Leadership theory and practice, discussion help (2-3 pages)

  

Discussion Question: Based on your workplace experiences and observations, do you agree with the 1995 meta-analysis study conducted by Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani indicating that women and men are more effective in leadership roles that are congruent with their gender?  Why or why not?  (See bottom of page 402)leadership_theory_and_practice_7th___peter_g._northouse.pdf
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Leadership
Seventh Edition
To Laurel, Lisa, Madison, Scott, and Kallie
Leadership
Theory and Practice • Seventh Edition
Peter g.Northouse
Western Michigan University
For information:
Copyright  2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced
or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
information storage and retrieval system, without permission
in writing from the publisher.
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Thousand Oaks, California 91320
E-mail: order@sagepub.com
SAGE Publications Ltd.
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Printed in the United States of America
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Northouse, Peter Guy.
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Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
India
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Singapore 049483
Leadershop : theory and practice/Peter Northouse,
Western Michigan University.—Seventh Edition.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4833-1753-3 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Leadership. 2. Leadership—Case studies. I. Title.
HM1261.N67 2015
303.3′4—dc23   2014044695
Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Associate Editor: Abbie Rickard
Editorial Assistant: Nicole Mangona
Production Editor: Libby Larson
Copy Editor: Melinda Masson
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Sally Jaskold
Indexer: Sheila Bodell
Cover Designer: Gail Buschman
Marketing Manager: Liz Thornton
Digital Content Editor: Katie Bierach
15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Brief Contents
Preface
1. Introduction
xvii
1
2. Trait Approach
19
4. Behavioral Approach
71
3. Skills Approach
5. Situational Approach
43
93
6. Path–Goal Theory
115
8. Transformational Leadership
161
7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
9. Authentic Leadership
10. Servant Leadership
11. Adaptive Leadership
12. Psychodynamic Approach
13. Leadership Ethics
14. Team Leadership
15. Gender and Leadership
16. Culture and Leadership
137
195
225
257
295
329
363
397
427
Author Index
467
About the Author
491
Subject index
About the Contributors
477
493
Detailed Contents
Preface
xvii
1. Introduction
Leadership Defined
Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership
Definition and Components
Leadership Described
Trait Versus Process Leadership
Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership
Leadership and Power
Leadership and Coercion
Leadership and Management
Plan of the Book
Summary
References
1
2
5
6
7
7
8
10
12
13
15
16
17
2. Trait Approach
Description
Intelligence
Self-Confidence
Determination
Integrity
Sociability
Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership
Emotional Intelligence
How Does the Trait Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
19
19
23
24
24
25
26
26
27
29
30
30
Application
Case Studies
Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research
Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround
Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank
Leadership Instrument
Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ)
Summary
References
32
32
33
34
36
37
38
40
41
3. Skills Approach
Description
Three-Skill Approach
Technical Skill
Human Skill
Conceptual Skill
Summary of the Three-Skill Approach
Skills Model
Competencies
Individual Attributes
Leadership Outcomes
Career Experiences
Environmental Influences
Summary of the Skills Model
How Does the Skills Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team
Case 3.2 A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams
Case 3.3 Andy’s Recipe
Leadership Instrument
Skills Inventory
Summary
References
43
43
44
44
44
45
46
47
48
52
53
54
55
56
56
57
58
59
60
60
62
64
66
67
69
70
4. Behavioral Approach
Description
The Ohio State Studies
The University of Michigan Studies
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid
Authority–Compliance (9,1)
71
71
72
73
74
75
Country-Club Management (1,9)
Impoverished Management (1,1)
Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)
Team Management (9,9)
Paternalism/Maternalism
Opportunism
How Does the Behavioral Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First
Case 4.2 Eating Lunch Standing Up
Case 4.3 We Are Family
Leadership Instrument
Leadership Behavior Questionnaire
Summary
References
75
75
76
77
77
77
78
80
81
81
82
83
84
85
87
88
90
91
5. Situational Approach
Description
Leadership Styles
Development Levels
How Does the Situational Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels
Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening?
Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across
Leadership Instrument
Situational Leadership Questionnaire: Sample Items
Summary
References
93
93
94
96
97
98
99
102
103
103
105
107
108
109
112
113
6. Path–Goal Theory
Description
Leader Behaviors
Directive Leadership
Supportive Leadership
Participative Leadership
Achievement-Oriented Leadership
115
115
117
117
117
118
118
Follower Characteristics
Task Characteristics
How Does Path–Goal Theory Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors
Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others
Case 6.3 Playing in the Orchestra
Leadership Instrument
Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire
Summary
References
118
119
120
122
123
124
125
126
128
129
132
133
135
136
7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory
Description
Early Studies
Later Studies
Leadership Making
How Does LMX Theory Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments
Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair
Case 7.3 Taking on Additional Responsibilities
Leadership Instrument
LMX 7 Questionnaire
Summary
References
137
137
137
140
142
144
145
146
148
149
150
151
152
154
155
157
158
8. Transformational Leadership
Description
Transformational Leadership Defined
Transformational Leadership and Charisma
A Model of Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership Factors
Transactional Leadership Factors
Nonleadership Factor
Other Transformational Perspectives
Bennis and Nanus
Kouzes and Posner
161
161
162
164
166
167
171
172
172
172
174
How Does the Transformational Approach Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 8.1 The Vision Failed
Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership
Case 8.3 Her Vision of a Model Research Center
Leadership Instrument
Summary
References
175
176
178
180
181
181
183
185
187
190
191
9. Authentic Leadership
Description
Authentic Leadership Defined
Approaches to Authentic Leadership
Practical Approach
Theoretical Approach
How Does Authentic Leadership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Applications
Case Studies
Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader?
Case 9.2 A Leader Under Fire
Case 9.3 The Reluctant First Lady
Leadership Instrument
Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
Summary
References
195
195
196
197
197
200
205
206
207
208
209
210
212
214
217
218
220
221
10. Servant Leadership
Description
Servant Leadership Defined
Historical Basis of Servant Leadership
Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader
Building a Theory About Servant Leadership
Model of Servant Leadership
Antecedent Conditions
Servant Leader Behaviors
Outcomes
Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership
How Does Servant Leadership Work?
Strengths
225
225
226
226
227
229
231
231
233
236
238
238
239
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 10.1 Everyone Loves Mrs. Noble
Case 10.2 Doctor to the Poor
Case 10.3 Servant Leadership Takes Flight
Leadership Instrument
Servant Leadership Questionnaire
Summary
References
240
241
242
243
244
247
249
250
253
254
11. Adaptive Leadership
Description
Adaptive Leadership Defined
A Model of Adaptive Leadership
Situational Challenges
Leader Behaviors
Adaptive Work
How Does Adaptive Leadership Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and
Mental Illness
Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus
Case 11.3 Redskins No More
Leadership Instrument
Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire
Summary
References
257
257
258
260
261
263
273
274
275
276
277
279
12. Psychodynamic Approach
Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries and Alicia Cheak
Description
The Clinical Paradigm
History of the Psychodynamic Approach
Key Concepts and Dynamics Within the
Psychodynamic Approach
1. Focus on the Inner Theatre
2. Focus on the Leader-Follower
Relationships
3. Focus on the Shadow Side of Leadership
How Does the Psychodynamic Approach Work?
Strengths
295
279
281
283
286
287
292
293
295
296
297
301
301
302
305
305
306
Criticisms
Application
Group Coaching
Case Studies
Case 12.1 Dealing With Passive-Aggressives
Case 12.2 The Fear of Success
Case 12.3 Helping a Bipolar Leader
Leadership Instrument
The Leadership Archetype
Questionnaire (Abridged Version)
Summary
References
307
308
309
313
313
314
315
317
318
324
324
13. Leadership Ethics
Description
Ethics Defined
Level 1. Preconventional Morality
Level 2. Conventional Morality
Level 3. Postconventional Morality
Ethical Theories
Centrality of Ethics to Leadership
Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership
The Dark Side of Leadership
Principles of Ethical Leadership
Ethical Leaders Respect Others
Ethical Leaders Serve Others
Ethical Leaders Are Just
Ethical Leaders Are Honest
Ethical Leaders Build Community
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 13.1 Choosing a Research Assistant
Case 13.2 How Safe Is Safe?
Case 13.3 Reexamining a Proposal
Leadership Instrument
Perceived Leader Integrity Scale (PLIS)
Summary
References
329
329
330
331
332
332
333
336
337
338
339
341
341
342
344
345
346
347
348
349
349
350
351
352
355
356
359
360
14. Team Leadership
Susan E. Kogler Hill
Description
363
363
Team Leadership Model
Team Effectiveness
Leadership Decisions
Leadership Actions
How Does the Team Leadership Model Work?
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 14.1 Can This Virtual Team Work?
Case 14.2 They Dominated the Conversation
Case 14.3 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper
Leadership Instrument
Team Excellence and Collaborative
Team Leader Questionnaire
Summary
References
366
367
372
377
381
382
383
384
385
385
386
387
389
391
393
393
15. Gender and Leadership
Crystal L. Hoyt and Stefanie Simon
Description
The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth
Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth
Understanding the Labyrinth
Gender Differences in Leadership Styles
and Effectiveness
Navigating the Labyrinth
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 15.1 The “Glass Ceiling”
Case 15.2 Lack of Inclusion and Credibility
Case 15.3 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status
Leadership Instrument
The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test
Summary
References
397
401
406
409
410
411
411
412
413
414
415
416
419
420
16. Culture and Leadership
Description
Culture Defined
Related Concepts
427
427
428
428
397
398
398
399
Ethnocentrism
Prejudice
Dimensions of Culture
Uncertainty Avoidance
Power Distance
Institutional Collectivism
In-Group Collectivism
Gender Egalitarianism
Assertiveness
Future Orientation
Performance Orientation
Humane Orientation
Clusters of World Cultures
Characteristics of Clusters
Anglo
Confucian Asia
Eastern Europe
Germanic Europe
Latin America
Latin Europe
Middle East
Nordic Europe
Southern Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters
Eastern Europe Leadership Profile
Latin America Leadership Profile
Latin Europe Leadership Profile
Confucian Asia Leadership Profile
Nordic Europe Leadership Profile
Anglo Leadership Profile
Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile
Southern Asia Leadership Profile
Germanic Europe Leadership Profile
Middle East Leadership Profile
Universally Desirable and Undesirable
Leadership Attributes
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Case Studies
Case 16.1 A Challenging Workplace
Case 16.2 A Special Kind of Financing
Case 16.3 Whose Hispanic Center Is It?
428
429
430
431
432
432
432
433
433
433
434
434
434
436
437
437
437
437
438
438
438
439
439
439
439
441
441
441
443
443
444
445
445
446
446
448
449
450
451
452
452
454
456
Leadership Instrument
Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire
Summary
References
458
459
464
465
Author Index
467
About the Author
491
About the Contributors
493
Subject index
477
Preface
This seventh edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice is written with the
objective of bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches
to leadership and the more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous
editions, this edition reviews and analyzes a selected number of leadership
theories, giving special attention to how each theoretical approach can be
applied in real-world organizations. In essence, my purpose is to explore how
leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
New to this volume is a chapter on adaptive leadership, which examines the
nature of adaptive leadership, its underpinnings, and how it works. The
chapter presents a definition, a model, and the latest research and applications of this emerging approach to leadership. In addition, the strengths and
weaknesses of the adaptive leadership approach are examined, and a questionnaire to help readers assess their own levels of adaptive leadership is
provided. Three case studies illustrating adaptive leadership are presented at
the end of the chapter.
This volume also presents an entirely new chapter on psychodynamic leadership written by a leading expert in the field, Manfred F. R. Kets De Vries,
and Alicia Cheak. Like the other chapters, this chapter provides a theoretical explanation of psychodynamic leadership, applications, cases studies, and
an assessment instrument.
This edition also includes an expanded discussion of the dark side of leadership and psuedotransformational leadership and the negative uses and
abuses of leadership. New research has been added throughout the book as
xvii
xviii  Leadership Theory and Practice
well as many new case studies and examples that help students apply leadership concepts to contemporary settings.
This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has
been updated to include new research findings, figures and tables, and everyday applications for many leadership topics including leader–member
exchange theory, transformational and authentic leadership, team leadership,
the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical definitions of leadership.
The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier editions. As
with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is
to advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership
and ways to practice it more effectively.
Special Features 
Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership
research, every attempt has been made to present the material in a clear,
concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers of the book have consistently
commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In addition to the
writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.
• Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first
theory and then practice.
• Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of
the approach under consideration, and assists the reader in determining the relative merits of each approach.
• Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the practical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s
organizational settings.
• Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common
leadership issues and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow
each case study, helping readers to interpret the case.
• A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help the reader
apply the approach to his or her own leadership style or setting.
• Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the
ideas more meaningful.
Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text
substantive, understandable, and practical.
Preface xix
Audience 
This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and
a discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for
undergraduate and graduate classes in management, leadership studies,
business, educational leadership, public administration, nursing and allied
health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and organizational psychology, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and military
science, and training and development. It is particularly well suited as a
supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an overview text within MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in
student activities, continuing education, in-service training, and other
leadership-development programs.
Instructor Teaching Site
SAGE edge for Instructors, a password-protected instructor resource site,
supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create
a rich learning environment for students. The test banks, which have been
expanded for this edition, include multiple-choice and true/false questions
to test comprehension, as well as essay questions that ask students to apply
the material. An electronic test bank, compatible with PCs and Macs
through Diploma software, is also available. Chapter-specific resources
include PowerPoint slides, study and discussion questions, suggested exercises, full-text journal articles, and video and audio links. General resources
include course-long projects, sample syllabi, film resources, and case notes.
Printable PDF versions of the questionnaires from the text are included for
instructors to print and distribute for classroom use. A course cartridge
includes assets found on the Instructor Teaching Site and the Student Study
Site, as well as a bonus quiz for each chapter in the book—all in an easy-toupload package. Go to edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e to access the companion site.
Student Study Site
SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students
accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.
Mobile-friendly eFlashcards and practice quizzes strengthen understanding
of key terms and concepts and allow for independent assessment by students
of their mastery of course material. A customized online action plan includes
xx  Leadership Theory and Practice
tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which
allows students to individualize their learning experience. Learning objectives, multimedia links, discussion questions, and SAGE journal articles help
students study and reinforce the most important material. Students can go
to edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e to access the site.
Media Icons
Icons appearing at the bottom of the page will direct you to online media
such as videos, audio links, journal articles, and reference articles that correspond with key chapter concepts. Visit the Student Study Site at edge.
sagepub.com/northouse7e to access this media.
icons
Northouse on Leadership
  SAGE Journal Article
  Audio
   Reference Article
  Video
Acknowledgments
Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the
seventh edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to
acknowledge my editor, Maggie Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE
Publications (Nicole, Abbie, MaryAnn, Liz, Katie, and Lauren) who have
contributed significantly to the quality of this edition and ensured its success. For their very capable work during the production phase, I would like
to thank copy editor Melinda Masson, and senior project editor Libby Larson. In her own unique way, each of these people made valuable contributions to the seventh edition.
For comprehensive reviews of the seventh edition, I wo …
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