Discussion Board Response.( International and Humanitarian Disaster Management)

  

The History Behind Humanitarian Crises- Look at three of my classmate’s posts. I need you to respond to each one separately. Don’t write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. In attachment you will find all the classmates posts.- APA Style.
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The
Sphere
Handbook
Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards
in Humanitarian Response
What is sphere?
THE Humanitarian Charter
Protection Principles
Core Humanitarian Standard
Water SUPPLY, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion
Food Security and Nutrition
Shelter and Settlement
Health
Sphere Association
3 Rue de Varembé
1202 Geneva, Switzerland
Email: info@spherestandards.org
Website: www.spherestandards.org
First edition 2000
Second edition 2004
Third edition 2011
Fourth edition 2018
Copyright © Sphere Association, 2018
Copyright for the Core Humanitarian Standard on Quality and Accountability © CHS Alliance,
Sphere Association and Groupe URD, 2018
All rights reserved. This material is copyrighted but may be reproduced without fee for
educational purposes, including for training, research and programme activities, provided
that the copyright holder is acknowledged. It is not intended for resale. For copying in other
circumstances, posting online, reuse in other publications or for translation or adaptation,
prior written permission must be obtained by emailing info@spherestandards.org.
A catalogue record for this publication is available from The British Library and the US Library
of Congress.
ISBN 978-1-908176-400 PBK
ISBN 978-1-908176-608 EPUB
ISBN 978-1-908176-707 PDF
Citation: Sphere Association. The Sphere Handbook: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum
Standards in Humanitarian Response, fourth edition, Geneva, Switzerland, 2018.
www.spherestandards.org/handbook
The Sphere Project was initiated in 1997 by a group of NGOs and the Red Cross and Red
Crescent Movement to develop a set of universal minimum standards in core areas of
humanitarian response: The Sphere Handbook. The aim of the Handbook is to improve the
quality of humanitarian response in situations of disaster and conflict, and to enhance the
accountability of humanitarian action to crisis-affected people. The Humanitarian Charter
and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response are the product of the collective
experience of many people and agencies. They should therefore not be seen as representing the views of any one agency. In 2016, the Sphere Project was registered as the Sphere
Association.
Distributed for the Sphere Association by Practical Action Publishing and its agents and
representatives throughout the world. Practical Action Publishing (UK Company Reg. No.
1159018) is the wholly owned publishing company of Practical Action and trades only in
support of its parent charity objectives.
Practical Action Publishing, 27a, Albert Street, Rugby, CV21 2SG, United Kingdom
Tel +44 (0) 1926 634501; Fax +44 (0)1926 634502
Website: www.practicalactionpublishing.org/sphere
Designed by: Non-linear Design Studio, Milan, Italy
Printed by: Shortrun Press, United Kingdom.
Typeset by vPrompt eServices, India
Contents
Foreword…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..v
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………………… vii
What is Sphere?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
The Humanitarian Charter………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
Protection Principles…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
Core Humanitarian Standard……………………………………………………………………………………… 49
Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion…………………………………………………..89
Food Security and Nutrition……………………………………………………………………………………… 157
Shelter and Settlement…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 237
Health………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 289
Annexes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 371
Annex 1: Legal Foundation to Sphere…………………………………………………………………. 374
Annex 2: Code of Conduct…………………………………………………………………………………….. 385
Annex 3: Abbreviations and Acronyms………………………………………………………………. 393
Index…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 395
iii
Foreword
The Sphere Handbook is marking its 20th anniversary with the publication of
this fourth edition. It is the result of an intense year-long mobilisation of humanitarian actors around the globe and reflects two decades of experience using the
standards in front-line operations, policy development and advocacy to uphold
principled quality and accountability.
With a clear, rights-based framework, the Handbook builds on the legal and
ethical foundations of humanitarianism with pragmatic guidance, global
good practice and compiled evidence to support humanitarian staff wherever
they work.
Sphere holds a unique place in the sector and in the constantly evolving humanitarian landscape. This edition was clearly informed by the international commitments made at the first World Humanitarian Summit in 2016, the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development and other global initiatives.
However, even as the policy landscape continues to evolve, we know that the
immediate survival needs of people in conflict and disasters remain largely
the same wherever crisis strikes. Sphere supports and contributes to global
and local policy processes by recalling the fundamental necessity to provide
accountable assistance to help people survive, recover and rebuild their lives
with dignity.
Sphere’s strength and global reach lie in the fact that it belongs to all. This
sense of ownership is renewed every few years, when the standards are
reviewed and revised by the users themselves. It is a moment when we collectively restate our commitments and agree on improved action to make sure
that practitioners have the best information available to them wherever they
may work. This makes Sphere a core reference and a reminder of the fundamental importance of human dignity and the right of people to participate fully
in decisions that affect them.
Sphere is one of the foundations of humanitarian work. It is the starting point for
new humanitarian actors and a standing reference for experienced staff, providing
guidance on priority actions and where to find more detailed technical information.
Our standards partners provide even more support in specific sectors beyond
Sphere to help people recover and thrive.
This edition benefits from the input of thousands of people working with more
than 450 organisations in at least 65 countries around the world. The global reach
reflects experience from diverse contexts, extraordinary challenges and different
v
Foreword
types of actors. These standards would not exist without the unwavering commitment of so many of you. You have the thanks of our sector for your contributions
during the revision and, indeed, over the past two decades.
We look forward to continuing this important work and learning together with you
as you use this Handbook.
Martin McCann
Sphere Board Chair
vi
Christine Knudsen
Executive Director
Acknowledgements
This edition of The Sphere
Handbook is the result of the
most diverse and far-reaching
consultation process in the
history of Sphere. Nearly 4,500
online comments were received
from 190 organisations, and more
than 1,400 people participated in
60 in-person events hosted by
partners in 40 countries. Sphere
gratefully acknowledges the
scale and breadth of the contributions made, including from
national, local and international
NGOs, national authorities and
ministries, Red Cross and Red
Crescent societies, universities,
UN organisations and individual
practitioners.
The Shelter and Settlement chapter
is dedicated to the memory of Graham
Saunders, author of this chapter
in the 2004 and 2011 editions and
advisor in the early development of
the 2018 edition.
Graham was a true humanitarian and
a champion of the Shelter sector. His
vision, leadership and endless energy
have been instrumental in putting
humanitarian shelter issues on the
map and shaping the field for future
generations of shelter practitioners.
He continuously strived to improve
our practice and professionalise the
sector. He will be greatly missed as a
pioneer, professional and friend.
The revision process was coordinated by the Sphere office. Individual chapters
were developed by lead authors with cross-sectoral support from designated thematic experts and resource persons from the humanitarian sector.
The majority of the authors and thematic experts were put forward by their
home organisations, dedicating their time and effort as an in-kind contribution
to the sector.
Writing groups and reference groups were established to support the authors
and thematic experts in their work. Sphere acknowledges the valuable contribution of all these individuals throughout 2017 and 2018. A full list of all working
group and reference group members can be found on the Sphere website,
spherestandards.org. Lead authors and experts are noted below.
Foundation chapters
••
••
••
Humanitarian Charter and Annex 1: Dr Mary Picard
Protection Principles: Simon Russell (Global Protection Cluster) and Kate
Sutton (Humanitarian Advisory Group)
Core Humanitarian Standard: Takeshi Komino (CWSA Japan) and Sawako
Matsuo (JANIC)
vii
Acknowledgements
Technical chapters
••
••
••
••
••
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion: Kit Dyer (NCA) and Jenny Lamb
(Oxfam GB)
Food Security: Daniel Wang’ang’a (WVI)
Nutrition: Paul Wasike (Save the Children USA)
Shelter and Settlement: Seki Hirano (CRS) and Ela Serdaroglu (IFRC)
Health: Dr Durgavasini Devanath (IFRC), Dr Julie Hall (IFRC), Dr Judith Harvie
(International Medical Corps), Dr Unni Krishnan (Save the Children Australia),
Dr Eba Pasha (independent)
Vulnerabilities, capacities and operational settings
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
Children and child protection: Susan Wisniewski (Terre des Hommes)
Older people: Irene van Horssen and Phil Hand (HelpAge)
Gender: Mireia Cano (GenCap)
Gender-based violence: Jeanne Ward (independent)
Persons with disabilities: Ricardo Pla Cordero (Humanity and Inclusion)
People living with and affected by HIV: Alice Fay (UNHCR)
Mental health and psychosocial support: Dr Mark van Ommeren (WHO),
Peter Ventevogel (UNHCR)
Protracted crises: Sara Sekkenes (UNDP)
Urban settings: Pamela Sitko (WVI)
Civil–military coordination: Jennifer Jalovec and Mark Herrick (WVI)
Environment: Amanda George and Thomas Palo (Swedish Red Cross)
Disaster risk reduction: Glenn Dolcemascolo and Muthoni Njogu (UNISDR)
Cash-based assistance and markets: Isabelle Pelly (CaLP)
Supply-chain management and logistics: George Fenton (Humanitarian
Logistics Association)
Monitoring, evaluation, accountability and learning: Joanna Olsen (CRS)
Sphere Board (May 2018)
Action by Churches Together (ACT) Alliance (Alwynn Javier) * Aktion Deutschland
Hilft (ADH) (Karin Settele) * CARE International (Phillipe Guiton) * CARITAS
Internationalis (Jan Weuts) * Humanitarian Response Network, Canada (Ramzi
Saliba) * InterAction (Julien Schopp) * The International Council of Voluntary
Agencies (ICVA) (Ignacio Packer) * International Federation of Red Cross and Red
Crescent Societies (IFRC) (David Fisher) * International Medical Corps (IMC) (Mary
Pack) * The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) (Roland Schlott) * Office Africain
pour le développement et la coopération (OFADEC) (Mamadou Ndiaje) * Oxfam
International – Intermón (Maria Chalaux Freixa) * Plan International (Colin Rogers) *
RedR International (Martin McCann) * Save the Children (Unni Krishnan) * Sphere
India (Vikrant Mahajan) * The Salvation Army (Damaris Frick) * World Vision
International (WVI) (Isabel Gomes).
viii
Acknowledgements
Thanks also go to Board members who initiated and guided the revision have
since left the Board: Sarah Kambarami (ACT Alliance) * Anna Garvander (Church
of Sweden/LWF) * Nan Buzard (ICVA) * Barbara Mineo (Oxfam International –
Intermón) * Maxime Vieille (Save the Children).
Donors
In addition to contributions from the Board organisations listed above, funding for
the Handbook revision process was provided by:
Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) * German Ministry of Foreign
Affairs * Irish Aid * Australian Government – Department of Foreign Affairs and
Trade (DFAT) * European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection
Department (ECHO) through International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
Societies (IFRC) * USAID’s Office of United States Foreign Disaster Assistance
(OFDA) * Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) through
Church of Sweden * Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) * United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) * United States Department of
State Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration (US-PRM).
Handbook revision team
Christine Knudsen, Executive Director (Sphere)
Aninia Nadig, Advocacy and Networking Manager (Sphere)
Editors: Kate Murphy and Aimee Ansari (Translators without Borders)
Revision coordinators: Lynnette Larsen and Miro Modrusan
With support from Sphere staff:
Tristan Hale, Learning and Training Manager
Wassila Mansouri, Networking and Outreach Officer
Juan Michel, Communications Manager through September 2017
Barbara Sartore, Communications Manager from October 2017
Loredana Serban, Administration and Finance Officer
Kristen Pantano and Caroline Tinka, Interns
Online consultation support: Markus Forsberg, (PHAP)
Handbook design: Non-linear (www.non-linear.com)
Copy editing, layout and production: Practical Action Publishing
(www.practicalactionpublishing.org)
Kimberly Clarke and Megan Lloyd-Laney (CommsConsult)
Significant thanks for additional support during the Handbook revision
process go to James Darcy, Malcolm Johnston, Hisham Khogali, Ben Mountfield,
Dr Alice Obrecht, Ysabeau Rycx, Panu Saaristo, Manisha Thomas and Marilise
Turnbull.
ix
Acknowledgements
Sphere Focal Points which organised in-person revision
consultations:
ADRA Argentina (Regional consultation with ADRAs South America)
Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Relief (Afghanistan)
Alliance of Sphere Advocates in the Philippines (ASAP)
Amity Foundation (member of The Benevolence Standards Working Group, Focal
Point for China)
BIFERD (Democratic Republic of Congo)
Community World Service Asia (Thailand and Pakistan)
Daniel Arteaga Galarza* with Secretaría de Gestión de Riesgos (Ecuador)
Dr Oliver Hoffmann* with the Sphere Focal Point for Germany
Grupo Esfera Bolivia
Grupo Esfera El Salvador
Grupo Esfera Honduras
Illiassou Adamou* with the Child Protection sub-cluster (Niger)
Indonesian Society for Disaster Management (MPBI)
Institut Bioforce (France)
InterAction (United States)
Inter-Agency Accountability Working Group (Ethiopia)
Korea NGO Council for Overseas Development Cooperation (Korea, Republic of)
Sphere Community Bangladesh (SCB)
Sphere India
Ukraine NGO Forum
UNDP Chile
*Individual focal points
x
What is Sphere? – The Handbook
What is
Sphere?
1
Handbook
What is Sphere?
PRINCIPLES + FOUNDATIONS
Humanitarian
Charter
Core
Humanitarian
Standard
Protection
Principles
Water Supply,
Sanitation and
Hygiene
Promotion
Food Security
and Nutrition
ANNEX 1 Legal foundation to Sphere
ANNEX 2 Code of Conduct
ANNEX 3 Acronyms and Abbreviations
2
Shelter and
Settlement
Health
STANDARDS
Contents
What is Sphere?………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
1. The Handbook………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Four foundation chapters and four technical chapters………………………………….. 5
The Minimum Standards promote a consistent approach…………………………….. 6
The structure of the standards…………………………………………………………………………. 6
Working with the key indicators………………………………………………………………………… 7
Links with other standards………………………………………………………………………………… 7
2. Using the standards in context……………………………………………………………………………. 8
The standards apply throughout the programme cycle………………………………………. 9
Assessment and analysis…………………………………………………………………………………… 9
Strategy development and programme design………………………………………………. 9
Implementation………………………………………………………………………………………………….10
Monitoring, evaluation, accountability and learning……………………………………..10
Understanding vulnerabilities and capacities………………………………………………………10
Data disaggregation………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
Children……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
Older people……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Gender…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Gender-based violence……………………………………………………………………………………… 14
Persons with disabilities…………………………………………………………………………………… 14
People living with and affected by HIV…………………………………………………………… 15
LGBTQI people……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
Mental health and psychosocial support……………………………………………………….. 15
Understanding the operational setting………………………………………………………………… 16
Supporting national and local actors………………………………………………………………. 16
Protracted crises……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Urban settings……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Communal settlements…………………………………………………………………………………….18
Settings with domestic or international military forces……………………………….18
Environmental impact in humanitarian response…………………………………………. 19
Appendix: Delivering assistance through markets………………………………………………….20
References and further reading…………………………………………………………………………………..26
3
What is Sphere?
What is Sphere?
The Sph …
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