In need of a 250 word response/discussion to each of the following forum posts. Agreement/disagreement/and/or continuing the discussion.Original forum discussion/topic post is as follows:This week, first, post Four brief summaries of the studies you selected for your Integrative Project Literature Review. Then, share in a separate post what challenges you have experienced so far in your work on this project?Forum post # 1The one sentence overarching theme of my paper is: Being able to understand and educated one another on cultural differences among societyCourse name and article summary 1: Personality and Counseling Theories- Effectiveness of multicultural psychology based on counselor’s culture. Dillon, F. R., Odera, L., Fons-Scheyd, A., Sheu, H., Ebersole, R. C., & Spanierman, L. B. (2016). A dyadic study of multicultural counseling competence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 57-66. doi:10.1037/cou0000118The purpose of this study was to investigate client and counselor levels of multicultural competence. There are four different therapy sessions conducted between these two subjects in order to see how mental health services can effect racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States. In some instances, racial and ethnic minority individuals receive lower quality of health care than some white, or non-Latino counterparts. Course name and article summary 2: Psychopathology- Educating parents and children on different types of mental health issues in adolescents. Reardon, T., Harvey, K., Baranowska, M., O’Brien, D., Smith, L., & Creswell, C. (2017). What do parents perceive are the barriers and facilitators to accessing psychological treatment for mental health problems in children and adolescents? A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(6), 623-647. doi:10.1007/s00787-016-0930-6 The purpose of this study was to educate parents on the different kinds of health problems that their children may have as well as the different accesses to treatment that they are able to receive. The study states that in recent decades there has been a rapid increase in mental illnesses among children, and finding the correct treatment that parents are comfortable with is important in their recovery to success. Course name and article summary 3: Contemporary Issues in Psychology- Allowing different cultures to work together through issues in society to reach a common goal.Sawyer, R. & Chen, G. “The Impact of Social Media on Intercultural Adaptation.” Intercultural Communication Studies, 21 (2), 151-169. The purpose of this study was researching how social media was able to have different cultures work together to come to a conclusion on different ideas they may have. By opening your eyes to working with different cultures you are able to have new ideas that you may of never dealt with before as well as sharing your experiences and ideas with one another to educate everyone. In a sense it can be like a melting pot of ideas, that can establish one main idea into one. Course name and article summary 4: Multicultural Psychology- How social privilege affects the world we live in today. Phillips, L. T., & Lowery, B. S. (2018). Herd Invisibility: The Psychology of Racial Privilege. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 156-162. doi:10.1177/0963721417753600Forum post #2The overarching theme ofmy paper is to establish how we forge and maintain healthy relationships. The purpose of the healthy relationships is to function as proper capacity as a human while we interact with others. People normally have a healthy life when they are balanced in their mind, health, finances, spirituality, and relationships with others.Psychology 511 Learning and Cognition- Does a positive mindset help forge relationships and help children excel in school? Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting positive youth development through school‐based social and emotional learning interventions: A meta‐analysis of follow‐up effects. Child development, 88(4), 1156-1171.In 2017 these four researchers investigated the 82 school based learning centers to determine a few things of interest. They wanted to see who had positive value of themselves and positive identity of themselves which translated to high scholastic achievement and social skills with others. We already know that people need healthy relationships to maintain balance in their lives. This study revealed new insight towardsThe participants included 97,406 children from kindergarten to high school. The experiments and case studies were conducted in the classroom through interview questions, interactions, and observation of the children in their school environment. The quantitative measurements were scores in homework and tests, questions answers verbally correct, and eagerness to participate in class. The qualitative measurements were emotions displayed such as joy, happiness, kindness, meanness, and stubbornness. This study shines light to the fact that children in homes where they are supported, encouraged, and included achieve higher in school and have better social skills. The learning and cognition that begins in the home help us to soar in school and form healthy relationships with others. Psychology 515 Social Psychology- How do social interactions affect well being and relationships?Kearns, A., Whitley, E., Tannahill, C., & Ellaway, A. (2015). Loneliness, social relations and health and well-being in deprived communities. Psychology, health & medicine, 20(3), 332-344.In 2013 research was conducted on 4302 adults to see if they were sociable in their community or not. The purpose was to see if they had good social skills personally did it transfer to professionally and in all other aspects of life. We already know that if you have a job you have to communicate on some level with other people. The adults were interviewed, and observed in social settings such as the community, stores, work, gym, and other areas where they had interaction with others. The results of the study were measured by who had contact with many people and who had no contact or minimal contact with others. The qualitative aspects measured were again the feelings a person had in certain settings. The quantitative aspects measured were phone calls out and in, outing attended or ignored, number of people interacted with or avoided and things that tie into being social. Their eagerness to interact with others depended on how they learned, and also their personality type.Psychology 520 Personality and Counseling Theories- How do our persoanlities affect emotional connections to others we encounter?Bozionelos, N., & Singh, S. K. (2017). The relationship of emotional intelligence with task and contextual performance: More than it meets the linear eye. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 206-211.In 2017 they decided to complete research to determine what types of personalities people had to determine emotional intelligence. 188 workers were tested, and interviewed and then observed in their job and homes. They wanted to see who performed high at work and had a bad home life and vice versus. We already know that just because you perform well at work doesn’t mean you are emotionally sound. We also know that high performance at work doesn’t mean you have a healthy relationship with your family members either. The quantitative data measured was awards received, pay raises, vacation time or family time off on leave, and other things of that nature. The qualitative were people who spoke highly of their family and seemed to value the members of their family. This study will prove that personality determines the job you have, the satisfaction you maintain, and how your character determines the relationships you have that are successful. Psychology 510 Lifespan and Development- What skills do we acquire in life to form healthy relationships?Khalifian, C. E., Murphy, C. M., Barry, R. A., & Herman, B. (2019). Skills for healthy adult relationships at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County: Program development and preliminary data. Journal of interpersonal violence, 34(12), 2551-2572.The purpose of this study was to determine if people had hit the milestones of life described by The sample for this study was a group pf 15 people 8 female and 7 male so that is not enough people to represent a huge mass of people in society. The results of the study were in my opinion inconclusive because not enough people were participating to determine if the stages of human development were properly met or not. The study proves that people must get he things they need at each stage of life in order to forge and maintain healthy relationships in life. Forum post #3Overarching Theme of Paper: The effects of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among law enforcement officers and how it impacts their well-being and critical decision makingCourse name and article summary 1Contemporary Issues in Psychology- How outside influences make an impact. Roberts, N., Leonard, R., Butler, E., Levenson, R., & Kanter, J. (2013). Job stress anddyadic synchrony in police marriages: A Preliminary Investigation. FamilyProcess, 271-283, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2012.01415.xThe purpose of this study was to determine adverse effects of stress on police officer marriages, and the emotional behaviors of the police officers and their spouses. Conducted were daily stress diaries, a laboratory-based discussion about their days, and video recordings of conversations between them. A dyadic repeated measures design was used to evaluate the number of observations available for each of the couples, which totaled 1020 observations. Behavior outcomes were assessed every 30 seconds and 15 minutes, using quantitative techniques. The hypotheses were tested regarding levels of hostility and affection using a two-intercept. It was expected that greater stress levels of the police officers might cause physical or emotional depletion with interacting with their wives. Overall the results showed that police officers who show greater stress on the job actually have fewer hostility behaviors during interaction with their wives. With these unexpected findings, when the police officer experiences higher levels of stress, they are more affectionate and attentive towards their wives. This may be due to deflecting stressors or finding more pleasure and enjoyment from interactions with their wives. Course name and article summary 2Social Psychology- How attitude and behavior can be affected. Violanti, J., Andrew, M., Mnatsakanova, A., Hartley, T., Fekedulegn, D., & Burchfiel, C. (2016). Correlates of hopelessness in the high suicide risk police occupation. Police Practice and Research, 17(5), 408-419. http://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2015.1015125The purpose of the study was to determine if police officers who are chronically exposed to work related stress have a higher suicide risk due to feeling hopeless. The participants included 378 police male and female officers. An analysis of variance was used to determine the mean levels to score hopelessness related to stress; with categories of gender, age, race and ethnicity. Associations between work stress and hopelessness were examined to determine symptoms of PTSD among police officers. Increased levels of certain types of police stress such as administrative, lack of support, and danger were connected to the levels of hopelessness rising, causing PTSD symptoms to significantly modify the connection. Although dangerous situations is usually considered to be the leading cause of stress, the results indicate that administrative practices and having lack of support by the agency effects the police officer’s greatly, and as a result indicates higher levels of hopelessness than the dangers of working in the field and doing the job itself. Overall, hopelessness is a psychological vulnerability and it’s a risk factor for possible outcomes such as depression, stress, or suicide among police officers. Course name and article summary 3Psychopathology- Psychological causes.Marchand, A., Nadeau, C., Beaulieu-Prévost, D., Boyer, R., & Martin, M. (2015). Predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among police officers: A prospective study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 7(3), 212-221.http://doi.org/10.1037/a0038780This was a prospective study of 83 police officers, examining the risks and protective factors that aid in the development of PTSD. For this study, interviews were conducted to collect the most recent work-related traumatic event to evaluate for acute stress disorder along with full or partial PTSD diagnoses. Also, questionnaires meant to asses potential predictors were administered to the participants. Overall results showed there were PTSD connections with some pre-traumatic, peri-traumatic, and post-traumatic factors. Course name and article summary 4Personality and Counseling Theories-TreatmentDubovsky, S. (2018). A more efficient treatment for PTSD? NEJM Journal Watch. Psychiatry, http://doi.org./10.1056/nejm-jw.NA45966This study consisted of 126 patients in Veterans Affairs (VA) who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to determine if prolonged exposure and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) are effective first-line treatments for PTSD. This was an evaluated once a week for 12 weekly sessions of CPT or 5 individual weekly sessions consisting of written exposure therapy (WET). WET consisted of writing structured accounts of traumatic events and reviewing materials. CPT used two written traumatic events, and other additional assignments at home. This study was conducted over 36 weeks of follow ups, where both treatments had equivalent clinically important reductions of PTSD symptoms. Less than half of the participants in each group still met criteria for having PTSD still; however, the difference between the two treatments is significantly more CPT than WET patients dropped out.
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