discussion on discussion

  

At least  125 words each. Be nice, please. Don’t write negative staff about their discussion and don’t say you didn’t cover this or that. Write it from 1st face, like I think you covered important points in your discussion .
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It is undeniable that the white miners, by and large, treated the Hispanic, Indian and Chinese “foreigners” in California very
poorly. As the book notes, California during the time of the Gold Rush and its is subsequent ‘Americanization’ was indeed ‘a
cosmopolitan society.’ News of gold and the ability to strike it rich was a draw for members of all races to travel in droves to
California, and the result was racial diversity like nowhere else in the country at that time. Unfortunately, the white miners had a
propensity to mistreat the “foreigners,” for reasons that were both racist and simply because of the economic competition they
threatened.
From the outset, many Hispanics were able to be successful at gold mining. Seen as competition, of course, this angered the
white miners. “Initial efforts to control the Hispanic presence were spontaneous and informal: threats, mob action, claimjumping, and occasional beatings. Quickly, however, local miners’ committees enacted laws excluding ‘noncitizens’ from many
districts, giving prejudice a semblance of legality.’ These ‘yankee miners’ even came up with a short-lived ‘Foreign Miners’ Tax
Law’ in 1850, which charged noncitizen miners monthly. While these yankee miners denigrated the Hispanic workers, accusing
them of gambling and prostitution, at its core they were seen as competition.
Treatment of Indians in the time of the Gold Rush was characterized by violence from non-Californian Americans. Prejudiced
Americans, who had preconceived notions about Indians and who had been led to believe that all Indians were hostile, met them
with even more sadistic violence. In 1850, state legislators in California adopted a “Law for the Protection and Government of
the Indians” which “held that they could be judged vagrants, and then indentured to private individuals as laborers.” In the years
that followed, more brutal violence occured, and the Indians were segregated to reservations.
As is well documented in Californian history, the Chinese were subject to horrible conditions in California. “Chinese miners
worked and reworked the least productive diggings for meager wages and lived in miserable conditions under the surveillance of
contract holder’s agents. Because their agreements included repaying contractors for food and board, their debts usually became
larger, not smaller” […] “They also became prime targets for the hostility of white miners who denounced the similarities between
contract labor and racial slavery, accused the Chinese of gambling and various ‘Oriental’ vices, and deplored conditions in the
‘Chinatowns’ in which the Chinese congregated.” Ultimately, however, the root of the white miner’s animosity towards the
Chinese was the economic competition. The major complaints about the Chinese workers really started when they left the lower
jobs for gold-mining jobs, which was direct competition with the white miners.
All in all, treatment of Hispanic, Indian, and Chinese workers in the time of the Gold Rush was horrible. While many times on
the surface there seemed to be racist reasoning, oftentimes the animosity stemmed from economic competition.
Jack Apablasa
The first people to feel the hype of the gold fever were the residents of the East Coast. For these
residents it was fairly easy and accessible for them to travel by sea to California as they had
experience in sailing, they had predetermined departure points, they a vast understanding of different
routes, and they had ships at the ready.
Most adventures looking to travel to California traveled by sea. The two passages that were most
traveled was the Panama passage and Cape Horn passage. Of the two passages the favored one by
California gold-seekers was the Panama passage because it was more promising, as it “theoretically”
was the safest and fastest way to California compared to the Cape Horn passage. The Cape Horn
passage on the other hand, was a time commitment the journey through this route was a five-month
endeavor that was a “17,000-mile” (171) trip.
Besides time, the Cape Horn route travelers faced other problems like: seasickness, boredom from the
extremely long hours at sea, spoiled food and stagnant water, misery from being confined in closed
quarters for so long, and to top it all off, ships often took dreadful beatings from the elements of the
sea. Ironically though, a “greater volume of seaborne traffic to California arrived by the way of the
long and hazardous Cape Horn route” (72).
The Panama passage was the ideal and most convenient route for gold-seeking travelers. The Isthmus
of Panama was open to sail year round. In 1849, “Congress had subsidized steamship service” (171)
between the two coasts of the Isthmus and the Pacific, in the hopes for safe and swift ship journeys.
The downside to choosing the Panama passage was that steamships that take-in passages, would only
accommodate a few. Often these older sailing vessels where vastly overloaded and were put into
service. Travelers who took these vessels often also found themselves bargaining their way across sea
as tickets would not cover the full trip and only the ocean legs. Bargaining for “40 miles up the
Chagres River and 20 more overland to the Pacific” (171). One of the first steamer ships was the
California. On its first arrival to the western side of the Isthmus in mid-January, it was greeted by
“more than 700 ticket-holders clamoring for its 250 berths” (171). The California and vessels alike
found themselves transporting “as many as 1,000 passengers daily at the eastern mouth of the
Isthmus” (171).
In conclusion, lucky were the few who got to travel the Panama passage by steamship, as it was the
fastest and safest way to get to California even though there was a little bargaining involved. Then, for
those who were not able to travel aboard a steamship through the Panama, it seems like the Cape
Horn passage was the best second option. Either way, those who traveled by sea, got to California
faster than those who traveled by land.
The first people to feel the hype of the gold fever were the residents of the East Coast. For these
residents it was fairly easy and accessible for them to travel by sea to California as they had
experience in sailing, they had predetermined departure points, they a vast understanding of different
routes, and they had ships at the ready.
Most adventures looking to travel to California traveled by sea. The two passages that were most
traveled was the Panama passage and Cape Horn passage. Of the two passages the favored one by
California gold-seekers was the Panama passage because it was more promising, as it “theoretically”
was the safest and fastest way to California compared to the Cape Horn passage. The Cape Horn
passage on the other hand, was a time commitment the journey through this route was a five-month
endeavor that was a “17,000-mile” (171) trip.
Besides time, the Cape Horn route travelers faced other problems like: seasickness, boredom from the
extremely long hours at sea, spoiled food and stagnant water, misery from being confined in closed
quarters for so long, and to top it all off, ships often took dreadful beatings from the elements of the
sea. Ironically though, a “greater volume of seaborne traffic to California arrived by the way of the
long and hazardous Cape Horn route” (72).
The Panama passage was the ideal and most convenient route for gold-seeking travelers. The Isthmus
of Panama was open to sail year round. In 1849, “Congress had subsidized steamship service” (171)
between the two coasts of the Isthmus and the Pacific, in the hopes for safe and swift ship journeys.
The downside to choosing the Panama passage was that steamships that take-in passages, would only
accommodate a few. Often these older sailing vessels where vastly overloaded and were put into
service. Travelers who took these vessels often also found themselves bargaining their way across sea
as tickets would not cover the full trip and only the ocean legs. Bargaining for “40 miles up the
Chagres River and 20 more overland to the Pacific” (171). One of the first steamer ships was the
California. On its first arrival to the western side of the Isthmus in mid-January, it was greeted by
“more than 700 ticket-holders clamoring for its 250 berths” (171). The California and vessels alike
found themselves transporting “as many as 1,000 passengers daily at the eastern mouth of the
Isthmus” (171).
In conclusion, lucky were the few who got to travel the Panama passage by steamship, as it was the
fastest and safest way to get to California even though there was a little bargaining involved. Then, for
those who were not able to travel aboard a steamship through the Panama, it seems like the Cape
Horn passage was the best second option. Either way, those who traveled by sea, got to California
faster than those who traveled by land.
Victor Castaneda

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