as a member
of their in-group than those they
perceive in out-groups.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Cultural Differences in
Prosocial Behavior
• In-group
– The group with which an individual
identifies as a member
• Out-group
– Any group with which an individual does
not identify
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Cultural Differences in
Prosocial Behavior
• When will we help in-group and outgroup members?
– In-group helping
• Help when we feel empathy
– Out-group helping
• Help when it furthers own self-interests
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Cultural Differences in
Prosocial Behavior
• Cultural values and prosocial behavior
• Simpatía
– Prominent in Spanish-speaking countries
– Refers to a range of social and emotional
traits





Friendly
Polite
Good-natured
Pleasant
Helpful toward others
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Positive Moods—
Feel Good, Do Good
• IV = Mood
– Find a coin—good mood
– Don’t find a coin—control group
• DV = Helping
– Pick up papers
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Positive Moods—
Feel Good, Do Good
• Results
– 84% of people who found coins researcher
left in mall pay phone helped a man pick
up papers in one study.
– Only 4% of those who did not find coins
helped.
• When people are in a good mood, they
are more helpful in a variety of ways!
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Positive Moods—
Feel Good, Do Good
• Being in a good mood can increase
helping for these reasons:
– Good moods make us look on the bright
side of life.
– Helping others can prolong our good mood.
– Good moods increase self-attention.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Feel Bad, Do Good
• One kind of bad mood clearly leads to
an increase in helping—feeling guilty.
• People often act on the idea that good
deeds cancel out bad deeds.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Feel Bad, Do Good
• Since feeling happy leads to greater
helping, it might seem that sadness
would decrease it.
– Surprisingly, sadness can also lead to an
increase in helping, under certain
conditions.
• When sad, people are motivated to do
things that make them feel better.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Feed Bad, Do Good
• Negative-State Relief Hypothesis
– The idea that people help in order to
alleviate their own sadness and distress.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Situational Determinants of
Prosocial Behaviors
• When will people help?
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Environment:
Rural Versus Urban
• Example
– Suppose you are walking down the street
one day when you see a man suddenly fall
down and cry out with pain. He rolls up his
pants leg, revealing a bandaged shin that
is bleeding heavily. What would you do?
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Environment:
Rural Versus Urban
• Small towns:
– Half the people who walked by stopped and
offered to help the man.
• Large cities:
– Only 15% of passersby stopped to help.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
People are less helpful in big cities than in small towns, not because of a difference in
values, but because the stress of urban life causes them to keep to themselves.
Source: (left): John Lund/Drew Kelly/Sam Diephuis/Glow Images, Inc.;
(right): David Grossman/Alamy
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Environment:
Rural Versus Urban
1. Perhaps people who grow up in a small
town are more likely to internalize
altruistic values.
2. Alternatively, the immediate
surroundings might be the key and not
people’s internalized values.
Urban Overload Hypothesis
People living in cities are constantly being
bombarded with stimulation and they keep to
themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Environment:
Rural Versus Urban
• According to urban overload
hypothesis, if you put urban dwellers in
a calmer, less stimulating environment,
they would be as likely as anyone else
to reach out to others.
– Research supports the hypothesis.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Environment:
Rural Versus Urban
• When opportunity for helping arises,
matters more whether the incident
occurs in a rural or urban area than
where the witnesses grew up.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Residential Mobility
• It is not only where you live that
matters, but how often you have
moved from one place to another.
• People who have lived for a long time in
one place more likely to engage in prosocial behaviors that help community.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Residential Mobility
• Living for a long time in one place leads
to:
– Greater attachment to the community
– More inter-dependence with neighbors
– Greater concern with one’s reputation in
the community
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
The Number of Bystanders:
The Bystander Effect
• Kitty Genovese’s prolonged murder
– 38 witnesses failed to call police.
• Bibb Latané and John Darley (1970)
considered why no one helped.
– The greater the number of bystanders who
observe an emergency, the less likely any
one is to help.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
The Number of Bystanders:
The Bystander Effect
• Latané and Darley (1970) found that in
terms of receiving help, there is no
safety in numbers.
• The greater the number of bystanders
who witness an emergency, the less
likely any one of them is to help the
victim.
• This is known as the bystander effect.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
©2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Figure 11.3
Bystander Intervention: The Presence of Bystanders Reduces Helping
When people belie …
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