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1.  After reading Dye (Chapter 13) and reflecting
upon the chapter.  President Obama has
been in office since 2009.  Since 2009,
he has pushed Americans to have a greater understanding about the impacts that
the cost of energy make on the economy. 
This push has moved the United States into a more energy indepdent
economy, rather than a energy dependent economy.  At the same time, the President has begun to
develop policies that control the amount of fossil fuels that are emitting CO2
into the atmosphere.  These policies have
been targeted to try and curtail the changes to our climate.
After understanding the
President’s policies on energy, please tell us about the “three
goals” of the Presidents “Cap and Trade” energy policy.  After you have listed these three goals,
please tell us whether a “Cap and Trade” policy is likely to have a
negative, or positive impact on the economy. 
Make sure you think about the value added from an environmental
standpoint, think about long term v. short term gains and finally support all
of your answers with facts.
2.  After reading Dye (Chapter 15), please answer
the following….The Defense Budget of the United States makes up a fairly
large percentage of the federal governments discretionary spending.  In 2014, the President and the Secretary of
Defense have announced cuts to the Defense budget.  After understanding Chapter 15, do you
believe that the United States should cut the Defense Budget?  If so, why. 
If not, why not?  Be original and
detailed with your answer.
chapter_13.docx

chapter_15.docx

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Energy and the Environment
Chapter 13: Externalities and Interest
 What are the externalities and interests of energy and environment?
Life creates waste. Public policies regarding waste are established by groups in hope to keep the
environment clean.
 “Externality” occurs when an entity begins an activity that imposes unwanted costs on
others.
 Placing the costs to others, polluting firm lower their production costs which will lower
prices to customers and increase profits.
 When costs are shifted to others, there is no incentive to minimize waste or develop lower
pollution causing techniques of production.
 Areas of concern for environmental policies
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created in the 1970’s is responsible of the clean air and water
acts. CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality) to advise the President and Congress about
environmental matters.
 Solid Waste Disposal
 Hazardous Waste
 Water Pollution
 Air Pollution
 Leading Environmental Organizations
 National Wildlife Federation – Natural Resources Defense Council
 Greenspace – Environmental Defense Fund
 National Audubon Society – Defenders of Wildlife
 Sierra Club – Fiends of the Earth
 Wilderness Society – Union of Concerned Scientist
 Acts for environmental protection
 The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
 The Clean Air Act of 1970
 The Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
 Endangered Species Act of 1973
 Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976
 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
 The Comprehensive Environmental Response Act of 1980
 Clean Air Act of 1990
 How is public opinion shaped?
It is difficult to oppose clean air or clean water laws. Environmentalist begin with psychological and
political advantages. Environmentalists are clean and the opponents are dirty. Environmentalist can
state that opposition to environmental protection is motivated by greed for higher profits.
 NIMBY Power
 Made up of local residents and found everywhere. Very influential in policy making. Friends
to environmentalists. They see the need for new commercial or industrial developments but
“not in their back yard.”
 Radical Environmentalism
 The program is to save the planet and includes the deindustrialization of Western nations,
reduction of the human population; elimination of all uses of fossil fuels, including automobiles;
the elimination of nuclear power; an end to cattle raising, logging, land clearance and so on;
and the transfer of existing wealth from the industrialized nations to underdeveloped countries.
 The real enemy is humanity.
Chapter 15: Defense Policy
 National Security as a Serious Game
 National defense policymaking conforms to basic game theory notions
 Use of game theory is limited
 A rational approach to defense policymaking follows a basic game plan
 Threat Assessments
 Strategies
 Force Levels (military units, personnel, weapons, training, etc.)
 Budget Requests
 Political pressure often skews the rational approach
 Confronting Nuclear Threats
 Deterrence
 Second-strike capability
 the ability to survive a surprise attack from the enemy and still destroy the enemy in
retaliation
 Strategic Weapons
 U.S. relied on a TRIAD of weapons systems
 Land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)
Submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs)
 Manned bombers
 Arms Control Games (See Fig. 15-1)
 SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
 SALT I, 1972
 Halted development of antiballistic missile systems (ABMs)
 Under the ABM treaty, each nation should remain undefended against a ballistic missile
attack essentially holding them hostage to a first strike by either nation
 The MAD (mutual assured destruction) theory assumed that no rational government would
order an attack knowing that retaliation would wipe out its own population
 SALT II, 1979
 Set an overall limit on ICBMs, SLBMs and bombers with cruise missiles
 Limited the number of missiles that could have multiple warheads (MIRVs)
 START-Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
 Focused on reduction, equality and verification
 Start I, 1991
 Reduced limits on ICBMs, SLBMs and manned bombers 30% from SALT II levels
 Limited number of strategic nuclear warheads by 50% from SALT II levels
 Start II
 Ended the Cold War
 Elimination of the threat of a first-strike attack
 Elimination of all MIRVs
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 Reduction of overall strategic warheads by 2/3rds
New START Treaty, 2010
 Further reduction of nuclear weapons by over 85% from Cold War levels
Nuclear Testing and Nonproliferation
 1963, Limited Test Ban Treaty
 Limited nuclear testing to underground only
 1968, Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
 Prohibits the transfer of nuclear weapons to nonnuclear nations
 1974, Threshold Test Ban Treaty
 Limited the size of nuclear weapons that could be tested
 Missile Defenses: The Limits of Deterrence
 Deterrence depends on rational leaders who would not endanger their own populations
 Nuclear Terrorism and Nondeterrable Threats
 Missiles launched by a terrorist nation
 Missile launches by terrorist groups
 “Star Wars”
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), 1983
 Explored means of destroying enemies nuclear missiles in space before they reached their
targets
 Ballistic Missile Defense system could be based in space, orbiting over enemy missilelaunching sites
 Protecting Against Nuclear Terrorism
 2002, U.S. withdrew from SALT I provisions against development of BMDs
 Began deploying land and sea based BMDs in 2004 to protect against potential attacks from
terrorist states
 NATO and European Security (see Fig. 15-2)
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 “an attack against armed against one … shall be considered an attack against them all”
 U.S., Canada, Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
Norway, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, West Germany
 Warsaw Pact
 Treaty comparable to NATO’s pledge
 Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, East Germany
 Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe
 1989, Gorbachev renounced the use of Soviet military force to keep Eastern European
communist governments in power
 Germany United
 Collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989
 Formal unification of Germany in 1990
 Collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the USSR
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Warsaw Pact officially dissolved in 1991 after the ouster or communist governments in the
Eastern European Nations
 All USSR republics declared their independence and the USSR officially ceased to exist
December 31, 1991
NATO Expansion
 1997: Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic
 2003: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
NATO and Western Europe
 U.S. military forces remain involved Western European security
NATO and Ethnic Conflicts in the Balkans
 1995, NATO deployed troops to Bosnia to halt conflict between Serbs, Croats and Muslims
 1999, NATO acted to force Serbian troops to withdraw
NATO in Afghanistan
 2003, NATO created an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)
 U.S. turned over command of its military forces in Afghanistan to NATO
 When to use Military Force?
 To Protect Vital Interests (See Table 15-1)
 Many lessons learned from U.S. involvement in Vietnam
 “Powell Doctrine”
 Should commit forces only in support of vital national interests
 Must have a clearly defined military objective
 Must commit sufficient strength to ensure overwhelming and decisive victory with minimal
casualties
 Must have reasonable assurance that the effort has the support of the American people and
Congress
 Commitment of U.S. military forces should be a last resort
 In Support of Important Political Objectives
 “war is a continuation of politics by other means”
 “Since military strength is the obvious measure of a nation’s power, its demonstration serves to
impress other nations with that nation’s power”
 American military forces must be prepared to carry out a variety of missions
 Demonstrating U.S. resolve in crisis situations
 Demonstrating U.S. support for democratic governments
 Protecting U.S. citizens living abroad
 Peacemaking among warring factions or nations
 Peacekeeping where hostile factions or nations have accepted a peace agreement
 Providing humanitarian aid, often under warlike conditions
 Assisting in international efforts to halt drug trafficking
 In Support of the War on Terrorism
 Direct attack against terrorist forces
 Attacks on nations that harbor terrorists
 Preemptive attacks against regimes that threaten to use weapons of mass destruction
3|Page
 Threats, Strategies and Forces (see Table 15-2)
 Overall military force levels in the U.S. should be determined by the size and nature of perceived
threats to national security
 The End of the Cold War
 Rationalized deep cuts in military forces and defense budgets
 Confronting Regional Threats
 Concern that the U.S. interests could be attacked while its military forces are heavily engaged in
another regional conflict
 Fighting Terrorism
 New emphasis on nonconventional forces and tactics
 Asymmetrical Warfare of the Future
 U.S. traditionally focused on confronting conventional threats
 National armies with heavy armor, tanks, artillery, mechanized infantry and combat aircraft
 Weaker forces will use alternate tactics and choose terrain that makes it difficult for traditional
U.S. combat forces to exercise their full fire-power
 Counterinsurgency Emphasis
 Expansion of the size of the Army and Marine Corp
 Transformation of a division-based Army into one organized into Brigade Combat Teams
 Heavier reliance on Army Reserve and National Guard units
 Introduction of mine resistant ambush protection vehicles (MAPVs) and unmanned aerial
vehicles (UAVs)
 Shift operations away from “enemy-centric” armed conflict toward a “population-centric”
approach
 Peacekeeping/Nation Building
 U.S. military forces are currently deployed in more than 120 countries
 Stretched Too Thin?
 U.S. forces have been assigned to increasing numbers of missions
 War-fighting
 Peacekeeping
 Nation building
 Counterinsurgency
 Humanitarian aid
 Using Military Force: The Gulf War
 1990 Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in an effort to restore his military prestige and secure control
over a major share of the world’s oil reserves
 More than 500,000 U.S. military personnel were sent to the Gulf region
 1991, Operation Desert Storm began with air strikes lasting 5 weeks
 Followed up with only 100 hours of ground war before a President Bush declared a victory and
celebrated the return of American troops
 Though Hussein’s forces had been nearly destroyed during the U.S.’s decisive military victory, his
remaining forces continued to brutally attack his opponents in the region after U.S. troops left
4|Page
 Using Military Force: Iraq
 After the Gulf War, Hussein refused to comply with UN resolutions
 Operation Iraqi Freedom
 Elimination of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction
 A “regime change” for Iraq
 To ensure that Saddam would not harbor or assist terrorist organizations
 Deployed fewer than half of the forces that had been used in the Gulf War
 Lacked support of Europe
 Announced the “end of major combat” in 2003
 What went wrong in Iraq?
 A preemptive strike against terrorist on their own ground
 Public support waned and the Powell Doctrine was ignored
 Limits on Numbers of Troops
 American Troops Used for “Nation Building”
 Involvement in Civil Strife
 Costs to the U.S. Military
 “Clear, Hold and Build”
 The “Surge”
 Loss of Public Support (See Fig. 15-3)
 Withdrawal of Combat Forces
 Mixed Outcome
 Using Military Force: Afghanistan
 Operation Enduring Freedom
 Precipitated by September 11, 2001 attacks
 Focused on attacks against Al Qaeda and the Taliban regime
 Al Qaeda and Taliban Resurgence
 Obama’s War
 Limited Objectives
 Disrupting, dismantling and defeating Al Qaeda
 ISAF Buildup (International Security Assistance Force)
5|Page

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