***Paper already written and attached. Please rewrite in your own words**Research how people and organizations react to change, both positive and negative. If possible, interview coworkers, family, and friends who have experienced substantial change in their lives. Review articles and books on how organizations have successfully moved through changes, and study those that have failed to make changes to succeed. Develop a set of recommendations that will minimize the negative reactions from individuals and the organization to the change being planned for Pegasus. Present your findings in an organized, well-researched report of 1,000–1,250 words. Be sure to cite your sources using APA guidelines.
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Management of organizational development and change refer to activities or processes
that are useful to manage development and changes within the organization. It is the
systematic approach that is used by both individuals as well as organizations to manage
change (Cook, Macaulay & Coldicott 2004). In this report, there will be a discussion of
several reactions of individuals and organization towards changes. At the same time,
different ways will be also discussed that helped to successfully implement changes in
Toyota Corporation and Ford Motor.
Reaction towards change
Change and human behavior are closely related to each other. Individual reaction towards
the change depends on their attitude and behavior (Anderson, 2011). People and
organization accept the change, if they think that it is beneficial and show negative
attitude towards change if it is harmful for their values, performance, productivity etc.
People and organization reaction towards the change occur in the following forms:
Acceptance of the change depends on the perception of the organization and employees.
If the change increases the performance, skills, knowledge etc. of the employees, they
show the interest and their positive attitude towards the change (TODNEM, December
2005). Employees want to know more about the new change and they try to accept the
change as soon as possible (Coombs, 2007). Employees accept the change, if they found
that change will fulfill their basic needs.
Organizations also show the positive attitude towards the change, if they think that new
change will improve their performance, productivity and reduce the cost. Organizations
motivate their employees for accepting the change and describe the benefits of the change
(Rothwell, Sullivan & McLean, 2005). Organizations create some rules and regulation for
adopting the change. Organizations organize the seminar for introducing the change in
Resistance to change arises due to different personalities, perceptions and needs. If the
people feel that the change is not favorable for them, they refuse the change. Following
are the forms by which people show their negative reaction towards the change:
Aggression or hostility is the immediate reaction of the people towards the unfavorable
change. The combination of aggression and hostility is harmful for the organization as
well as employees, because it can take physical forms. Employees do not take interest in
the unfavorable change and avoid the changes (Coombs, 2007). Employees show
absence in their work and they feel uncomfortable, because resistance develops tension
Strike is one of the ways to show their resistance towards the change. Organization
avoids those changes, which are harmful for their business. Organizations do not take the
interest in the unfavorable change and show their unwillingness. Organizations use some
rules and regulation for prohibiting the change in the organization.
Impact of Changes on Performance
The changes in the organization in terms of internal or external have positive as well as
negative impacts on the performance or success. In this context, some of the
organizations have successfully moved through changes, while some have failed to make
success during the organizational changes that depends upon the top management’s
approach and organizational structure.
Example of Successfully Managed Change
There are various examples of firms or companies like, case of Toyota Corporation and
case of Ford Motors that have successfully made and managed changes within the
organization. In the case of Ford Motors, most drastic changes came into seen due to sale
of its acquired brands like, Range Rover, Austin martin, and Jaguar. The management of
the company had taken several steps to implement effective change management to
successfully implement changes. Ford had introduced stakeholder identification and
analysis (SIS) and Process Improvement for Strategic Objective (PIOS) process to
increase the involvement of their stakeholders in the change management process that
helps to effectively make changes within the organization (Cummings & Worley 2008).
Along with this, Ford had also introduced B2B services within the business process that
helped the company to successfully address the changes in customer’s needs and
preferences by developing effective communication between management and its
suppliers (Luecke, 2003). On the other side, in the case of Toyota, the management of the
company had developed star safety system by using advanced technologies and
conducted independent engineering reviews to effectively and successfully implement
technological changes within the organization (Liker & Hoseus, 2008). Along with this,
Toyota had also developed special committee to examine aspect of quality assurance and
expand new vehicle development cycle that helped the company to successfully make
changes in its global quality assurance program (Toyota, 2011).
Example of Failure to Manage Changes
There are some examples of organizations that were failed to successfully make changes
due to ineffective change management plan, less involvement of stakeholders in change
management, and difficulties to adopt changes. Carly Fiorina’s restructuring plan for HP
is one of the examples of failure to make or implement change successfully within the
organization (Brower & Koger, 2010). In this case, the management of the company had
failed to make changes due to bad ideas or wrong decision of changes in organizational
structure, and less involvement of its stakeholders in change management. Along with
this, complexity of HP’s structure, slow time to response and inability to collaborate
across internal part of the organization are also some reasons of failure of HP in making
change successful (Coughlin, Wingard & Hollihan, 2011).
To minimize the negative reactions regarding changes, some of the ways are
recommended that should be used by individuals and organizations to effectively
implement changes. Some of the recommendations are as follow:
Organization should involve different processes of change management that can help to
effectively deal with the changes in competitive business environment (Cook, Macaulay
& Coldicott 2004). Organization should support the change process by providing
adequate resources, process, facilities and hiring change agents (Saka, 2003). At the
same time, the firm should also build a positive vision for the individuals or employees to
reflect better future after implementing changes related to merger, acquisition, and
On the basis of the above discussion, it can be concluded that the implementation of
effective change management and involvement of stakeholders helps the organizations to
successfully make changes within the business.
Anderson, D. L. (2011). Organization Development: The Process of Leading
Organizational Change. UK: SAGE.
Coombs, W. T. (2007). PSI Handbook of Business Security. USA: Greenwood
Brower G & Koger, D. (2010). Cash MacHine: Stop Wasting Your Organization’s
Money-Start Using it to Compete and Survive. USA: Trafford Publishing.
Cook, S., Macaulay, S. & Coldicott, H. (2004). Change management excellence: using
the four intelligences for successful organizational change. Great Britain: Kogan Page
Coughlin, L., Wingard, E & Hollihan, K. (2011). Enlightened Power: How Women are
Transforming the Practice of Leadership. USA: John Wiley and Sons.
Cummings, T. & Worley, C. (2008) Organization development & change. Canada:
Liker, J.K & Hoseus, M. (2008). Toyota culture: the heart and soul of the Toyota way.
USA: McGraw Hill Professional.
Luecke, R. (2003). Managing change and transition. USA: Harvard Business Press.
Rothwell, W. J., Sullivan, R. L. & McLean. G. N (2005). Practicing Organization
Development: A Guide for Consultants. USA: John Wiley and Sons.
Saka, A. (2003). Internal change agents’ view of the management of change problem.
Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(5), pp. 480-496.
TODNEM, R. (December 2005). Organisational Change Management: A Critical
Review. Journal of Change Management, 5(4), pp.369-380.
Toyota (2011). 2010 Year-End Progress Report: Major Changes Help Toyota Put Even
More Focus on Its Customers. Retrieved September 01, 2011, from
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