Class exercise, psychology homework help


answer the class exercise from my draft first_draft__steroids__.docxpsy497_critical_writing_ex_2__1_.docx


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The topic chosen is the use of steroids among the student athlete population to
enhance their physical performances. Sports are prominent venture that valued by and vilified
by many societies. Many youth will thus try all available means to be the best and beat the
ever present competition. This competitive drive to win and be the best can be very fierce
leading to some athletes opting for shortcuts and artificial enhancements to boost their
performance. The availability of performance enhancement drugs means that it is available to
the student athlete population with some wrong habit to enhance their performance. This is
evidenced by the large numbers of student athletes caught with traces of steroids in their
system before major tournaments. The need and dream of winning a gold medal for their
nation, personal accomplishment and securing a spot in a team makes it easy for student
athletes to engage in performance enhancing drugs. Other causes are individual traits such as
impatience with standard practise and laziness and shying away from hard work. The use of
steroids in sports raises the question of ethics in sports while at the same time exposes these
athletes to career loss after exposure, addiction, and psychological effects of anabolic
steroids, which are the most common enhancers ever used. This research aims to address the
student athletes use of steroids in sports. This will bring about integrity to sports and also
enable institutions to train ethical and straightforward athletes who are likely to have a longer
span in sports than steroid athletes.
This topic is of interest because of the recent rise in steroid use among high school
students and college students’ athletes. Student athletes using steroids to enhance their
performance, think only of the shortest methods to achieve personal accomplishment, and not
think about the side effect of using it as has been recorded in history. This topic is of utmost
importance as there has been a recorded increase in use of anabolic and other types of
steroids among the professional athlete league and the student sports tournaments.
The importance of this study is to address the psychological and biological impacts
these drugs have on athletes. Young athletes are lured into steroid use by seeing the hike in
performance of steroid users in the field. Such a youth would be attracted to try steroids to
match what they see other users performing in the field. These is discussed behind locker
rooms and in a short time such, youth engage without understanding the negative effects
associated with steroid use.
These drugs have serious side effects such as, increased aggressiveness, increased
cholesterol, stroke, blood clots, urinary and bowel problems, balding and testicle shrinking,
hyper masculinity in young men and feminizing effects on young men. Steroids also have
psychological effects such as increased irritability, aggression, violence, depression, and
suicidal tendencies.
In a National Institute of Drug Abuse study in 2002, it was found that 2.5% of 8th
graders, 2.5% of 10th graders, 4% of 12th graders, and an average of 6% of athletes had used
drugs to enhance their performance. From those numbers it is clear of the need to address this
problem as it affects a sizeable population and to promote integrity and hard work in sports.
Some of the technical terms used in this study are anabolic effects, which are
hormones that promote muscle building. Androgenic effects are traits responsible for male
traits such as facial hair and deep voices.
The paper will look at use of steroids from a cognitive psychology and biological
perspective. This will evaluate the physical and biological impacts of the drug and the
psychological impact of the drugs.
The history of research on steroid use among young athletes can be traced back to the
sport psychologist Dr. Carl Diem in Berlin, in the early 1920s. His study analyzed steroid
abuse and impact on sports performance and eventual physical and psychological health of
the athlete.
The study to be implemented is a social program to educate student athlete about the
dangers use of steroids. This program will set to identify causes of steroid abuse, awareness
sessions, and rehabilitation and support programs for athletes both using and not using the
The rest of the paper shows the various studies conducted on young athlete steroid use
over the years, the summary of findings and recommendations to tackle this social problem.
There has been an increase in the use of steroids and other performance enhancers
among young athletes in colleges and high schools. Many are pressured to look for short cut
in order to improve their performance to bag scholarships or book a spot in professional
teams. This is pushing many youngsters to engage in steroid use from an early age. This
paper will research on the reasons pushing young athletes to steroid use, impacts on physical
and psychological health of patient, ways to mitigate and increase awareness of the negative
effects of steroid use.
II. Sub Discipline A: Cognitive
This study by Verbeke (2011) sought to identify the relationship between
cognitive feelings of masculinity and entitlement and the use of AAS (anabolic-androgenic
steroids). The research found that young men who felt the need to increase their masculinity
traits were more likely to use AAS. Self-entitlement among young men also drove more to
use AAS to establish their masculinity and boost their ego. Steroid use is thus dependent on
the cognitive needs of the user.
This study by Blashill (2014), on the other hand set to indicate the relationship
between AAS use and increased aggression, impulsiveness and violence among adolescent
users. Results from this study show that AAS directly affect the cognitive skills of an
This study by Hildreth (2013) set to identify the relationship if any of AAS use
and depression and stress related complications. Results show that some steroids are
depressive and can even lead to suicide.
The study by Frick (2012), sought to establish relationship between AAS use and
effects on cognitive functions over the years. Extended use of AAS will permanently affect
hormonal balance and cognitive functions. If rehabilitation happens early then the effects can
be reversed.
b: Relevant terms
AAS: Anabolic-androgenic steroid
c: Critique Literature
The articles sought to identify the involvement of the cognitive functions in steroid
use and the impact of steroid use in cognitive functions. A person is driven to steroid use by
cognitive desires to excel, self-entitlement for increased masculinity and personal gain. The
increased use of steroids will negatively affect cognitive functions such as depression,
suicidal tendencies, aggression, and violent behaviour. These articles were helpful in
establishing a cause and effect map on steroid use among student athletes.
d: Main Themes
The main themes are the cognitive functions leading to steroid abuse are, selfentitlement and self-appraisal through masculinity. Impacts of steroid use on cognitive
functions such as aggression, depression, impulsiveness, suicidal tendencies and reduced
cognitive functions in old age are also addressed.
III Sub Discipline B: Biological
a: Literature review
This study by Hildebrandt (2014) studied the relationship between use of
steroids and impact on the prefrontal cortex, which affects self-regulation. The study showed
that use of steroids minimized prefrontal cortex functions resulting in an individual being
violent and aggressive due to lack of self-regulation.
This study by Parent & Moradi, (2011), sought to establish whether the benefits of
E2 hormone secreted by ovary’s and which enhances memory functions can be artificially
produced to increase patient memory. It was found that the E2 can increase memory
functions but with negative side effects.
The third study evaluates use of AAS and its impact on LAH component of the brain.
This causes AAS users to have low inhibitions and thus more aggressive.
b: Relevant terms
LAH- latero-anterior hypothalamus
AAS- Anabolic androgenic steroid
c: Critique of literature
The articles discuss the impact of steroids on various brain parts and impact such as
aggression, increased memory functions but with negative side effects and inhibition of self
regulation and control.
d: Main Themes
The main themes are self-regulation, memory functions and cognitive functions of the
brain and how steroids affect these parts and functions.
IV Integration of Sub Discipline A & B
The themes that stand out in both sub disciplines is that steroids provide extremely
quick fixes to physical performance and muscle growth. This is what is used to market these
drugs without describing the negative biological and cognitive side effects of steroid use.
Steroids affect brain functions affecting self-regulation, memory, cognitive function
after extended use, depression, suicidal tendencies, aggressiveness, violence and biological
impacts such as feminine traits in men, or androgenic traits in ladies. It also affects sexual
characteristics and can lead to impotence or low sperm count.
These studies have not researched steroid use in a school setting to establish
prevalence and impacts.
V. Proposal
This social program will study student athletes, establish prevalence rates of steroid
abuse, and identify ways to solve these problems through a social program.
Blashill, A. J. (2014). A dual pathway model of steroid use among adolescent boys: Results
from a nationally representative sample. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15(2),
229-233. doi:10.1037/a0032914
Frick, K. M. (2012). Building a better hormone therapy? How understanding the rapid effects
of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory
decline. Behavioral Neuroscience, 126(1), 29-53. doi:10.1037/a0026660
Hildreth, K. L., Gozansky, W. S., Jankowski, C. M., Grigsby, J., Wolfe, P., & Kohrt, W. M.
(2013). Association of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cognition in older
adults: Sex steroid, inflammatory, and metabolic mechanisms. Neuropsychology,
27(3), 356-363. doi:10.1037/a0032230
Hildebrandt, T., Langenbucher, J. W., Flores, A., Harty, S., & Berlin, H. A. (2014). The
influence of age of onset and acute anabolic steroid exposure on cognitive
performance, impulsivity, and aggression in men. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,
28(4), 1096-1104. doi:10.1037/a0036482
Parent, M. C., & Moradi, B. (2011). His biceps become him: A test of objectification theory’s
application to drive for muscularity and propensity for steroid use in college men.
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(2), 246-256. doi:10.1037/a0021398
Verbeke, W. J., Belschak, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Rijke, Y. B. (2015). Postgame testosterone
levels of individuals in team-based status games are affected by genetic makeup,
gender, and winning versus losing. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and
Economics, 8(3), 135-159. doi:10.1037/npe0000041
Class Exercise 8: Critical Writing
You will need two sources for your paper to complete this class exercise. These sources should be
empirical research studies (rather than literature reviews or book chapters). Each source should be from
a different subdiscipline of psychology, and should NOT have already been reviewed in your First Draft
Annotated Bibliography.
Source 1
Sub-discipline of psychology?
Cite reference in APA style
Correctly cite a quotation, in
APA style, of no more than 2
sentences that captures the
main thesis or hypothesis/es of
the study.
Paraphrase this quotation in
your own words (in correct APA
Do the findings presented in the
study support the quotation?
Why/why not? Document at
least two reasons. (Look beyond
surface features like participant
characteristics etc.)
What are the similarities
between the two studies? (Look
beyond surface features like
participant characteristics etc.)
What are the differences
between the two studies? (Look
beyond surface features like
participant characteristics etc.)
How do these findings inform
your proposed social
program/applied research
Source 2

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