GED108 Environmental Science – 100 Multiple Choice Questions

  

Answer 100 multiple choice question study guide for environmental science final. Answer must be accurate. Please simply highlight correct answers in the the attached PDF.
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GED 108 Environmental Science
Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)
1) The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment primarily characterized human impact on:
A)
B)
C)
D)
atmospheric carbon dioxide levels
degradation of the ozone layer
ecosystem services
plate tectonics
2) The Fourth Assessment Report, released in 2007 concluded that global climate change is
caused at least in part by the:
A) human use of fossil fuels to generate electricity and power engines
B) human use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration systems
C) harvesting of millions of acres of corn, wheat, and soybeans around the world every
year
D) depletion of groundwater supplies
3) Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contributes to global warming by:
A)
B)
C)
D)
transmitting visible light and absorbing infrared radiation
transmitting infrared radiation and absorbing visible light
transmitting infrared radiation and visible light
absorbing infrared radiation and visible light
4) The Doha Round of WTO meetings have failed to reach agreement about:
A)
B)
C)
D)
currency exchange
converting the economies of developed nation from green to brown
farm subsidies and trade barriers
how to control public protests at future WTO meetings
5) The classical economic paradigm and the new ecological economic paradigm differ in the way
that:
A) each views the land, either as a resource within the human economy (classical) or as
something that encompasses the economy (ecological)
B) the value of capital is assessed, either in dollars (classical) or as resources that can
be mined from the Earth (ecological)
C) labor is determined, either as the number of people who are unemployed, not
counting farmers (classical), or the number of people who are unemployed counting
farmers (ecological)
D) labor and capital are assessed, either counting the total labor and capital resources
available (classical) or that which is in use in operations (ecological)
GED 108 Environmental Science
6) The ecological economic paradigm argues that the environment encompasses the economy
because the environment is essential to provide:
A)
B)
C)
D)
the energy necessary to run our homes and factories.
solar energy needed for plants and to light our environment during the day.
transportation along highways, railways, rivers, and oceans.
vital raw materials and ecosystem services and absorb wastes.
7) The ecological economists’ view emphasizes the role of:
A)
B)
C)
D)
amount and quality of capital available to industry.
abundance of well-trained, well-educated labor that is available.
natural ecosystems.
public’s understanding of the natural environment.
8) In some deserts, there are mice and lizards that are about the same size. The mice eat grains
and the lizards feed on insects. Given this information, we would expect that the biomass of
the:
A)
B)
C)
D)
lizards would be about the same as the mice.
lizards would be greater than the mice.
mice would be greater than the lizards.
lizards and mice would be about 10 times greater than the organisms that they
consume.
9) Why are there so few ecosystems with more than four levels of consumers?
A) because biomass decreases by about 90% at each trophic level moving up
B) because top consumers compete with and kill each other with increasing population
size
C) because consumers at these highest trophic levels typically form social groups that
stop reproducing at high densities
D) because predators at the highest trophic levels simply are not intelligent enough to
hunt other top predators
10) The information of an energy pyramid reveals that:
A) it is expensive and inefficient to get most of your dietary calories from meats.
B) it is expensive and inefficient to get most of your dietary calories from grains.
C) consumers at lower trophic levels do not have as many calories as consumers at
higher trophic levels.
D) consumers at higher trophic levels are usually more abundant than consumers at
lower trophic levels.
GED 108 Environmental Science
11) Modern civilization and population growth had their origins in which revolution?
A)
B)
C)
D)
Industrial Revolution
Medical Revolution
Green Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
12) More efficient technologies, better urban and regional planning, policy and industrial
changes will be required to drive which revolution?
A)
B)
C)
D)
Industrial Revolution
Medical Revolution
Green Revolution
Environmental Revolution
13) Name the two most recent of the revolutions affecting the global human population.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Green Revolution and Environmental Revolution
Neolithic Revolution and Industrial Revolution
Medical Revolution and Neolithic Revolution
Medical Revolution and Green Revolution
14) The transition from high death rates to low death rates in population is a result of the :
A)
B)
C)
D)
Industrial Revolution.
Medical Revolution.
Green Revolution,
Environmental Revolution.
15) The five main revolutions of human history have all resulted in:
A)
B)
C)
D)
a greater reliance upon fossil fuels.
an increase in human carrying capacity.
a reduction in the spread of disease.
increased need for transportation.
16) Developing countries have increasingly become involved in the integrated global economy
primarily due to:
A)
B)
C)
D)
increased use of vaccinations.
improvements in sewage and sanitation.
constructions of dams and irrigation canals.
increased use of technology.
GED 108 Environmental Science
17) A study is conducted to understand how some developing countries have made social and
economic progress. Which of the following would be a surprising finding in such a study?
A)
B)
C)
D)
decreased fertility rates
increased availability of clean drinking water
decreased support of education
a decline in extreme poverty
18) Which of the following descriptions is most characteristic of the world’s poorest people?
A) On her way to high school, a young girl walks along a path at the edge of a rice field.
B) Filling a pot with clean water from a community water reserve, a mother prepares to
make a meal of rice.
C) A man in his 80s, smoking a cigarette, makes his way to cast a ballot in a
national election.
D) In a large city, a 12 year-old boy sits under a stack of tin he calls home.
19) In general, which of the following would best help to reduce extreme poverty?
A) programs specifically targeted to bring the poorest nations into the development
process
B) international efforts to promote economic growth in countries with the greatest poverty
C) increased development of environmental protection in countries with the greatest
poverty
D) adoption of cultural programs that shift populations from rural to urban locations
20) Distilling salt water to make fresh water relies upon the processes of:
A)
B)
C)
D)
precipitation and infiltration.
transpiration and evaporation.
evaporation and condensation.
condensation and transpiration.
21) Some lakes have river and stream tributaries but no outlet, losing water mainly through
evaporation. Over time, we expect that such lakes will:
A)
B)
C)
D)
increase their fishing productivity.
become deeper.
become saltier.
be good sources of drinking water.
22) Which of the following would we expect on the leeward sides of high mountain ranges?
A)
B)
C)
D)
rainforests
deserts
wetlands
deciduous forests
GED 108 Environmental Science
23) The greatest worldwide use of water is for:
A)
B)
C)
D)
irrigation.
industry.
human consumption.
washing and flushing toilets.
24) The single greatest threat to irrigated agriculture is:
A)
B)
C)
D)
groundwater depletion.
global warming.
flooding.
None of the above
25) We would expect that soil leaching would be most severe in regions where:
A)
B)
C)
D)
there is little rainfall and no irrigation of crops.
in places that are havily irrigated.
mollisols are abundant and farmers rarely plow.
cattle are grazed and natural grasses cover the land.
26) In which of the following agricultural situations are fertilizers least needed?
A)
B)
C)
D)
A pumpkin patch is harvested only in the fall, and the vines remain behind.
1,000 acres of corn are raised and harvested for export from a midwestern farm.
A natural prairie pasture where cattle feed and defecate.
A field where a farmer applies cow manure after harvesting hay.
27) A farm field that has used only inorganic fertilizer for the past 20 years is most likely to
have:
A)
B)
C)
D)
fewer soil organisms and less soil structure but increased nutrient holding capacity.
fewer soil organisms, less soil structure, and decreased nutrient holding capacity.
more soil organisms, more soil structure, and increased nutrient holding capacity.
more soil organisms, less soil structure, and decreased nutrient holding capacity.
28) The charitable organization, Heifer International, uses donations to provide people in
developing nations with farm animals to help feed hungry families. Heifer International is
therefore contributing to:
A)
B)
C)
D)
the Green Revolution.
subsistence farming.
the Industrial Revolution.
high impact farming.
GED 108 Environmental Science
29) Many people in the developing world primarily rely upon a diet of rice. Such a diet, even
with plenty of rice available to meet the daily calorie requirements, runs the risk of:
A)
B)
C)
D)
malnutrition.
overnourishment.
undernourishment.
obesity.
30) Regularly providing food to regions with chronic hunger in developing countries can
aggravate the problem of food supplies by:
A)
B)
C)
D)
changing the types of native foods consumed by the local people.
causing nutritional deficiencies associated with a new type of food.
causing overnourishment and the health problems associated with obesity.
decreasing the local production of food and disrupting the local economy.
31) Even using the best methods for sustainable agriculture, Green Revolution grain crops in
developed nations are ultimately limited by:
A)
B)
C)
D)
weather.
pests.
soil degradation.
problems with transportation and storage.
32) In sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, the major nutritional problems relate to:
A)
B)
C)
D)
inadequate exercise.
malnutrition in pregnant women.
undernourishment of adults.
malnutrition and undernourishment, especially in children.
33) In the past 40 years, pesticide use has tripled yet pests still cause extensive damage to
crops. Why has this increased use of pesticides not been more effective?
A)
B)
C)
D)
The pesticides in use today are much less powerful due to government regulations.
The pesticides available are no longer suited for the most common types of pests.
Increases in ultraviolet radiation and global warming break down pesticides faster.
The widespread use of pesticides has resulted in the evolution of pesticide resistant
pests
GED 108 Environmental Science
34) The goals of biotechnology currently include:
A)
B)
C)
D)
growing crops that are more resistant to drought and disease.
producing greater crop yields in plants that can grow without water.
altering plants to increase the production of coal.
creating plants that do not need sunlight to grow.
35) As demands for electricity push the limits of existing electric-power-generating plants in the
United States, when is it most likely that a brown-out or blackout will disrupt electricity to
your home computer?
A)
B)
C)
D)
during a weekend in the winter
during a weekday in the winter
during a weekend in the summer
during a weekday in the summer
36) A blackout like the eight-state blackout of 2003 could be prevented by:
A)
B)
C)
D)
using energy efficient lights in most businesses.
a self-healing smart electrical grid.
switching from coal to natural gas for electrical generation.
greater use of electricity during the work week instead of weekends.
37) Fossil fuels represent:
A) a large amount of paleozoic and mesozoic biomass buried anaerobically millions of
years ago.
B) natural deposits of organic materials that formed long before life on Earth evolved.
C) the remains of fossil animals that lived a few thousand years ago.
D) sustainable sources of energy that are underused today.
38) The use of enhanced recovery by an oil company:
A)
B)
C)
D)
primarily depends upon the current market price of oil.
is usually more cost effective than recovering oil using secondary recovery.
has not yet been used because oil reserves remain abundant.
is now routine, as every bit of oil is extracted from all available wells.
39) Currently, the greatest supply of natural gas in the United States is:
A)
B)
C)
D)
associated with petroleum deposits.
in gas-rich shale.
obtained by chemically converting petroleum into methane.
in deposits of coal lying under Arizona and California.
GED 108 Environmental Science
40) The Obama administration has recently revised the CAFE standards affecting fuel economy:
A)
B)
C)
D)
higher mileage four years sooner, in 2016.
higher mileage in the same period, in 2020.
lower mileage in the same period, in 2020.
lower mileage about four years later, in 2024.
41) Nuclear power plants are especially expensive because they:
A)
B)
C)
D)
require the highest levels of security.
usually cost as much to decommission as they did to build.
have so many parts that must be coated in gold.
are constructed of many thick layers of concrete.
42) Over the past 50 years, interest in nuclear power:
A)
B)
C)
D)
rose, decreased, and now is increasing again.
decreased, rose, and now is decreasing again.
has remained high around the world.
was high but then declined and continues to decline worldwide.
43) About 17,000 Russian nuclear warheads have been:
A) stored widely in the former Soviet Union where they remain today with minimal
protection.
B) dismantled, but their nuclear waste remains in Russian facilities with minimal
security.
C) dismantled, with the nuclear fuel purchased by the United States for its nuclear
power plants.
D) concentrated in two centralized Russian locations with high levels of security, awaiting
long-term storage.
44) Looking at the number of nuclear power plants under construction in 2010:
A)
B)
C)
D)
the largest numbers have been in the United States, Canada, and France.
China, the Russian Federation and India are in the lead.
nuclear power is on the way out globally, with coal-fired plants rising steeply.
the IAEA predicts that the current trend will be reversed.
GED 108 Environmental Science
45) Which of the following is a clear advantage in the use of nuclear power instead of fossil
fuels?
A)
B)
C)
D)
Nuclear plants are cheaper to build than power plants that burn fossil fuels.
Nuclear power can be used today to power most forms of public transportation.
Nuclear power contributes less to global climate change.
Nuclear power generates fewer wastes with lower health risks.
46) New buildings that receive the energy star rating are recognized for using:
A)
B)
C)
D)
solar or geothermal for at least 30% of the building’s energy needs.
solar power for at least 50% of the building’s energy needs.
wind power for at least 20% of the building’s energy needs.
40% less energy than other buildings in their class.
47) Photovoltaic cells are commonly used to power:
A)
B)
C)
D)
lawn mowers.
lighthouses.
calculators.
industrial manufacturing.
48) Although they have tremendous advantages, wind turbines:
A)
B)
C)
D)
cause thousands of bird deaths each year.
are known to dry out the soil in the surrounding region.
make the surrounding region unsuitable for farming or ranching.
generate greenhouse gases when producing electricity.
49) Buses and cars using fuel cells are:
A)
B)
C)
D)
not yet possible because the technology to safely store hydrogen is still not resolved.
not yet available because the fuel cell generates unsafe levels of heat.
still inefficient, largely because the fuel cells are large and heavy.
already in use and ready for commercial production.
50) Which one of the following produces the least air pollution?
A)
B)
C)
D)
an automobile burning hydrogen as a fuel
an automobile running on a hydrogen fuel cell
a Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle
a car running on natural gas
GED 108 Environmental Science
51) A tidal barrage would be used to generate electricity:
A)
B)
C)
D)
at the mouth of a bay.
at the bottom of a large lake.
near the tip of an ocean peninsula.
in the open ocean.
52) Some milk becomes contaminated with mercury. If each of the following people consume 16
ounces of this contaminated milk each day for a month, who will most likely be impacted by
this poison?
A)
B)
C)
D)
an 82-year-old woman
a fetus inside a mother who drinks this contaminated milk
a 12-year-old girl
a 51-year-old man
53) In general, countries that enjoy the best health have:
A)
B)
C)
D)
the warmest climates.
diets primarily based on eating grains.
the largest families.
good educational systems, particularly for women.
54) Malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever are most common in:
A)
B)
C)
D)
North America.
Australia and New Zealand.
countries in the tropics.
countries that are located nearest the poles.
55) The most effective antimalarial strategies involve the use of:
A)
B)
C)
D)
DDT, bed nets, and quick access to drug treatment.
DDT, immunization, and the drainage of all standing water in a region.
immunizations, surgery, and a change in diet.
sterilization of mosquitoes, treatment of mosquito breeding sites, and antibiotics.
GED 108 Environmental Science
56) Risk assessment by the EPA currently follows four sequential steps. In order, these are:
A) exposure determination, dose-response determination, hazard control, and risk identification.
B) risk identification, hazard characterization, dose-response determination, and exposure control.
C) hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization.
D) risk characterization, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and hazard
assessment.
57) The EPA’s new Tox-Cast program:
A)
B)
C)
D)
uses enhanced animal testing to screen potentially toxic chemicals.
uses human cells such as stem cells to rapidly screen potentially toxic chemicals.
has initiated media campaigns to alert the public to toxic chemicals.
uses human cancer patients to screen potential allegins in the workplace.
58) The inside of a car or greenhouse would not heat up as much in the presence of sunshine if:
A)
B)
C)
D)
air was circulated within the car or within the greenhouse.
infrared radiation passed through glass as easily as sunlight.
infrared radiation could not pass through glass as easily as sunlight.
sunlight could pass through glass more easily than through air.
59) Global warming is raising sea levels because of:
A)
B)
C)
D)
melting ice and thermal expansion.
ocean basins compressed by continental drift.
greatly increased precipitation.
increased use of irrigation and drainage of wetlands on land.
60) Which one of the following has been declining globally over the past several decades?
A)
B)
C)
D)
nitrous oxide levels in the troposphere
methane levels in the troposphere
mean global temperature
pH of the world’s oceans
61) When generally comparing life in suburban sprawl and life in the inner city, people living in
the inner city:
A)
B)
C)
D)
walk more and shop locally.
have larger homes and better city services.
experience lower crime rates.
enjoy lower-density residential living.
GED 108 Environmental Science
62) Tired of the traffic jams downtown, Roxanne decides that she wants to move out to the
suburbs; then she won’t have to spend so much time in the car. One major problem with
this decision is that on average, people living in suburbs:
A)
B)
C)
D)
have to pay much more money for housing.
spend much more time walking to their destinations.
are faced with higher crime rates that add many more problems.
spend as much time commuting as people living closer to the city.
63) The choices to live in ever-expanding suburbs, despite the costs to society and the
environm …
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