1. Pick a famous leader from the past 150 years that can
also be described as a teacher. Which of the five types of teacher/leaders
presented in the text do you think best describes this person’s style (shaman,
priest, elected leader, missionary, or mystic healer)? Provide examples to
support your decision.
2. Manning and Curtis list four major types of change that
affect the workplace: Structure, Tasks, Technology, and People. Research and
describe an example of each type of change and explain, as a leader, what
actions you would take to make each transition easier for employees to cope
3. How can you recognize if an employee is experiencing
burnout, and what are some steps you can take to help that person recover?
Next, describe a program you would consider implementing into the workplace to
prevent future burnout.
4. In “The One Minute Manager,” Blanchard and Johnson
describe three secrets to leadership success: one-minute goal setting,
one-minute praising, and one-minute reprimand. Explain each in your own words
and describe how you would incorporate them into your leadership style.
a. One-minute goal setting
b. One-minute praising
c. One-minute reprimand
*Note: Please answer each question with a minimum of 250
word-count. Use APA format to include in-text citations and a reference page.
Attached is a material you can use for more references, remember to use in-text
citation if you use the material. Let me know if you have any questions or
comments thank you.
Unformatted Attachment Preview
16. The Leader as Coach
17. Helping People through Change
THE BEST WAY OF EDUCATING PRINCES is to teach them to become intimate with
all sorts and conditions of men. Their commonest handicap is that they do not
T are always masked in their company because they are
know their people. People
, many subjects, but no real people. Hence, bad choice of
the masters. They meet
favorites and ministers that dims the fame of kings and ruins their subjects. Teach
a prince to be sober, S
chaste, pious, generous, and you will teach him how to love
his people and his kingly
H dignity; and you will implant in him every virtue at the
—Marquis of Vauvenargues, 1715–1747
Maxims and Reflections of Luc de Clapiers
After studying Part 9Eight, you will be able to:
• Describe the role 3of the leader as coach and developer of people.
B conducive to growth.
• Identify the conditions
U can help people through change, including the impor• Know how a leader
tance of attitude and personal example.
• Identify where you are in the burnout process, including steps that can be
taken for emergency, short-term, and long-term aid.
• Identify the characteristics of a hardy personality.
• Determine your level of adaptive capacity. Are you a stress-resistant
The Leader as Coach
he Native American totem for
R teacher is Wolf. As the moon rises every night, Wolf
always finds something new to learn from it. Leaders, too, in exploring life may
discover new truths to shareI with the rest of the clan, the human race. How does a
leader show concern for others? An
Gimportant way is by taking interest in people and by
helping them grow to their full potential. The signs of caring leadership appear primarily
H engaged in their work and striving to do their
among the followers. Are the followers
best? Are they learning and growing
T in knowledge, skill, and attitude?1
Many leaders view developing others as the most relevant and rewarding of all
, levels of responsibility—chief executive, middle
their tasks. Effective leaders at all
manager, and frontline supervisor—are aware that the failure experienced by Roger
in the following story can occur in the adult world of work as well.
When Roger was first observed in the classroom, he was beginning to fail and
to feel defeated, but he was R
trying. When the observers walked in, he was listening with obvious interest Y
to a story his teacher was reading. He sat quietly
for at least 15 minutes. After the story, the teacher wrote some letters of the
alphabet on the blackboard and requested that the children copy them on a
2 Roger picked up the crayon and looked at his
sheet of paper she passed out.
neighbor’s paper to see what7he was supposed to do; he then started to write.
The teacher moved over to him, took the crayon out of his hand, and said
firmly and with minor irritation, “Not a crayon, Roger; use a pencil.”
Roger glanced at the little3girl on his right, in obvious embarrassment. He
wanted her to like him. He B
turned back to the teacher and said in a small
voice, “I don’t have a pencil.” The teacher turned to the class and announced,
“Some of us are not prepared. Who has a pencil to lend Roger?” Another
child, eager to please the teacher, moved over to Roger and handed him a
pencil. Roger was looking at the floor in embarrassment, but managed to
thank him. In a few moments he again tried to find out how to do the assigned task. He watched his neighbor, but the child turned to him and said angrily, “Stop looking. Do your own stuff.”
Finding no answer to his dilemma, Roger decided to escape by going up to
sharpen his pencil. Another child was ahead of him, so Roger waited patiently
for his turn. His smallness in comparison to the other children was very evident. Two other children came to sharpen their pencils and pushed Roger
16 / The Leader as Coach
aside. He allowed the intrusion, because what can be done when others are so
much bigger and aggressive? Another child came up and also attempted to
push Roger aside. Anger flooded over his face. He had to show them that he
had importance too. He attempted to push the intruder away saying, “It’s my
turn.” The teacher noticed Roger pushing and said angrily, “Roger, take your
seat, immediately.” The teacher then glanced over at the observers, grimaced
with distaste, and shook her head. She was sure that they shared insight into
Roger walked dejectedly back to his seat. After a few moments of depressed
staring at his paper, he leaned toward the girl on his left and whispered desperately, “How do you do it?” The girl frowned and said, “Shh-h,” and hit him
on the head with her pencil.
The teacher noticed difficulty again and assuming that Roger was responsible (after all, he isW
such a problem), said in exasperation, “Roger, will you
please pay attention
Rto your paper!”
Roger glanced around the room to see if everyone else was looking at him.
He stared down at his shoe, his face red. He could have been saying, “What’s
G can’t I do anything right? Why does everyone hate me?”
wrong with me? Why
He still wanted to try;
H he had not reached the place where complete failure
and hostility had taken over. Therefore, he attempted to do something about
the hated paper before him. He made some marks; then, as though talking to
himself, he said, “Is,this good?” He glanced over at the paper of the boy on his
right. As if in answer to his own question, he said, “Oh, ugh. Look at his.” He
wanted to think somebody was doing worse than he was. The boy stuck out
his tongue at him, and Roger turned listlessly back to his paper.
The teacher wasHcoming up the aisle again and paused at Roger’s seat.
“Roger, we are not E
writing our names, we are just practicing M’s.” She hurried
over to the blackboard without showing him what to do and started moving
through the next lesson. Several more letters were presented. Roger became
restless. He didn’t understand.
He wiggled in his seat and then stood up. The
children began to practice
the letters again. Roger became very frustrated as
he found he was unable to form them. He let his paper fall to the floor.
“Pass your papers to the end of the table,” the teacher said. “Roger, get
2 little girl next to him, “Roger, I’m telling. We have to pass
your paper,” said the
them down.” The angry
7 voice of the teacher was once again heard. “Roger,
get your paper off the floor.” Roger complied, but he hit the paper with his
9 it. It was no good. He felt bad. He didn’t want anyone
pencil. He didn’t like
else to see it.
The teacher gave
Ball the children another piece of paper to continue the
letter-making practice. Roger somehow found new determination and tried
again. He followedU
the teacher’s movements in the air, whispering to himself
in concentration. The angry little girl leaned over to him and said, “Shh-h,”
and hit him on the head with her pencil again. Roger wanted her to like him,
so he did nothing. But his frustration had to be expressed. He zoomed his
pencil in the air, making a quiet airplane noise. He forgot the task. The
teacher scolded him again and wearily exhorted him to pay attention.
The observation lasted only one hour. What happens over time to such a
person, who experiences hour after hour of failure? Two months after the initial observation, Roger refused to try any learning task. He often crawled on
the floor like an animal, making odd noises. He could not sit still for more than
8 / Developing Others
five minutes, and he hit his peers and yelled at them. His teacher became frantic.
His mother was so worried that she came to school often and peered through
the window of the schoolroom door. “He cries every day about school. He says
everyone hates him,” she explained.
Failure and a particular kind of punishment had distorted Roger. In many
schools where administrators and teachers are unaware of the seriousness of
allowing a child to fail or of using aversive techniques to change behavior, they
still ask about such a child, “Why did it happen?” “Probably the parents,” the
accusing answer echoes down the school halls.2
Effective leaders know that Roger’s
W failure wasn’t necessary, that preventing such
failure is important, and that their own ability to coach is often the key. It is a proven
R help bring about failure. Conversely, expectation
fact that expectation of failure can
of success can help bring about Isuccess. Children have been found to score from
two to three points higher when an IQ test is administered by a teacher who conveys
G the same test is given by a teacher who does not
expectation for success than when
convey high expectations. This phenomenon
is called the Pygmalion effect.3
Eugene Krantz, NASA Flight Director of Apollo 13, describes the role of the
Pygmalion effect in the world ofTwork. Expecting high performance is prerequisite to
its achievement among those who
, work with you. Your high standards and optimistic
anticipations will not guarantee a favorable outcome, but their absence will assuredly
create the opposite.4 Closely related to Pygmalion is the Galatea effect, when an individual’s high self-expectation S
leads to high performance.5
The role of positive expectations and the strength of the self-fulfilling prophecy
has been widely supported in the workplace. Research by J. Sterling Livingston
confirmed and popularized the concept.
A meta-analysis of 17 studies involving
3,000 employees shows the positive
of beliefs to influence results, including
employees considered by management, and by themselves, to have low expectations.6
It should be noted that the self-fulfilling
prophecy works in the negative direction
as well. Low expectation of success
to poor performance is known as the
Leadership author and educator John Gardner explains the importance of the
leader as teacher and developer of
If one is leading, teaching, dealing with
7 young people or engaged in any other activity that
involves influencing, directing, guiding, helping or nurturing, the whole tone of the relationship
9 possibilities. That is the generative element, the source
is conditioned by one’s faith in human
of the current that gives life to the relationship.8
How do high-performance companies
like Great American Insurance, Google,
and others capitalize on the power of the Pygmalion and Galatea effects? Management
U task is accomplished by using combinations of the
educator Jeff Walter explains—the
following: (1) Treat all employees like top draft choices—expect success; (2) recognize that everyone has the potential to increase performance; (3) set high performance “stretch goals”; (4) provide the input and resources needed to achieve success;
(5) provide constructive feedback and redirection when necessary; and (6) reward
employees for hard work, dedication, team work, and jobs well done.9
The Development of Others
Motivation expert Zig Ziglar once observed that he had read a lot of birth announcements, all of them indicating that the newborn was a boy or a girl. None of them
announced the arrival of a farmer, a doctor, an engineer, or a member of any other
16 / The Leader as Coach
profession. There is an old saying—“If you ever see a turtle on a fence post, you
know it didn’t get there by itself.” So it is with people: Performers in every field are
developed, not born. Effective leaders recognize the importance of developing people. Like the productive farmer who plants good seeds and cares for them properly,
effective leaders view developing others as an essential key to success.
Leading is like coaching in many ways. In basketball, for example, the coach
cannot cross the line and move onto the playing court. She works in advance of
playing time and on the side of the action. Before the game, she prepares her
players by anticipating the problems they will face and by readying them to meet
those problems. She trains, advises, and encourages, but she never touches the
ball. The coach cannot do the players’ work for them. Instead, she is a mentor
The leader as teacher is a concept that has been with us for centuries. The term
mentor is derived from The Odyssey, in which Homer describes Ulysses as choosing
his trusted friend, Mentor, to look after his son, Telemachus, as Ulysses begins his
Wgives Telemachus good counsel, and he cares for and protects
10-year journey. Mentor
him as his teacher. These
R attributes have been central to our modern concept of
mentoring in the workplace.11
Just as there is no single
H best way to lead, there is no one best way to develop others.
Each leader brings unique personal experiences and talent to the task. The following
list describes five typesTof coaches/leaders.12 Keep in mind that not all types are
appropriate for all learners
, in all circumstances.
Shamans heal through the use of personal power. They focus the attention of their
followers on themselves. When this approach is combined with unusual gifts and
skills, shamans are charismatic. They have power, energy, and commitment that
they use to energizeHothers.
Priests claim powerEthrough office. They are agents of omnipotent authority, and
the people who follow them are taught to see themselves as set apart from others.
R order, and continuity—a past program and a plan for
Priests establish structure,
the immediate and distant
R future. Priests operate in a hierarchy with roles and
duties in a hierarchical ladder.
Elected leaders undergo trials, self-transformation, training, or some other rite to
achieve their positions. Elected leaders derive power not only from their own
experience, but also2from the mandate of their followers. Consent of followers
constitutes much of the power of these coaches/leaders.
Missionaries are goal-directed. Usually, missions involve a utopian view of the
9 for achieving reforms. Missionaries teach out of personal
future and a program
3 in certain ideals and seeing it as a duty to pass on these
ideals to others.
Mystic healers seek the source of illness and health in the follower’s personality.
Udiscover the statue in the marble and seek, like Michelangelo,
Mystic healers try to
to find what can be created from the raw material. To be successful, these
coaches/leaders require unselfish motivation and considerable sensitivity, as
well as flexibility to vary treatment according to the nature and needs of each
Much of contemporary leading and coaching incorporates the priestly, elected, and
missionary types. The priest brings continuity and hierarchy to the task, as power is
delegated by the most powerful, and people at each level, division, or unit are
differentiated from others. The elected leader gains authority by election, and
followership is by consent of the governed. Missionaries can be found in many
organizations that have some kind of central mission—economic, religious, political,
social service, or other. Shamans and mystic healers may or may not operate within
8 / Developing Others
the bounds or the dictates of an organization. Their approach to developing others
tends to be individualistic and personalized.
Like pine trees that are stunted if they grow near the timberline, more fully
developed if they grow farther down the mountainside, and tall and green if they
grow in the valley, people also experience maximum development under certain
Personal conditions conducive to growth are the following:13
People grow when there is a felt need.
People grow when they are encouraged by someone they respect.
People grow when their plans move from general goals to specific actions.
People grow as they move from a condition of lower to higher self-esteem.
People grow as they move from
Wexternal to internal commitment.
Organizational conditions conducive
to growth are the following:14
1. Basic respect for the worth and
I dignity of all people is a cardinal value.
2. Individual differences are recognized,
and a variety of learning experiences are
3. Each person is addressed at his or her level of development and is helped to grow
to fuller potential.
4. Good communications prevail—people
express themselves honestly and listen
with respect to the views of others.
5. Growth is rewarded through recognition and tangible signs of approval—
commendation, promotion, income,
and the like.
The learning organization is aHfamiliar term for successful leaders and companies.
Learning organizations use six ingredients
to discover, create, and transfer knowledge
and skills: (1) They search constantly for new knowledge and ways to apply it; (2) they
carefully review both successes and failures; (3) they benchmark and implement best
practices; (4) they share lessons learned;
(5) they reward innovation; (6) experienced
and new employees learn together.
Principles to follow in developing others include the following:
1. Have a respectful attitude. Deep inside each person is the desire to achieve
something, to be somebody. If you
2 tap into that desire and demonstrate that you
believe in the person, self-respect can be ignited. Ultimately, it is self-respect that
7 agrees with W. B. Yeats, who said: “Education is
fuels success. The effective leader
not the filling of a pail, but the lighting
of a fire.”16 Consider the story of the banker
and the beggar:
There was a banker who would regularly drop a coin in a beggar’s cup. Unlike
most people, the banker would insist on receiving one of the pencils the beggar had with him. The banker would say, “You are a merchant, and I always
expect to receive good value from the merchants with whom I do business.”
One day the beggar was gone. Some years later, the banker walked by a
concession stand, and there was the former beggar, now a shopkeeper. The
shopkeeper said, “I always hoped you might come by some day. You are
largely responsible for me being here. You kept telling me that I was a merchant. I started thinking of myself that way. Instead of a beggar receiving gifts,
I started selling pencils, lots of them. You gave me self-respect and caused me
to look at myself differently.”17
16 / The Leader as Coach
2. Build self-esteem. The importance of developing self-esteem can be seen in the
Thomas J. Watson, Jr. (1914–1993), son of the founder of IBM, initially had
trouble living up to his father’s charisma and achievements. Watson Sr. was
one of the great entrepreneurs of the 20th century. He put IBM on the map
and gave the world the motto THINK. In contrast, Watson Jr. even needed a
tutor to get through the IBM sales school. “I had no distinctions, no successes,”
he writes in Father, Son & Company.
When Watson started taking flying lessons, however, something important
happened. “What a feeling,” he says. “I was good at flying, instantly good.
I poured everything I had into this activity and gained a lot of personal selfconfidence.” This small success led to greater successes. Watson became an
officer in the U.S. W
Air Force during WWII. It was in the Air Force that he
discovered he …
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