Statistics – Design


In this exercise, you’ll have an opportunity to
check your understanding of the use of factorial designs. We’ll use the
example of the educational program. As you recall, this was a study to
determine which type of instruction works best. Two factors were
involved: (1) the setting””in or out of class””and (2) the amount of
instruction””1 versus 4 hours per week. The dependent variable was
performance on a measure of learning. In Research Methods: The Concise
Knowledge Base, you were presented with several possible alternative outcomes
of the study. The basic design is reprinted here:
The 2 X 2 Design
R X11 O
R X12 O
R X21 O
R X22 O
Factor 1: Time in Instruction
Level 1: 1 hour per week
Level 2: 4 hours per week
Factor 2: Setting
Level 1: In-class
Level 2: Pull-out
Answer the following questions to check your
understanding of the design.
1. What would you call this design?
2. How many independent variables are involved
in this study?
3. What are they?
4. How many levels does each independent
variable have?
5. What are the levels for each independent
6. What hypotheses can you test with this
In this exercise, you’ll review the results of
some studies that used a factorial design and practice interpreting the
results.  Examine the data in Table 8-1 and then answer the questions that
Table 8-1  Factorial Design Experiment
Setting           1hr              4hr            Out       5                7                  6              In        5                7                  6                         5                7
1. How many independent variables are included
in the table?
2. How many levels does each independent
variable have?
3. What was the average score of the group that
had in-class instruction for 1 hour? 
4. What was the average score of the group that
had out-of-class instruction for 1 hour? 
5. What was the average score of the group that
had 4 hours of instruction in the outof-class condition?

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