International and Intercultural Communication, BUS 600 assignment help


After reviewing section 2.4 of the text titled International and Intercultural Interpersonal Communication, visit The Hofstede Centre ( and continue to explore national cultural dimensions. Using the navigation bar, hover over the “Cultural Tools” item, and then click on “Country Comparison” from the drop-down menu. Here you will choose two countries to compare and contrast in terms of cultural dimensions. Develop a two-page, APA-formatted paper that addresses the following:Describe how the two countries are similar in terms of Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions.Describe how the two countries are different in terms of Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions.Given a scenario where two organizations, one located in each country, are to do business with each other, provide recommendations that would be beneficial in helping management address communications in terms of the different cultural perspectives.Your paper must be two pages (not including title and reference pages) and must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide. You must cite at least two scholarly sources in addition to the textbook.

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The Interpersonal
Communication Process
Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter and studying the materials, you should be able to:
Describe the essential parts of an interpersonal communications model.
Identify the barriers to interpersonal communication.
Overcome the barriers to interpersonal communication.
Recognize the additional challenges present in international interpersonal communication.
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Section 2.1  Interpersonal Communication
2.1  Interpersonal Communication
Learning Objective # 1: What are the essential parts of an interpersonal communication
ne-on-one contact continues to be the most crucial form of business and management communication. Interpersonal communication interactions take place
between two or more people—co-workers, with customers, suppliers, and others
in the marketing channel, with members of governmental agencies, between supervisors
and employees, and with a wide variety of publics on a daily basis. Each represents the
potential to build trust, loyalty, and other positive elements of a relationship but also to
generate disharmony, distrust, and, at times, hostility. An effective communicator tries to
maintain pleasant and positive relations with others, even when points of disagreement
arise. Understanding how interpersonal communication works helps form the foundation
for improving your social skills on the job and in everyday life.
Bill Marriott: Maintaining a Legacy of Management Communication Success
The Marriott International chain of hotel properties has undergone a series of dramatic success periods along with eras of change. Marriott International’s “spirit to serve” culture is based on a business
philosophy established more than 80 years ago by founders J. Willard and Alice S. Marriott, who often
said, “Take care of the associates, and they’ll take care of the guests.” By 2010, approximately 300,000
Marriott associates were serving guests in Marriott-managed and franchised properties throughout
the world.
CEO Bill Marriot is responsible for much of the company’s current success. An ABC News story about
Marriott noted, “In the post-Enron era, when CEOs
tend to generate publicity for cutting corners and
questionable business practices, Marriott sets a different standard. His attention to detail is legendary, as
is his devotion to his employees. He thinks both have
been the key to the company’s success” (ABC News
Nightline, 2007).
Marriott has built and maintained a culture designed
to enhance personal relationships with individual
© Axel Koester/Sygma/Corbis
employees that transfers to quality service to cusBill Marriott’s communication style is
tomers. He drops in to personally inspect hundreds
an integral part of the success of his
of hotels a year. His style is “hands on,” literally, with
plenty of pats on the back and even hugs from loyal
workers. He insists on a first-name basis. Marriott is so popular that company employees treat him
with nearly “rock star” status when he arrives at a property (ABC News Nightline, 2007).
Marriott learned much of his management communication style from his father. “I’d walk with him
into a hotel, we’d be late for a meeting, and he’d take 20 minutes and sit down in the lobby and talk
to the lobby maid. He wanted to know how her kids were, was she making enough money, does she
have enough work hours, was her health care good” (ABC News Nightline, 2007). (continued)
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Section 2.1  Interpersonal Communication
Bill Marriott: Maintaining a Legacy of Management Communication Success
Bill Marriott expects his managers to maintain high standards of quality, and he gives them a 159page checklist to make sure they take care of every detail. An interactive blog, titled “Marriott on the
Move” allows CEO Marriott to personally converse with the public and with employees. Any complaint
receives a prompt response and action as needed.
Bill Marriott has received the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC, 2007)
Leadership in Communication Award. The award stipulated that “Marriott International is also well
known as a great place to work and for its commitment to diversity and community service. It has
consistently been named to Fortune’s lists of most admired companies, best places to work and top
companies for minorities.”
The J.D. Power & Associates 2007 North America Hotel Guest Satisfaction Study measured overall
guest hotel satisfaction across six hotel segments. The Ritz-Carlton brand came in No. 1 in the luxury
segment. The JW Marriott brand came in No. 2. Business Traveler, Executive Travel, and Condé Nast
Traveler have also recognized the company (, 2011).
Superior customer service is built on the foundation provided by a quality management communication program. The Marriott International story serves as an example of the role that excellent interpersonal communication skills play in a successful company and a person’s career.
Questions for Students
1. What does Bill Marriott’s management style communicate to employees?
2. Should a CEO insist that company employees call him/her by a first name? Would the CEO’s
gender make a difference in your answer?
3. Would Bill Marriott’s hands-on communication style succeed in every country?
A Simplified Interpersonal Communication Model
Over the years, several models of interpersonal communication have been created. The
models portray the movement of information from one person to another or to a set of
people. Figure 2.1 provides one of the most straightforward models.
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Section 2.1  Interpersonal Communication
Figure 2.1: A simplified interpersonal communications model
= Noise (Barriers to Communications)
This model depicts a conversation between a manager and an employee, between co-workers, a presentation
by a salesperson to a buyer or a buying committee, and numerous other interpersonal exchanges.
Source: Adapted from Guffrey, M. E., & Loewy, D. (2011). Business Communication: Process and Product. Mason, OH: South-Western
Cengage Learning, pp. 13–14.
In the model, the sender is the person transmitting a message or an idea. In business settings, a conversation is initiated with a communication goal in mind. The goals are as simple
as an office assistant reminding a supervisor about an upcoming meeting or as complex as
a manager trying to convince a key employee to stay with the company instead of accepting a job offer from another firm. A salesperson who heads a team that is trying to win
over a new client sends the message. That person may speak to a set of receivers, the purchasing team from the client company, and achieving the communication goal requires
carefully chosen words, visual images on a PowerPoint display, inspiring music in the
background, and handouts provided to each person in the client’s buying group.
Encoding is the presentation of verbal and nonverbal cues. Encoding takes four forms: (1)
verbal, oral cues, (2) verbal, written cues, (3) nonverbal cues, and (4) electronic transmissions that employ both verbal and nonverbal elements.
Verbal cues are words. They take the form of spoken language, printed matter, a text message, or even a drawing used to represent a concept. Verbal encoding includes the abbreviations and shortcuts that are part of tweets and text messages.
Nonverbal cues are all other forms of message-sending, including posture, eye contact,
physical distance from the receiver, voice volume, gestures, and physical contact, such as
touching someone on a shoulder or arm. Most messages contain both verbal and nonverbal elements.
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Section 2.1  Interpersonal Communication
Electronic transmissions go beyond text messages and emails. Technologies such as Skype
allow for interpersonal meetings via televised images. The receiver encounters both verbal and nonverbal cues in those conversations.
The transmission device is anything that carries a message, including sound waves, light
waves, pieces of paper, mobile-phone signals and screens, the Internet, computer monitors, billboards, radio and television signals, and an endless number of additional carriers.
Modern management communication features a variety of new transmission devices that
add to speed and efficiency but also create confusion and disruption for individuals trying to communicate on the job.
Decoding occurs as the receiver encounters the message. Every sensory device can be
part of decoding, including hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling, and tasting various cues. In
a standard interpersonal interaction, sight and hearing are often used. Decoding involves
interpretation of verbal and nonverbal cues, normally at the same time.
The receiver is the sender’s intended audience. It can be a single person or a small group
of people. Someone who passes by and hears a conversation is not considered a receiver,
unless the sender suddenly adjusts the message to make sure the intruder receives part of
the message. A manager who says, “We are going to be short-handed for a while,” and just
as the outsider passes by adds, “So everyone is going to have to pitch in,” has expanded
the audience to the second receiver.
Feedback returns to the sender in the form of evaluation of the message. The receiver
transmits verbal and nonverbal cues that suggest, “I don’t understand,” “I disagree,”
“You’re absolutely right,” “This is frustrating,” and other forms of reaction to the sender,
including, “I’m not really listening.” Then, most of the time, the conversation continues
(Burgoon, Hunsaker, & Dawson, 2004; Shannon, 1948).
In an ideal world, the communication goal is met, the message travels without interruption, the receiver understands the idea correctly, and feedback is transmitted confirming
the message got through. Unfortunately, the world is often not ideal. A variety of forces
and factors can prevent messages from being sent correctly or accurately received. In Figure 2.1, the disruptions are shown as noise, or the barriers to communication.
The simplified model of communication displayed in Figure 2.1 offers a method to explain
how a person seeks to transmit an idea or message to someone else or to a group of people. The concepts of encoding, transmission devices, and decoding help explain the movement of a message from a sender to a receiver. The model does not, however, accurately
depict what transpires in an actual conversation or exchange of ideas. This led to the
evolution of more intricate models, discussed next.
For Review
Name and describe each part of an interpersonal communication model.
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Section 2.1  Interpersonal Communication
An Interaction Model
In the 1960s, models were expanded to indicate the interaction of two people engaged in a
dialog. Figure 2.2 illustrates how models were expanded. The interaction model remains
“linear” in the sense that a message first goes one way (Person A to Person B) then the
other (Person B back to Person A). Clearly, most conversations are not quite that stilted,
leaving room for additional ideas about how interpersonal communication transpires.
Figure 2.2: An interaction model of communication
This model depicts mutual transmission, the reception of messages, and feedback. In essence, a mirror
was added to show the more interactive nature of communication.
For Review
Describe the interaction model of interpersonal communication.
Transaction Model
More recent conceptualizations of the nature of communication propose a far more complex and sophisticated pattern of message generation and reception. Instead of viewing
a conversation as essentially a ping-pong match, where one person sends and the other
receives and then the process reverses, actual discussions take place nearly simultaneously.
In the transaction model (see Figure 2.3), a person speaking observes the intended audience
as the message is being sent. The speaker may observe a “receiver” or second person with
a scowl, a grin, or nodding in agreement before all of the words have been transmitted. In
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Section 2.1  Interpersonal Communication
essence, rather than a ping-pong match, conversations more closely resemble a dance in which both
parties socially construct the interaction. Such a
model accounts for interruptions, persons finishing
each other’s sentences, and incomplete transmissions, finishing with phrases such as, “You know
what I’m talking about,” or “You see what I’m saying” as the other person nods “yes,” or “I know
you think I’m wrong” as the person nods “no.”
Further, the transaction approach models the
movement from misunderstanding to understanding, from disagreement to agreement, as
well as the escalation of a conversation into a
conflict. In essence, not every dance goes well. At
times, the partners move in perfect synch; at others, they stumble or step on each other’s toes.
Each of the three models—the simplified version, the interaction model, and the transaction
model—contains key elements of encoding, transmission, decoding, and feedback. More important,
the models also indicate that conversations can go
awry and that misunderstandings occur. The primary causes of these disruptions are called noise,
or the barriers to interpersonal communication.
Jupiter Images/Thinkstock
The transaction model suggests that conversations more closely resemble a dance in
which both parties socially construct the
Figure 2.3: A transaction model of communication
The transaction model of communication is similar to a dance between two partners in a conversation.
The messages flow in both directions as each communicator sends and receives based on responding to
the other communicator.
For Review
Describe the transaction model of interpersonal communication.
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Section 2.2  Barriers to Interpersonal Communication
2.2  Barriers to Interpersonal Communication
Learning Objective # 2: What are the potential barriers to interpersonal communication?
any times, a message will be sent but not correctly received. Three categories of
barriers to individual communication explain this problem. Each of the items
shown in Figure 2.4 can distort or disrupt a message at any point, as depicted in
Figure 2.1. The first set of barriers—individual differences—is present simply because of
the characteristics of the two people involved in the conversation. Effective communicators know about each of the potential barriers and find ways to overcome them.
Figure 2.4: Barriers to individual communication
Numerous factors can disrupt quality communication between individuals.
Individual Differences
Any number of messages become lost because of a difference between the sender and
receiver. Sometimes the barrier emerges due to natural circumstances, such as age or gender. Social events and the social construction of language generate others. Table 2.1 identifies the individual differences that can obstruct quality communication.
Table 2.1: Individual differences
Exclusive language
Educational level
Organizational rank
Differences in age lead to varying frames of reference. A Baby Boomer would likely be
familiar with a reference to Woodstock. Someone who was born in 1990 may not. A young
employee probably knows quite a bit more about a current cultural icon, such as Lady
Gaga, than an older worker does. Each generation shares markers, or mutually experienced events. The Greatest Generation (World War II) veterans vividly recall the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Almost all Baby Boomers remember the assassination of President
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Section 2.2  Barriers to Interpersonal Communication
Kennedy and the first walk on the moon. Generation Xers have a first space shuttle disaster in common.
Age may become a barrier to management communication when an older worker offers
constructive criticism to younger employee, especially when the older worker is not a
direct supervisor. The more junior employee may respond ineffectively or defensively.
Also, many younger supervisors report problems managing more senior employees. Age
discrimination occurs in a variety of organizations. Sometimes it can be as subtle as a
younger manager making the senior worker feel unwelcome, or by telling crude, agebased jokes about an older supervisor, thereby undermining the individual’s authority
and ability to communicate with younger employees.
Historically, management communication writers and others, including those in the popular press, have extensively explored differences in gender. One of the most noteworthy
researchers, Deborah Tannen, presented many gender-based difficulties in her book You
Just Don’t Understand and in other works (Tannen, 1990). Subtle contrasts between genders
sometimes influence male-female interactions. Tannen has pointed out as many as 105 key
differences. Note that not every man or woman is inclined to exhibit these patterns. Even
though some may be true of men in general or women in general, many individual men and
women do not exhibit these patterns.
In general, then, women are more likely to employ more expressive and effusive language, to use a verbal hedge, such as “umm” when thinking something over, or “so” to
add power to an expression (“She was so smart”), and are more likely to frame business
requests as questions. A female supervisor may say, “Would you mind making copies of
this report?” Women are less likely to directly criticize an employee, especially in public.
Males tend to use more direct language. Men are more likely to interrupt conversational
partners, especially when speaking to women. Males also often use sports metaphors as part
of everyday language, such as “She took one for the team”; “He gave a Hail Mary answer;”
“This is our goal line stand”; and “That was a back door play.” Men are more inclined to
aggressively disagree with someone in public. They are also more prone to making declarative statements of fact (sometimes when they don’t actually know the facts). Men are more
likely to ignore comments that have been offered by another person, especially when that
person disagrees with them. And finally, men tend to find ways to control conversations,
especially by changing the subject when they feel they are “losing” an argument.
Women and men have different experiences and operate in different social contexts, which
lead to differing genres of speech and skills for accomplishing things with words. Patterns
of interaction in rural areas vary from those in urban areas; differences may be found in
various regions of a country, and factors such as ethnicity also affect communication styles
of both men and women. This, in turn, shapes the diversity found in male/female communication patterns (Maltz & Borker, 2007).
Despite these prevalent tendencies and differences, recent formulations of communication
and gender issues add a more complex conceptualization of the relationship. Previously,
male/female communication patterns were viewed in a binary manner in which “men are
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