Health and Medical, APA Style essay help ( 2-3 pages)

  

1. Introduction
(25%) Arrange for a brief summary of the meaning (not a description) of
each Chapter and articles you read, in your own words.
2. Your Critique
(50%)
What is your feedback
to the content of the articles?
What did you learn
about the evolution of Health Services in the United States?
What did you learn
about Medical Services in the Preindustrial and Postindustrial era?
How you can apply your new knowledges to Era of Health Care
Reform?
What does the Health Care Administrator need to know about
Health Services Professional?
Did these Chapter and
articles change your thoughts about Issues in Medical Practice, Training and
Supply Medical Practice? If so, how? If not, what remained the same?
3. Conclusion
(15%)
Fleetingly recapitulate
your thoughts & deduction to your assessment of the articles and Chapter
you read.  How did these articles and
Chapters influence your thoughts on the evolution of  US Healthcare system?
Evaluation will be based on how clearly you respond to the
above, in particular:
a) The clarity with which you critique the articles;
b) The depth, scope, and organization of your paper; and,
c) Your conclusions, including a description of the impact
of these articles and Chapters on any Health Care Setting.
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The Occupational Health
Professional’s Services
and Qualifications:
Questions and Answers
U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA 3160
1999 (Revised)
This informational booklet is
intended to provide a generic,
non-exhaustive overview of a
particular standards-related topic.
This publication does not itself
alter or determine compliance
responsibilities, which are set
forth in OSHA standards themselves and the Occupational
Safety and Health Act. Moreover,
because interpretations and
enforcement policy may change
over time, for additional guidance
on OSHA compliance requirements, the reader should consult
current and administrative interpretations and decisions by the
Occupational Safety and Health
Review Commission and the
Courts.
Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and
may be reproduced, fully or
partially, without permission of
the Federal Government. Source
credit is requested but not
required.
This information will be made
available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.
Voice phone: (202) 693-2120;
Occupational Health Professional’s Services and Qualifications: Questions and Answers
The Occupational Health
Professional’s Services
and Qualifications:
Questions and Answers
U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA 3160
1999 (Revised)
Contents
iii
Page
The Occupational Health Professional’s Services
and Qualifications: Questions and Answers …………………. 1
What Issues Should be Considered in Selecting
a Health Care Professional? ………………………………………. 2
What Unique Contributions Can an Occupational
Health Care Professional Make to Workplace Safety
and Health? ……………………………………………………………… 3
Who Are Qualified Occupational Health Care
Professionals? …………………………………………………………..
Physicians ………………………………………………………………
Registered Nurses ……………………………………………………
Physician Assistants ………………………………………………..
Other Health Care Providers……………………………………..
5
5
6
7
7
How Can an Employer Verify the Scope of Practice
for Health Care Professionals in the Licensing State? …..
Medical Doctor ……………………………………………………….
Doctor of Osteopathy……………………………………………….
Registered Nurse and Nurse Practitioner…………………….
Physician Assistant ………………………………………………….
Emergency Medical Technician ………………………………..
Licensed Vocational/Practical Nurse………………………….
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
What Qualifications Should an Employer Look
for in an Occupational Health Care Professional? ………… 10
Is There a Good Way to Evaluate the Qualifications
of an Occupational Health Care Professional? …………….. 11
iv
What Is the Difference Between Occupational Health
Care Professionals and Other Occupational Safety
and Health Professionals …………………………………………… 13
Industrial Hygienists ……………………………………………….. 13
Industrial Engineers ………………………………………………… 14
Safety Professionals ………………………………………………… 14
What OSHA Standards for General Industry Require
Screening and Surveillance or Occupational
Health Services? ………………………………………………………. 15
General Industry Standards ……………………………………… 15
Some OSHA Standards that Require Occupational
Health Services? ………………………………………………… 16
Resources ………………………………………………………………… 17
Medical Doctors …………………………………………………….. 17
Osteopathic Doctors ……………………………………………….. 18
Occupational Health Nurses …………………………………….. 18
Nurse Practitioners …………………………………………………. 18
Registered Nurses …………………………………………………… 18
Physician Assistants ……………………………………………….. 19
Emergency Medical Technicians………………………………. 19
Industrial Hygienists ……………………………………………….. 20
Safety Professionals ………………………………………………… 20
References ………………………………………………………………. 21
Related OSHA Publications ………………………………………… 22
States with Approved Plans ……………………………………….. 23
OSHA Consultation Project Directory…………………………… 27
OSHA Area Offices …………………………………………………….. 29
Occupational Health Professional’s Services and Qualifications: Questions and Answers
The Occupational Health Professional’s
Services and Qualifications: Questions
and Answers
1
Controlling occupational injuries and illnesses and related expenditures is a top priority in most companies. Selecting a qualified
health care professional to participate in the workplace safety and
health activities can be a vital step in this process. The following
questions and answers are to provide guidance and serve as a resource for those considering such a selection.
Occupational Health Professional’s Services and Qualifications: Questions and Answers
2
What Issues Should be Considered in Selecting
a Health Care Professional?
A variety of health care professionals are
available to employers. Selecting an appropriate
provider for the worksite depends on a number of
factors, including:
• The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration’s (OSHA) screening and surveillance requirements for specific substances or
hazards associated with the worksite;
• The number, diversity, size, and seriousness of the hazards
involved at the worksite(s); and
• The level of resources committed to an occupational health
care service as part of a comprehensive safety and health
program; and
• Distance to the closest trauma center or health care facility.
At a minimum, workplace safety and health involves management
support, employee involvement, worksite analysis, hazard prevention
and control, occupational health care management (including screening and surveillance for disease and injury), and training and education.
Qualified occupational health care professionals can assist the
employer in achieving a safe and healthful work environment.
Along with other safety and health professionals, health care professionals work collaboratively with labor and management to:
• Identify potential hazards and to find ways to prevent, eliminate, minimize, or reduce hazards;
• Develop and manage training programs to promote workplace
health and safety; and
• Enhance the accuracy of OSHA recordkeeping.
Occupational Health Professional’s Services and Qualifications: Questions and Answers
What Unique Contributions Can an
Occupational Health Care Professional
Make to Workplace Safety and Health?
3
Health care professionals are uniquely qualified to assess and treat illnesses and injuries.
Health care professionals must have the appropriate licensure, registration, or certification.
Additionally, they should have occupational
health experience and expertise in management
and be available on a full- or part-time basis,
depending on the nature and size of worksite(s).
They may be a permanent employee or hired on a contractual basis.
In addition to working collaboratively with other safety and health
professionals, a qualified health care professional may be selected to:
• Provide screening related to specific chemicals or exposures,
including preplacement (post-offer) physical examinations, job
placement assessments, periodic examinations, and maintenance of confidential employee health records, including
individual screening results.
• Manage and/or treat work-related illnesses and injuries, with
emphasis on early recognition and intervention; make recommendations about work restrictions or removal; and follow up
and monitor workers as they return to work.
• Develop and implement health promotion programs.
• Provide guidance for case management of employees who have
prolonged or complex illnesses and injuries.
For small employers, or those with limited resources, one of
several models for delivering occupational health care at the workplace can be considered. This might involve sharing the services of
health care professionals within a business or industrial park, or
contracting with a larger firm whose occupational health service
includes an occupational health care professional as part of its total
safety and health program. (See References: B. Burgel Innovation
at the Worksite.)
What Unique Contributions Can an Occupational Health Care Professional Make
to Workplace Safety and Health?
4
Health care providers such as licensed practical nurses (LPNs)
and emergency medical technicians/paramedics (EMTs) can augment the services of the physicians or registered nurse. Physician
assistants (PAs) also contribute valuable services.
Whatever health care professional is chosen, the employer should
ensure that the provider has expertise or experience in occupational
health and safety as well as an understanding of occupational illnesses and injuries.
Occupational Health Professional’s Services and Qualifications: Questions and Answers
Who Are Qualified Occupational Health Care
Professionals?
5
Health care professionals qualified to design,
manage, supervise, and deliver health care in
occupational settings include a variety of practitioners. It is imperative, however, that the legal
“scope of practice” unique to each state be considered prior to hiring or contracting for services.
The “scope of practice” refers to the credentials, responsibilities,
and legally authorized practice of health care professionals.
Physicians, physician assistants, and registered nurses, including
nurse practitioners, receive standardized educations with core
curricula (individualized to their profession) necessary to pass
national or state boards and to be licensed in a particular state.
Physicians and registered nurses are then eligible to become
certified in a specialty practice, such as occupational medicine
(physicians and physician assistants) or occupational health
nursing (registered nurses and nurse practitioners), through a
combination of additional specific education and experience.
The additional educational training in occupational health
typically includes course work in epidemiology, toxicology,
industrial hygiene, recognition and management of occupational
illnesses and injuries, research, and general management of a
comprehensive occupational health program.
Physicians
Medical Doctors (MDs) have completed study at the college
level and training at an accredited school. Licensed MDs have
passed the National Medical Board Exam or equivalent examinations and have a license to practice within a given state(s).
Doctors of Osteopathy (DOs) graduate from college and an
osteopathic school approved by the American Osteopathic Association. They must pass a state board examination to qualify for a
license to practice within a given state(s).
Occupational Medicine Physicians are medical doctors or
Who are Qualified Occupational Health Care Professionals?
6
doctors of osteopathy who have completed additional occupational
medicine training or acquired on-site experience. Completion of
additional residency training and further practice in occupational
medicine enables physicians to pursue certification in occupational
medicine after meeting rigorous qualifying standards and successfully completing an examination in occupational medicine given by
the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM).
Registered Nurses
Registered Nurses (RNs) receive training and education at the
college level and graduate from a state-approved school of nursing.
They pass a state board examination and are granted a license to
practice within a given state(s).
Nurse Practitioners (NPs) are registered nurses who are licensed
in their state and have completed formal advanced education, usually
at the master’s level. NPs practice under their state Nurse Practice
Act. Some NPs are certified in occupational health as a specialty
area. NPs independently perform many health evaluation and care
activities—including physical exams, common diagnostic and
laboratory tests—and diagnose and treat employees who are ill or
injured. They also can prescribe medications in most states. Additionally, NPs work collaboratively with physicians.
Occupational Health Nurses (OHNs) are registered nurses and
nurse practitioners with experience and additional education in
occupational health. Certified occupational health nurses (COHN or
COHN-S) obtain certification from the American Board for Occupational Health Nurses after meeting rigorous qualifying educational
and experience standards and successfully passing an occupational
health nursing examination.
Occupational Health Professional’s Services and Qualifications: Questions and Answers
7
Physician Assistants
Physician Assistants (PAs) provide services with the supervision
of a doctor of medicine or osteopathy. PAs may perform physical
examinations, diagnose and treat illnesses, order and interpret tests,
prescribe medications in most states, and plan and implement
therapeutic interventions. PAs must graduate from an accredited
physician assistant’s program, pass a national certification exam,
and be licensed by the state. Some PAs specialize in occupational
medicine.
Other Health Care Providers
Other health care providers include licensed practical or vocational nurses and emergency medical technicians. Traditionally,
these individuals are not licensed to practice independently. They
have specific training and are usually certified or licensed by the
educational institution where they received the training. Sometimes
the state licenses or certifies these providers and usually the state’s
scope of practice outlines the specific work restrictions for these
individuals. For example, usually these providers are required
to work under the supervision of, or implement orders given by,
licensed health care professionals such as MDs, DOs, RNs, PAs,
and NPs, except when delivering first aid.
Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurses (LPN/LVNs) graduate
from a program of practical nursing and must pass the state board
examination. They are licensed by the state to perform certain
specific health care activities, under the direct supervision of a
physician or registered nurse.
Emergency Medical Technicians/Paramedics (EMTs) are prehospital providers trained to provide specific and limited emergency
care. Some EMTs receive advanced training to become paramedics,
which allows them to perform more advanced emergency procedures. EMTs are authorized to perform their duties by standing
orders or protocols from physicians. They respond primarily to
injuries and acute illnesses on a temporary basis and are not independently licensed to provide other medical care.
Who are Qualified Occupational Health Care Professionals?
8
How Can an Employer Verify the Scope
of Practice for Health Care Professionals
in the Licensing State?
Each state has a unique legal description of the
scope of practice for health care professionals. When
it is necessary to verify a health care professional’s
scope of practice for the occupational setting, the
individual state’s licensing or certification board
should be contacted, as follows:
Medical Doctor
State boards of medical examiners and professional licensure can
provide information about an occupational physician’s educational
training and type of practice. The American Board of Medical
Specialties (ABMS) publishes an annual list of certified occupational
medicine specialists. The employer may refer to the ABMS listings
in the reference department of most public libraries or call the Office
of ABMS at (800) 776-2378.
Doctor of Osteopathy
Doctors of osteopathy are licensed by a board in each state.
Listings may include Board of Medical Examiners, Licensing
Examiners, Board of Osteopathic Examiners, Board of Medical
Practice, or Medical Licensing Board of (name of particular state).
The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) publishes an
annual list of certified occupational medicine specialists (see MD
listing above).
Registered Nurse and Nurse Practitioner
The National Council of State Boards of Nursing [(312) 787-6555]
has information on the regulation of nursing in each state. Generally, the American Nurses Association (ANA) [(202) 651-7000]
certifies NPs. The American Board for Occupational Health Nurses
(ABOHN) [(630) 789-5799] certifies RNs in the specialty of occupational health.
Occupational Health Professional’s Services and Qualifications: Questions and Answers
9
Physician Assistant
All states except Mississippi license physician assistants. PAs
are licensed by the state medical board or by a separate licensing
board. PAs are certified by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA) [(770) 734-4500].
Emergency Medical Technician
The scope of practice for emergency medical technicians
(EMTs) also varies from state to state. There are several practice
levels of EMTs each determined by the number of hours of
training and the range of procedures authorized. Each state has
a director of EMTs listed in the telephone directory under State
Government. The appropriate office may be contacted under
the telephone directory subheading listed as either the Department
of Health, Department of Public Health, or Department of Emergency Medical Services.
Licensed Vocational/Practical Nurse
The state board of nursing in each state is listed in the telephone
directory and defines the scope of practice issues for licensed
vocational or practical nurses LVNs/LPNs.
How Can an Employer Verify the Scope of Practice for Health Care Professionals
in the Licensing State?
10





What Qualifications Should an Employer
Look for in an Occupational Health Care
Professional?
An occupational health care professional evaluates the interactions between employees’ work and
health in the workplace. To do this effectively, the
occupational health care professional should
possess the following skills and competencies:
• General knowledge of the work environment,
including worksite operations; familiarity with the
toxic properties of materials used by employees as well as the
potential hazards and stressors of work processes and jobs or
tasks.
Ability to determine an employee’s physical and emotional
fitness for work.
Ability to recognize, evaluate, treat, and/or refer occupational
illnesses and injuries.
Knowledge of workers’ compensation laws; local, state, and
federal regulatory requirements; and systems for maintaining
health records.
Ability to organize and manage the delivery of health care
services.
Knowledge of legal and ethical issues related to occupational
health care practice.
In addition to administering the health care program and supervising health care personnel, the occupational health care professional
should communicate with workers and managers at all levels. Most
importantly, the health care professional must maintain confidentiality between the health care professional and the employee as
required by OSHA, professional ethics codes, and individual state
privacy acts. Management should only be provided the necessary
information to make an informed and competent …
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