Erik Erikson Assignment

  

According to Erik Erikson, infants develop either trust or mistrust and toddlers develop autonomy or shame and doubt depending on how people in their social world interact with and guide them.Describe two parent/caregiver actions that will lead to the positive resolution of trust, and two behaviors that will lead to the positive resolution of autonomy.  Be specific and detailed.  What does Chapter 7 suggest as strategies to encourage trust and autonomy?Hint: In answering this question think about parenting strategies that promote a sense of trust in the people and places in the infants world.  Remember this is the first 12 months of life.  What can parents do to promote a sense of independence and self rule for toddlers, 12 -18 months.  These are very basic but important tendencies that we want our children to possess.  These qualities will affect them for the rest of their lives.I will send you the chapter related to this assignment and please cite within your answer. Example for citing: (Berger, [page #])Berger is the author of the chapter of the book I’ll be sending you.
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8/29/2012
1. Introduction
2. Fact or Fiction?
3. Emotional Development
4. Theories about Infant Socioemotional Development
5. The Development of Social Bonds
6. Closing Thoughts
2
1
8/29/2012
Socioemotional Development
Fact or Fiction?
Fiction
Fact
1. Infant fear, as expressed in stranger
wariness, signals abnormal behavior.
2. In part because of inborn temperamental
characteristics, some children are more
difficult to raise and harder to live with.
3. Attachment patterns established in
infancy almost never change.
4. High-quality day care, even during the infant’s first
year, does not lead to negative developmental outcomes.
3
Specific Emotions
How do infants express emotions?
Happy or Content
Angry or Sad
4-8 months – anger
Angry – healthy response to
frustration
6 weeks – social smile
3 months- laughter; curiosity
4 months – full, responsive
smiles
Sadness – indicates
withdrawal
Fearful
9-14 months – with strangers
(stranger wariness; separation
anxiety)
12 months – fear of
unexpected sights and sounds
Click to play video:
Stranger Fear
Pride or Shame
18 months—self-awareness;
pride; shame; embarrassment
Infant Emotions
Click to play video:
Separation Anxiety
Click to play video:
The Emergence of Empathy
4
2
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Self-Awareness
How do younger and older infants react to the “rouge test”?
self-awareness:
Realization that
one is a distinct
individual.
9 months
baby
20 months
baby
5
Temperament
temperament: Inborn differences between one person
and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation.
Do Babies’ Temperaments Change?
Inhibited (fearful) at 4 months and…
Fearful at 9,14,24
and 48 months
Variable (sometimes
fearful, sometimes not)
Fearful
(every later time)
42%
Positive
(every later time)
12%
44%
Positive (exuberant) at 4 months and…
5%
15%
80%
Positive at 9,14,24
and 48 months
Variable (sometimes
fearful, sometimes not)
6
3
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Psychoanalytical Theory
What are the two main psychoanalytical
views of stages in infancy?
Sexual interest and
pleasure expressed
first in the oral stage,
then the anal stage!
Sigmund Freud
Developmental
crises involve trust
versus mistrust,
followed by
autonomy versus
shame and doubt!
Erik Erikson
7
Behaviorism
social learning: Learning by observing others—both what
they do and how other people react to their behavior.
How do children learn aggression?
Experimental
Group
Watched
model act
aggressively
toward doll
Experienced
frustration
Was placed
in room
with doll
Displayed highly
aggressive behavior
imitating model’s actions
Control
Group
Did not
watch the
model
Experienced
frustration
Was placed
in room
with doll
Displayed less aggression,
mainly limited to
punching doll with fists
8
4
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Cognitive Theory
working model: In cognitive theory, a set of
assumptions that the individual uses to organize
perceptions and experiences.
How do early relationships help form a person’s later assumptions?
9
Sociocultural Theory
proximal parenting: Caregiving practices that involve being physically close
to a baby, with frequent holding and touching.
distal parenting: Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from a
baby, providing toys, food, and face-to-face communication with minimal
holding and touching.
How does infant behavior in rural Cameroon and urban Greece compare?
INFANTS IN RURAL CAMEROON AND URBAN GREECE
Cameroon
Athens, Greece
100%
31%
3%
40%
Self-recognition
3%
68%
Immediate compliance with request
72%
2%
I.Infant—mother play at 3 months
Percent of time held by mother
Percent of time playing with objects
I.Toddler behavior at 18 months
Source: Adapted from Keller et al., 2004
10
5
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Synchrony
synchrony: A coordinated,
rapid, and smooth exchange
of responses between a
caregiver and an infant.
How do infants learn of
others’ emotions?
11
Attachment
attachment: According to Ainsworth, an affectional
tie that an infant forms with a caregiver.
What are patterns of infant attachment?
PATTERNS OF INFANT ATTACHMENT
Type
Name of Pattern
In Play Room
Mother Leaves
Mother Returns
Toddlers in
Category (%)
A
Insecure-avoidant
Child plays happily
Child continues
playing
Child ignores her
10-20
B
Secure
Child plays happily
Child pauses, is not
as happy
Child welcomes her,
returns to play
50-70
C
Insecureresistant/ambivalent
Child clings, is
preoccupied with
mother
Child is unhappy,
may stop playing
Child is angry; may
cry, hit mother, cling
10-20
D
Disorganized
Child is cautious
Child may stare or
yell; looks scared,
confused
Child acts oddly—may
scream, hit self,
throw things
5-10
12
6
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Social Referencing
social referencing: Seeking
information about how to
react to an unfamiliar or
ambiguous object or event
by observing someone else’s
expressions and reactions.
13
Infant Day Care
center day care: Child care that occurs in a place especially designed
for the purpose, where several paid adults care for many children.
How much do different countries use center-based care for infants?
Most use of centerbased infant care
In-between use of
center-based infant care
Less use of centerbased infant care
China
Central America
Latin America
Sweden
India
North America
Israel
France
Ethiopia
14
7
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Closing Thoughts
If you were to give advice to a friend with a newborn,
what would you tell him about the keys to creating a
strong social bond with his infant?
15
8
How do smiles, tears, anger, and fear change from
birth to age 2?
Does a baby’s temperament predict lifelong
personality?
What are the signs of a secure attachment between
parent and infant?
What are opposing theories about the development
of infant emotions?
Do babies benefit or suffer when they are placed in
infant day care?
Emotional
Development: Infant
Emotions
Early emotions
COURTESY OF KATHLEEN BERGER
• High emotional
responsiveness
• Reactive pain and pleasure to
complex social awareness
Smiling and laughing
Now Happy Asa
How does a crying baby become
a happy toddler? A clue is here:
devoted father and grandfather.
• Social smile (6 weeks):
Evoked by viewing human
faces
• Laughter (3 to 4 months):
Often associated with
curiosity
Infant Emotional Development
Anger
First expressed at around 6 months
Is healthy response to frustration
Sadness
Appears in first months
Indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by
increased production of cortisol
Is stressful experience for infants
Infant Emotional Development
Fear
Emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situations
Stranger wariness
Seem as infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks
frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close
Separation anxiety
Tears, dismay, or anger occur when a familiar caregiver leaves
If it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional
disorder
Ages When Emotions Emerge
Birth
6 weeks
3 months
4 months
4–8 months
Distress; contentment
Social smile
Laughter; curiosity
Full, responsive smiles
Anger
Fear of social events (strangers,
9–14 months
separation from caregiver)
12 months
Fear of unexpected sights and sounds
Self-awareness; pride; shame;
18 months
embarrassment
Toddler Emotional Development
Toddlers emotions
• Anger and fear become less frequent and more focused.
• Laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating.
• Temper tantrums may appear.
New emotions





Pride
Shame
Embarrassment
Disgust
Guilt
Emotional Development
Self-awareness
First 4 months
•Person’s realization
that he or she is a
distinct individual
whose body, mind,
and actions are
separate from those
of other people.
•Infants have no sense of self and may
see themselves as part of their mothers.
5 months
•Infants begin to develop an awareness
of themselves as separate from their
mothers.
15-18 months
•Emergence of the Me-self
•Sense of self as the “object of one’s
knowledge”
Emotional
Development
Mirror Recognition
MACMILLAN EDUCATION ARCHIVE
•Classic experiment (M. Lewis &
Brooks, 1978)
Who Is That?
•Babies aged 9–24 months
looked into a mirror after a dot of
rouge had been put on their
noses.
•None of the babies younger than
12 months old reacted as if they
knew the mark was on them.
•15- to 24-month-olds showed
self-awareness by touching their
own noses with curiosity.
Brain and Emotions
Experience and culture
Promote specific connections between neurons
and emotions
Shape functional anatomy of self-representation
Emotional social impulses
Directly connected to maturation of the anterior
cingulate gyrus and other parts of limbic system
Related to development of preferences for specific
others
Brain and Emotions
Learning about others: Social smile at 2
months
Every experience activates and and prunes
neurons; firing patterns from one axon to dendrite
reflect past learning
Research indicates that social anxiety has genetic
and environmental influences
Brain Maturation and the Emotions
Stress
Impairs brain particularly in areas associated with
emotions
In highly stressful environment, babies (at 7
months) have higher cortisol levels in relation to
challenges (Mills-Koonce and colleagues)
Synesthesia
Occurs when one sense triggers another in brain
Cross-modal perception more common in infants; may
be basis for early social understanding
Emotional Development: Temperament
Temperament
Inborn differences between one person and another
in emotions, activity, and self-regulation
Temperament is epigenetic, originating in the genes
but influenced by environmental influences and
practices
New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS)
Started in the 1960s
Found 4 categories of temperament
Emotional Development: Temperament
Longitudinal study of infant temperament (Fox
et al., 2001)
Grouped 4-month-olds into three distinct types based on
responses to fearful stimulation
• Positive (exuberant)
• Negative
• Inhibited (fearful)
Less than half altered their responses as they grew older
• Fearful infants were most likely to change
• Exuberant infants were least likely to change
• Maturation and child rearing has effect on inborn
temperament
Emotional Development: Temperament
Do Babies’ Temperaments Change?
Sometimes.
Emotional Development: Goodness of Fit
Goodness of fit
–Similarity of temperament and values that produces a
smooth interaction between an individual and his or her
social context, including family, school, and community.
Big Five dimensions of personality
–Childhood temperament is linked to parent genes and
personality
–Personality often assessed using five dimensions
Do you know what these are?
Development of Social Bonds
Synchrony
Coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of
responses between a caregiver and an infant
Synchrony in the first few months
Becomes more frequent and elaborate
Helps infants learn to read others’ emotions
and to develop the skills of social interaction
Usually begins with parents imitating infants
Is Synchrony Needed for Normal
Development?
Experiments using the still-face technique
Experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her
face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face
interaction with an infant
Babies are very upset by the still face and show signs of
stress.
Conclusions
Parent’s responsiveness to an infant aids psychological
and biological development.
Infants’ brains need social interaction to develop to their
fullest.
Development of Social Bonds
Attachment
Involves lasting emotional bond that one person
has with another
Begins to form in early infancy and influence a
person’s close relationships throughout life
Overtakes synchrony
Demonstrated through proximity-seeking and
contact-maintaining
Development of Social Bonds: Stages of
Attachment
Birth to 6 weeks
Preattachment. Newborns signal, via crying and body movements, that they
need others. When people respond positively, the newborn is comforted and
learns to seek more interaction. Newborns are also primed by brain patterns
to recognize familiar voices and faces.
6 weeks to 8
months
Attachment in the making. Infants respond preferentially to familiar people by
smiling, laughing, babbling. Their caregivers’ voices, touch, expressions, and
gestures are comforting, often overriding the infant’s impulse to cry. Trust
(Erikson) develops.
Classic secure attachment. Infants greet the primary caregiver, play happily
when he or she is present, show separation anxiety when the caregiver
8 months to 2 years leaves. Both infant and caregiver seek to be close to each other (proximity)
and frequently look at each other (contact). In many caregiver–infant pairs,
physical touch (patting, holding, caressing) is frequent.
2 to 6 years
Attachment as launching pad. Young children seek their caregiver’s praise
and reassurance as their social world expands. Interactive conversations and
games (hide-and-seek, object play, reading, pretending) are common.
Children expect caregivers to comfort and entertain.
Development of Social Bonds: Stages of
Attachment
Cultural attachment. Children seek to make their caregivers proud by
learning whatever adults want them to learn, and adults reciprocate. In
6 to 12 years concrete operational thought (Piaget), specific accomplishments are
valued by adults and children. Children develop loyalty to family,
community, nation.
12 to 18
years
New attachment figures. Teenagers explore and make friendships
independent from parents, using their working models of earlier
attachments as a base. With formal operational thinking (Piaget),
shared ideals and goals become influential.
18 years on
Attachment reinvented. Adults develop relationships with others,
especially relationships with romantic partners and their own children,
influenced by earlier attachment patterns. Past insecure attachments
from childhood can be repaired rather than repeated, although this
does not always happen.
Development of Social Bonds: Attachment
Types
Secure attachment
A relationship (type B) in which infant obtains both
comfort and confidence from the presence of his or
her caregiver.
Insecure-avoidant attachment
A pattern of attachment (type A) in which infant
avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the
infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s
presence, departure, or return.
Development of Social Bonds: Attachment
Types
Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment
A pattern of attachment (type C) in which anxiety
and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant
becomes very upset at separation from the
caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on
reunion.
Disorganized attachment
A type of attachment (type D) that is marked by an
infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s
departure and return.
Development of Social Bonds: Patterns of
Attachment
Type
Name of Pattern
In Play Room
Mother Leaves
Mother Returns
Toddlers in
Category (%)
A
Insecure-avoidant

Child plays
happily.
Child continues
playing.
Child ignores
her.
10–20
B
Secure
Child plays
happily.
Child pauses, is
not as happy.
Child
welcomes her, 50–70
returns to play.
C
Child clings, is
Insecure-resistant/
Child is unhappy,
preoccupied with
ambivalent
may stop playing.
mother.
D
Disorganized
Child is angry;
may cry, hit
mother, cling.
Child acts
Child may stare or oddly—may
Child is cautious. yell; looks scared, scream, hit
confused.
self, throw
things.
10–20
5–10
Development of Social Bonds: Measuring
Attachment
Strange Situation
A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by
evoking infants’ reactions to the stress of various
adults’ comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom.
Key observed behaviors
Exploration of the toys. A secure toddler plays happily.
Reaction to the caregiver’s departure. A secure toddler
misses the caregiver.
Reaction to the caregiver’s return. A secure toddler
welcomes the caregiver’s reappearance.
Development of Social Bonds: Insecure
Attachment and Social Setting
Findings
Harsh contexts, especially the stresses of poverty, reduce the
incidence of secure attachment.
Insecure attachment correlates with many later problems.
Cautions
Insecure attachment may be a sign but may not be the
direct cause of those problems.
Attachment behaviors in the Strange Situation constitute
only one indication of the quality of the parent–child
relationship.
Correlation is not causation!
When Attachment Isn’t There
The DSM-5 includes a new diagnostic
category for attachment.
Reactive attachment disorder recognizes
that some children never form an
attachment at all, even an insecure one.
Development of Social Bonds: Insights from
Romania
•In early 1990s, thousands of children were
adopted from Romanian orphanages. Many of
these children displayed adverse outcomes.
•Research on them confirms that early
experience, not genetics, is their main
problem.
Agree or disagree? Why?
Development of Social Bonds: Social
Referencing
Social referencing
• Seeking emotional responses or information
from other people
• Observing someone else’s expressions and
reactions and using the other person as a social
reference
• Utilizing referencing in constant and selective
ways
Development of Social Bonds: Social
Referencing
Parental social referencing
• Mothers use a variety of expressions,
vocalizations, and gestures to convey social
information to their infants.
• Synchrony, attachment, and social referencing
are all apparent with fathers, sometimes even
more than with mothers.
Infant Day Care
Proportion of infants in nonrelative care
varies markedly from nation to nation.
Involvement of relatives other than mothers varies.
Worldwide, fathers are increasingly involved in
infant care but this varies by culture.
Paid leave for mother and fathers (and
grandmothers!) varies by nations.
In the U.S., paid leave varies by states and
employers.
Theories of Infant Psychosocial
Development
Psychoanalytic Theory
Freud: Oral and anal stages
Oral stage (first year)
Anal stage (second year)
Potential conflicts
Oral fixation
Anal personality (disputed by current developmentalists)
Theories of Infant
Psychosocial
Development
Psychosocial Theory
Erikson: Trust and
autonomy stages
Trust versus mistrust
– Infants learn basic trust if the
world is a secure place where
their basic needs are met
Autonomy versus shame
and doubt
– Toddlers either succeed or fail
in gaining a sense of self-rule
over their actions and their
bodies
Theories of Infant Psychosocial
Development
Cognitive Theory
Working model: Set of assumptions that the
individual uses to organize perceptions and
experiences
•A person might assume that other people are trustworthy
and be surprised by evidence that this working model of
human behavior is erroneous.
•The child’s interpretation of early experiences is more
important than the experiences themselves.
•New working models can be developed based on new
experiences or reinterpretation of previous experiences.
BILL BACHMANN/DANITADELIMONT.COM
Theories of Infant
Psychosocial
Development
Stranger Danger
Some parents teach their children to be
respectful of any adult; others teach
them to fear any stranger.
Sociocultural theory
Infant emotional
development shaped by
entire social and cultural
context
Ethnotheories
Theory underlying values
and practices of a culture
but is not usually apparent
to the people within the
culture
Personal theories
Theories arising from family
and personal history
Theories of Infant Psychosocial
Development
Proximal parenting
Caregiving practices that involve being physically
close to the baby, with frequent holding and
touching
Distal parenting
Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant
from the baby, providing toys, food, and face-toface communication with minimal holding and
touching
Proximal and Distal Parenting
Research findings (Keller and
colleagues)
• Notable cultural difference exi …
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