1) A carryover effect refers to ______.
a.the expectations the participants bring to the research
b.the effects that result from a series of measurements within a research project
c.the effects of the participant’s behavior on the behavior or the researcher
d.the effects of using many people for the same experiment
2) A researcher gathers a random sample of participants and administers a test to each. Using the test
scores, the researcher then assigns the participants to one of the various research conditions. The
researcher is most likely using _____.
a.a matched-participants design
b.a repeated-measures design
c.a mixed model design
d.a between-subjects design
3) One of the advantage of the within-subjects design is that it _____.
a.allows us to examine changes in behavior over time
b.allows us to use fewer participants
c.allows us to better control for random variation among the participants
d.all of the above
4) When a researcher concludes that the result of an inferential statistic is “not statistically significant,” it indicates that _____.
a.the null hypothesis is a false statement
b.the alternative hypothesis is a false statement
c.the results have a high probability of being replicated
d.the researcher decided not to reject the null hypothesis.
5) A researcher predicts that the means of two samples of participants will be different from each other. This prediction implies that the researcher _____.
a.will use a directional test
b.will use a nondirectional test
c.can use either a directional or a nondirectional test
d.will not need a null hypothesis
6) A researcher decides to assign randomly participants to four different treatment conditions
representing a common independent variable. We can conclude that the researcher has four _____
in this study.
7) A 5 × 6 factorial design involves _____.
a.two different treatment levels
b.five independent variables and 6 treatment levels
c.five levels of one independent variable and six levels of another
d.five dependent and six independent variables
8) Researchers typically use a manipulation check to determine ______.
a.the effectiveness of manipulations of the independent variable
b.the effectiveness of the placebo
c.the effectiveness of the cover story
d.the effectiveness of the control group
9) The primary feature of a mixed-model design is ______.
a.its use of random assignment of participants
b.its ability to account for carry over effects
c.its use of between- and within-subjects variables
d.All of the above
10) When interpreting the results of a one-way ANOVA, the F-statistic and associated p-value tells you:
a. whether the independent variable is correlated with the dependent variable.
b. whether the independent variable has a significant effect on the dependent variable.
c. whether Tukey’s post-hoc test is significant.
d. which experimental conditions/levels of the independent variable differ from each other
11) Dr. Weber conducted a longitudinal study on friendship. He noticed that most introverted people dropped out by the third session. Therefore, his study might have which of the following internal validity effects?
12) To say that an experiment contains a confound means that:
a. different participants are assigned to each group.
b. the dependent variable is measured
c. the independent variable is manipulated
d. the is an uncontrolled extraneous variable in the experiment.
13) A good research design will allow the researcher to _____.
a.answer the questions raised in the research hypothesis
b.develop a system that will allow him or her to objectively collect and evaluate the data
c.connect findings back to existing literature, and/or to produce knowledge that will
impact future work in the area.
d.All of the above
14) Mary conducted a study that examined men’s and women’s reaction to different vignettes regarding an ethical dilemma. When she analyzes the data, she compares the average score for men against the average score for women. Using this scenario, we can conclude that sex is a(n):
a.manipulated dependent variable
b.between-subjects independent variable
c.between-subjects dependent variable
d.within-subjects independent variable
15) A researcher can use a statistically significant t-ratio as evidence for cause and effect if the researcher used _____.
a.an intact group design
d.a correlational design was used
e.None of the above are true.
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