Cross Tabulation Variable relationships are very important in quantitative research, Science Homework Help

  

Application: Cross TabulationVariable relationships are very important in quantitative research. They tell researchers what effect different variables have upon one another. One of the easiest ways to display relationships between variables is through a cross-tabulation (cross-tab). A cross-tab is simply a chart that shows frequency or distribution of one or more variables for every category of another variable. Stated another way, a cross-tab is a joint frequency distribution of observations on two or more sets of variables. These statistical observations can be presented by numeric frequency, percentages, or both, depending on which is most useful given the specific data context. For this Application Assignment, perform a cross-tabulation on the data provided in the handout “Week 10 Dataset” such that property crime is displayed as a rate per student population. Though Excel is not the only software that can be used to perform a cross-tabulation, it is used here because it is a widely available program. The handout entitled, “Cross-Tabulation in Excel” contains instructions on how to complete the task in Excel using two different methods. The assignment (2–3 pages):·  Using Excel, perform a cross tabulation on the data provided in the Week 10 dataset.·  Explain what you can conclude from the output of the cross tabulation.·  Include your outputs in your Application Assignment document. (Copy and paste them from Excel into your Word doc.)With at least three references….It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this classTo get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create SUBHEADINGS to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.
cross_tabulation_in_excel.doc

week_10_dataset.xls

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Here is an excerpt from a dataset Excel file.
Question numbers
Answers
The question numbers and answer values are explained below.
Frequencies: How often does each value occur?
EXAMPLE 1.
I want to know how many females and males there are. That is question Q2. Females = 1
and males = 2
STEP 1.
Since the possible values are 1 & 2, enter those values below and to the left of Q2, as shown
below. In Excel terminology, this is called the “bins array.”
STEP 2.
Highlight the cells next to the bin array as shown below.
STEP 3.
Enter the frequency function:
=FREQUENCY(DATA ARRAY,BINS ARRAY)
The data array refers to the answers you want to count.
DATA ARRAY
BIN ARRAY
STEP 4.
Enter:
CONTROL + SHIFT + ENTER
Entering ENTER only will not work.
FOR THE VALUE OF 1 (FEMALE) I HAVE 2 CASES.
FOR THE VALUE OF 2 (MALE) I HAVE 8 CASES.
STEP 5.
Dress up the results as you see fit. For example:
EXAMPLE 2.
During the past 30 days, on how many days did youth have at least one drink of alcohol
(Q41)?
1 = 0 days
2 = 1 or 2 days
3 = 3 to 5 days
4 = 6 to 9 days
5 = 10 to 19 days
6 = 20 to 29 days
7 = All 30 days
EXAMPLE 3. Using Pivot Tables for Frequencies
You can also use Excel “Pivot Tables” to compute frequencies, but it seems more trouble
than it is worth.
The question is: During the past 30 days, on how many days did youth have at least one
drink of alcohol (Q41)?
The answer categories are:
1 = 0 days
5 = 10 to 19 days
2 = 1 or 2 days
6 = 20 to 29 days
3 = 3 to 5 days
7 = All 30 days
4 = 6 to 9 days
STEP 2.
Select Data
STEP 3.
Select Pivot
Table
STEP 1.
Highlight
the range of
answers.
The Pivot Table
Wizard appears.
STEP 4. Hit next.
The Wizard asks
you specify the
data you want to
use. Since you
already selected
the data range,
you can just hit
next.
The Wizard asks
where you want
the Pivot Table
Report. A new
worksheet is
recommended.
Select Layout
Drag the Q41 button
over to the “ROW.”
Drag the Q41 button
over to “DATA.” By
default, Excel wants to
give me sum of Q41
But I do not want
sum, I want
“count.”
First, double click
“Sum of Q41” then
select count.
Next, select “OK.”
Finally, select “OK.”
Select “Finish”
Your result
appears in a new
worksheet.
Dress up the result
as appropriate.
Crosstabulations: Comparing Answers to Two Questions
Suppose we want to know about alcohol consumption in the past 30 days by gender.
Va riable Informa tion
Variable
Q2
Q41
Label
W hat is your s ex
How many day s drink alcohol 30 days
Va ria ble Val ues
Value
Q2
Q41
Label
1
2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Female
Male
0 days
1 or 2 day s
3 t o 5 day s
6 t o 9 day s
10 to 19 days
20 to 29 days
All 30 day s
STEP 2.
Select Data
STEP 1.
Highlight
the range of
answers.
STEP 3.
Select Pivot
Table
The Pivot Table
Wizard appears.
Hit next.
The Wizard asks
you specify the
data you want to
use. Since you
already selected
the data range,
you can just hit
next.
The Wizard asks
where you want
the Pivot Table
Report. A new
worksheet is
recommended.
Select Layout
Where you decide to place the questions (that is, in row versus column) is a matter of
preference. If the question is whether alcohol consumption varies by gender, the following
conventions are recommended.
Drag the Q41 (alcohol
consumption) button
over to the “ROW.”
Drag the Q2 (gender)
button over to the
“COLUMN.”
Drag the Q41 button
over to “DATA.” By
default, Excel wants to
give me sum of Q41
But I do not want
sum, I want “count.”
(I don’t really want
count either; more on
that in a moment.)
First, double click
“Sum of Q41” then
select count.
Next, select “OK.”
Finally, select “OK.”
Select “Finish”
Your result
appears in a new
worksheet.
Dress up the result
as appropriate.
If one looks at youth who did not drink alcohol in the past 30 days (“0 Days”) one might be
tempted to conclude that males in this sample were more than twice as likely as females to
abstain from alcohol. One would be wrong. It is dangerous to make comparisons based on
counts (frequencies), especially when the numbers of cases are substantially different (there
are 16 males in this sample versus 8 females). Therefore, percentages should be used in
crosstabulations.
As before, drag
Q2 to Column,
Q41 to Row, Q41
to Data, then
double click “Sum
of Q41”
Select Count
Select “Options”
Select “% of column”
The result appears in a
new worksheet. In this
sample, males are
slightly more likely than
females to abstain from
alcohol.
Dress up the result
as appropriate.
College
Abalone University
Franklinville College
Marie Louis College
Robert Long College
Simon State
Student Enrollment
Crime Total
10,486
989
2,301
3,467
20,573
Forcible Rape
35
4
14
9
42
5
0
2
0
3
Aggravated Assault
Arson
12
2
4
1
5
Property Crime
1
0
0
0
1
17
2
8
8
33

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