Complete Capstone MSA Discussion, sociology homework help

  

•PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS BELOW IN THE DISCUSSION POST, AND CITE ANY REFERENCE USED.MY RESEARCH TOPIC IS: Evaluating the effectiveness of the Feed the Future (FTF) Initiative and other global food security programs.Discuss what you have learned about good versus poor research topics. What does it mean that the topic be administrative in nature? Why is it important that the topic be specific rather than broad and general? • Is this a good research topic: characteristics of effective leaders? Why or why not? • How about this one: Why do so many of the employees at XYZ Company arrive late and what can XYZ do to improve punctuality? Explain your thoughts. • Review the Research Proposal Template (attached below). After reviewing the Template discuss how you think it helps you and the other students in terms of progressing through the research process. What would be the disadvantage of having to write a research proposal without using or having the template?• After discussing the preceding issues, post one-to-three ideas for your individual research topic that you will work on this semester: o Provide enough detail to educate the instructor on your administrative research topic. Be sure that the topic is not too broad based on what you learned in the lecture. Focus on a real problem that needs to be analyzed and fixed or an opportunity that is sufficiently focused that you can analyze it by reviewing literature and collecting data. o Provide both a primary issue/question and sub-questions similar to how we did the Common Research Activity in Week 1 o Identify the specific audience that will benefit from this research such as your employer’s senior leadership. That audience must be specific and in a position to take action. o Explain how your proposed topic(s) relates to your MSA Concentration.• Comment on posts by at least two other students.
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Central Michigan University
Master of Science in Administration (MSA) Program
RESEARCH PROPOSAL TEMPLATE
Research Proposal Template Overview
This document serves as a template that can be used by Central Michigan University
(CMU) students to write their research proposal for MSA600. The information also can be used
in the capstone class, but the primary purpose of this template is to help students develop a
quality research proposal.
Students should follow the instructions included in each section. The cover page is the
formal CMU cover page as presented in Section 1 of the Student Guide to the MSA Capstone
Project. This overview page should be removed.
The document is prepared using the American Psychological Association (APA) 6th
Edition style. If students identify elements that are not in APA style they should make any
necessary adjustments.
In Chapter 2 students should change the sub-title wording to match to specific literature
topic which they are presenting.
General APA Style Guidance:

Document must be typed, double-spaced on 8.5″ x 11″ paper with 1″ margins on all sides.
Use a clear, highly readable font. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.

All chapters or appendices should start at the top of a new page.

There should be NO extra blank lines between paragraphs or sub-headers. Indentation is used
to help the reader know when a break is occurring. DO NOT include extra blank lines in the
body of the proposal or final research report.

Include a page header (also known as the “running head”) at the top of every page. To create
a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right. Then type “TITLE OF YOUR
PAPER” in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened
version of your paper’s title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and
punctuation.

The title page should be formatted according to the requirements stated in the Student Guide
to the MSA Capstone Project Part 1 (page 17 for MSA600 and page 18 for MSA699).

Do NOT include an executive summary (or an abstract) in your proposal. The executive
summary is the last section added after the entire research report is completed.

When citing references, you should carefully review the APA guidance. You should NEVER
have a “dangling citation” – they must always be included inside of punctuation marks. So
you would never say: “Research has found that many leaders do not understand the elements
of transformational leadership. (Kessler, 2000)”
To properly cite this should you would use one of two formats: Kessler (2000) found that
many leaders do not understand the elements of transformational leadership.” Alternatively
you could use this format: “Research has found that many leaders do not understand the
elements of transformational leadership (Kessler, 2000).”
The important point to remember is that you will NEVER have citations located outside
of punctuation marks between sentences. Refer to the APA formatting sources on the Internet
to better understand how to cite various sources including those from the Internet, those
without an author, those without a date, and so forth.
When you are citing a direct quotation from a particular source (enclosed in parentheses)
you must also include the page number(s) for that quotation.

APA Style uses a unique headings system to separate and classify paper sections. There are
5 heading levels in APA. The 6th edition of the APA manual revises and simplifies previous
heading guidelines. Regardless of the number of levels, always use the headings in order,
beginning with level 1. The format of each level is illustrated below:
APA Headings
Level Format
1
Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings
2
Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
3
4
Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after the
period.
Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after
the period.
5
Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period. Begin body text after the period.
Included throughout this Template are comments provided to help you understand and
correctly write and format your proposal. Once you have finished reviewing and developing your
own proposal delete all of the comments. To do this in MS Word, go to “Review,” “Comments,”
and select the “Delete” option. Use the “Delete All Comments in Document” option to remove
the comments. DO NOT submit your proposal to your instructor with the informative
comments still included.
When you use this Template leave all elements in place – do not delete other Chapters
even though you have not written them – leave the Template elements in place. This will ensure
that you have the Template content available when you write those chapters but more
importantly it will ensure that the APA 6th Edition formatting is not altered.
Print and then delete this and all preceding
pages when you begin working on your
proposal.
DO NOT include these pages in your
submission to the instructor!
Running Head: SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
RESEARCH PROPOSAL TITLE
(e.g. PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE
UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE OVERTIME COMPENSATION PROGRAM)
MSA 600 Foundations of Research Methods in Administration
Central Michigan University
Submitted by:
Student Name
Project Instructor:
Professor Name
Submission Date
1
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
2
Table of Contents
Page Number
List of Tables ………………………………………………..………..
3
List of Figures …………………………………………………………
3
Chapter 1
Problem Definition …………………………………….
4
Chapter 2
Literature Review ……………………………………..
5
Chapter 3
Research Methodology ………………………………..
6
Chapter 4
Data Analysis ………………………………………
Future
Chapter 5
Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations …….
Future
Definition of Terms …………………………………………………..
18
References
…………………………………………………………
19
Appendix A
Permission to Conduct Study …………………………
Appendix B
Consent Form (Anonymous Survey, Informal
Interview or Formal Interview) ……………………….
Appendix C
Survey/Interview Questions ……………………………
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
3
Chapter 1: Problem Definition
Background
Add sufficient information in this section to explain the context for the research problem.
The content in this section will vary depending on the research topic. Sufficient detail must be
included to convince the reader that the topic represents a significant issue worthy of research
resources. For example, the background might describe the nature of the issue/problem and
provide a brief chronology regarding how long it has been an issue. Major events and milestones
might be described and facts presented about how the problem situation evolved. Explain what
factors are relevant to the problem and the current circumstances that have contributed to it.
Discuss the impact that the problem is having on the ability of organizations to accomplish their
mission and do so efficiently. Provide sufficient information to adequately set the stage for the
research.
Keep in mind that any content included in this section that derives from other sources
must be appropriately cited using APA Style citations. Also keep in mind that CMU professors
does not like “one-sentence” paragraphs (hence the reason for adding this second sentence).
Students often ask how long the background section should be in terms of number of
pages. A reasonable background section should be at least one and a half pages in length, but
longer background sections are acceptable if necessary to set the stage and convince the reader
that the study is worthwhile – that a substantial problem or opportunity exists.
Research Problem
The purpose of this section is to structure the research problem into a primary research
issue and then to decompose that issue into a set of sub-problem that all relate to the primary
issue. Begin this section with a few opening sentences that transition from the background
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
4
information to the research issue. Keep in mind that you cannot have one-sentence paragraphs,
(does not meet the definition of a paragraph) or one-paragraph sub-sections. Also, it is not
permitted to use personal pronouns at any location in the proposal or final research report. So
instead of writing “I will …..” the narrative must say “This research will ….”
At this point, state the primary research question. Start with a lead-in statement such as:
“This research will examine the following problem:” Then state the primary research problem as
a question. For example, the primary question might ask: “What factors are causing a high
manufacturing error rate at XYZ and what actions can be taken to reduce it?” Another example
might be: “Are employees using work resources for personal use and what sanctions should be
imposed when they do so?” When we structure the primary research question we need to
effectively capture, at a broad level the issue that we are investigating. If we structure it too
narrowly we may not end the study with an answer to the correct problem. Here is another
example: Why does the capstone class have a high incompletion rate and what actions can CMU
take to improve it?
In terms of sub-questions, guard against being too focused or narrow. Some of us, by
nature might tend to be somewhat judgmental – quick to think of a solution. This causes us to
rush to solution without fully understanding the underlying cause and we may therefore have an
incorrect or incomplete solution. So our sub-questions cannot include solutions. Instead they
must focus on both the causes of the problem and potential solutions.
Let’s review an example. Imagine that CMU has had a large number of students who do
not complete the capstone class in the allotted 16 week timeframe. For this example, the primary
research question is: Why are a large percentage of CMU capstone students unable to complete
the capstone project in the allotted 16 weeks and what actions can CMU take to improve the
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
5
completion rate? Then you are ready to transition to the sub-questions with a statement similar to
this: “In order to answer the primary research question the following series of sub-questions will
be investigated:”
Structure the sub-questions similar to this:
1. To what extent are personal factors (home life, habits and behaviors, etc.) causing the high
incompletion rate?
2. To what extent are work factors (stress, deployments, etc.) causing the high incompletion
rate?
3. To what extent do course teaching and/or design factors cause the high incompletion rate?
4. What other factors could be causing students to not complete the class in 16 weeks?
5. What actions can CMU take to improve the capstone completion rate?
These questions constitute the focus for the research project. They also help later when
you must develop your data collection (survey, interview, or records study) approach in Chapter
3 of the research proposal.
Here is another example. Imagine we are investigating why so many people are dying
from brain tumors. We would not focus on sub-questions involving treatments (solutions) such
as radiation or surgery – we must first determine what is causing brain tumors. We would have
sub-questions examining potential brain tumor causes (environmental, hereditary, behavioral,
etc.) and conclude with a solution-oriented sub-question such as “What actions can be taken to
reduce brain tumor mortality rates?”
The most important thing to understand about the primary and sub-questions is that they
have to be broad enough to get to the answer of our primary problem. If we narrow the focus too
much we may spend a lot of time and money doing research and still not get an answer to the
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
6
problem and actions for remedying it. For the particular problem, keep the following question in
mind: if you think about the problem intuitively do you really think your sub-questions will give
you the REAL reason for the high incompletion rate? This is a good litmus test for your subquestions.
The key in this section is to establish the research framework that will be used to examine
literature and, in some cases (but not this semester) collect original data related to the research
problem. That framework is important because it provides focus for subsequent chapters and also
sets the stage for concluding the research effort by using the literature and data to answer the
research questions.
Research Audience and Rationale
Identify the intended audience for this report and those to whom you will address your
recommendations. Indicate if the audience is just a single person, several persons, or a
combination of groups and individuals.
Include a paragraph to convince management or other stakeholders that this study is
important and worth the expense. Describe the anticipated benefits that will be derived from the
project, after recommendations are implemented. Convince the reader that this issue, if not
addressed, can threaten the very survival of the organization.
Research Study Scope/Delimitations
This is a very important section yet many students have difficulty understanding what
should be included. In preceding sections the research problem(s) and objective(s) described the
topic will be researched and identified the research audience. The purpose of this section is to
clearly identify the “target population” for this study, which will be very important when writing
later chapters.
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
7
In writing this section the researcher must identify the research boundaries. Let’s again
use an example to be clear about how to develop the content for this section. If the research is
examining why some CMU students do not complete the capstone class in 16 weeks a number of
facts must be provided in this section to focus the research scope as follows: the research is
focused only on CMU students and it will examine only those students who took MSA699
within the last 3 years.
Once these delimitations have been provided it is necessary to decide if it is necessary to
further refine the scope. For this particular research problem should all CMU capstone students
who took the course in the past three years be included? Will it be helpful to include those who
successfully completed the class in 16 weeks as well as those that did not, or should it focus only
on those that did not complete the class in 16 weeks? Should it include both face-to-face students
and online students or only online students? The scope can potentially be refined even more –
will you survey faculty who taught the class within the last three years or just students? These
are scope/considerations that must be specified and explained in this section.
One reason the scope must be delimited in this section is that it may be impractical to
collect data from a representative sample if the research involves a large organization or
population. Sometimes it is appropriate to narrow the scope to a smaller sub-set of employees,
people, organizations, or other units in order to make the data collection activity more practical.
If the research is studying the fitness levels of Army enlisted personnel and has not been
delimited, then the target population is EVERY enlisted person in the U.S. Army worldwide.
This necessitates a large sample and a correspondingly large and challenging data collection
effort. Practicality suggests that the study scope be narrowed and delimited, so consider focusing
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
8
on Army enlisted personnel at a particular installation or limited even limited further to a
particular Army unit.
In summary, if the research is focused on a particular organization and/or group of
employees within that organization then that group is the target population. The narrative in this
sub-section must be clear about this. The results of this study CANNOT be projected beyond the
target population; conclusions can only be drawn about those included within the scope of this
research.
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
9
Chapter 2: Review of the Related Literature
Introduction to the Literature
It is useful to have a smooth transition paragraph at the beginning of each chapter.
Transition narrative typically explains the purpose of this chapter and provides a brief overview
of the contents that are included.
For the literature review you might state that extensive literature exists about the research
issue and that the literature has been organized, in this chapter, into sub-topics that best
illuminate the research questions. Briefly mention the topics and why they are best suited for the
presentation of a synthesis of the literature.
Presentation of the Literature
Literature sub-title 1. Replace the preceding and all subsequent sub-titles with
meaningful sub-titles that reflect the contents of that particular sub-section. Use information
from various literature articles to write a synthesis of major points from those articles. In
particular, success depends on how well key points are extracted from the literature that directly
relate to and support the research questions posed in Chapter 1. Ensure that the amount of
literature available about the topic is described and summarize the major “threads,” or lines of
reasoning. Use APA Style to cite all references. There should be citations on every page for the
rest of this chapter.
Note that APA style citations are one of two types. The first type of citation is included
within the punctuation mark at the end of the sentence. For example, you might say:
Tranformational leaders engender high levels of motivation and loyalty among their followers
(Kessler, 1993). Note that this citation applies only to the associated sentence. The other type of
citation occurs when the entire paragraph is paraphrased from a single author or source. The
SHORT REPORT TITLE (no more than 10 words)
10
paragraph typically starts as follows: Kessler (1993) found that ….. In using this style, the entire
paragraph is attributed to that particular scholarly article. It is best to have a mix of citation styles
throughout the research report.
Literature sub-title 2. Continue the same pattern used with the first sub-title for each
subsequent section. It is reasonable to have three or four sub-sections in a literature review, but it
is permissible to have more than four as well. Replace the preceding and all subsequent sub-titles
with meaningful sub-titles that reflect the contents of that particular sub-section. Use information
from various literature articles to write a synthesis of major points from those articles. In
particular, success depends on how well key points are extracted from the literature that directly
relate to and support the research questions posed in Chapter 1. Use APA Style to cite all
references. There should be citations on every page for the rest of this chapter.
Literature sub-title 3. Continue the same pattern used with the first sub-title for each
subsequent section. It is reasonable to have three or four sub-sections in a literature review, but it
is permissible to have more than four as well. Replace the preceding and all subsequent sub-titles
with meaningful sub-titles that reflect the contents of that particular sub-section. Use information
from various literature articles to write a synthesis of major points from those articles. In
parti …
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