Andrew Sullivan argues that one of the extremes of democracy is a form of fascism. Read his article, reflect back on Prof. Chirot’s lecture(I’ve uploaded below), but also think of the ways religion and secularism either hinder this process or speed it along. http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2016/04/america-tyranny-donald-trump.html (Links to an external site.).200-300 wordsTo be sure, don’t be afraid to disagree with Sullivan; he could be dead wrong–but, of course, disagree with solid reasons for refuting his argument.
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A Simple Ideological Guide
Violence, Racial Purity, and Total
Devotion to the Nation
War alone brings up to their highest tension all human
energies and imposes the stamp of nobility upon the
peoples who have the courage to make it. (Mussolini,
“The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism,” 1932)
Blood mixture and the resultant drop in the racial level is
the sole cause of the dying out of old cultures; for men
do not perish as a result of lost wars, but by the loss of
that force of resistance which is contained only in pure
blood. All who are not of good race in this world are
chaff. (Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1925)
The Japanese Version
Our country is established with the emperor, who is a
descendant of Amaterasu Omikami (the sun
goddess)…the emperor [is] the fountainhead of her life
and activities…Loyalty means to revere the emperor as
[our] pivot and to follow him implicitly…offering our lives
for the sake of the emperor [means] casting aside of our
little selves to live under his august grace and the
enhancing of the genuine life of the people of a state.
(from Kokutai No Hongi — Fundamentals of Our
National Polity, a Japanese book for schools, 1937).
Overcoming the Deficiencies of
PROBLEM: Alienation and division results from
the harsh competition of market capitalism.
SOLUTION: Reintegrate society by controlling
the market, prohibiting class conflict by
imposing authority of properly chosen elites,
and using loyalty to the nation as a unifying
Restoring National Pride and
Purifying the Nation
PROBLEM: Foreign ideas and people have
polluted our culture and weakened our resolve.
SOLUTION: Purge those ideas and foreign
elements that have weakened our great nation.
Cleansing will restore us.
PROBLEM: National weakness and corruption.
SOLUTION: Militarize society, impose discipline,
prepare for war, purge the nation of traitors who will
resist. Ours is a superior culture and race, and it is
our right to be powerful.
Propaganda Poster from Fascist Spain,
Nazi Poster: The evil Jew has taken over
England, America, and Communist
Down With Democracy, the Leader
PROBLEM: Democracy is a sham that brings
only conflict and allows money to corrupt
politics. Enlightenment ideas about individual
rights, freedoms are unnatural and deceptions
because they only weaken national solidarity.
SOLUTION: The LEADER and his PARTY (or
the EMPEROR and his government) know best
and that is what the people crave – strong,
clean, devoted leadership.
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
The “Showa” Emperor
The Conditions That Led to the Rise of
Fascism in Europe
Disruptive effects of industrialization – blaming Jews for
capitalism. Disaster of World War I. Economic crises
and unemployment in early 1920s, then the Great
Depression of the 1930s. Italy 1922. Germany 1933.
Spread in Europe: Spain (Francisco Franco – allied to
Catholic Church), Romania (Iron Guard – highly
religious, Romanian Orthodox Church ) –Fascist Parties
in France, Belgium, Norway, Hungary, Croatia, others
who eventually worked with the Germans when they
conquered most of Europe in 1939-1941.
Spread Beyond Europe
Fascism much admired, Mussolini then Hitler as heroic
saviors of their nations.
East Asia (Japan, Thailand).
Middle East (A model for Arab nationalists).
Latin America (Argentina most of all. Juan and Evita Peron
and the opposition to the Catholic Church).
A bit in US, but much less. Franklin Roosevelt as a liberal
Juan (1895-1974) and
Eva Peron (1919-1952)
Attempts to reshape the culture to glorify the leader
and the nation.
Elite rule – accommodation with the rich elite.
Dictatorship–no free press, speech, or elections.
Curtailment of human rights, repression, murder.
Militarization and when possible, aggression.
Hirohito in Tokyo March 1945:
100,000+ died in firebombing
Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci
hung up in a Milan gas station, April 1945
Model of Hitler’s planned giant remaking
of Berlin .. Designed by Albert Speer
The Reality: Berlin May 1945
Far right in France? Netherlands? England?
Islamic version in Iran?
An Arab version?
WITH THE DEATH OF COMMUNISM, IS THIS AGAIN THE
IDEOLOGY OF FUTURE AUTHORITARIAN
The Grandiose Dreams of Recep
Tayyip Erdoğan and Xi Jinping
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