What factors inspired Panamanians to engage in non-violent revolution, political science homework help

  

Answer each question
in 1-4 complete sentences. Use your owen words. 
7a  Non-violent
revolutions (Nepstad 2011) 
1. 
What factors inspired Panamanians to engage in non-violent revolution?
2. 
What factors favored the non-violent revolution?
3. 
What factors contributed to its ultimate failure?
4. 
Here I encourage you to provide your own response to the readings, ask
questions for clarification, or pose questions that you would like to discuss
in class.
7b  Shifting
Middle Ground (Conklin and Graham 1995)
1. 
What is the basis of the middle ground shared between environmentalists
and the Kayapó? How does adopting the middle ground help both groups?
2. 
How has this movement compared to previous indigenous movements and the
rubber tappers movements in Brazil?
3. 
Provide one example of how internationalization of the issue has helped
the Kayapó and one example of how it has harmed the Kayapó.
4. 
Here I encourage you to provide your own response to the readings, ask
questions for clarification, or pose questions that you would like to discuss
in class.
conklin_and_graham_1995___shifting_middle_ground.pdf

nepstad_2011___panama_s_struggle_for_democracy.pdf

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nonviolent_revolutions_framework.doc

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Non-violent Revolutions
Nepstad’s (2011) framework, as presented in Chapter 1. Use this framework to contextualize the
Panamanian revolution.
Causes of revolutions
• Widespread grievances against the state that raise doubts about legitimacy
• National elites shift allegiance to the opposition
• People must be sufficiently enraged to act
• Unifying ideology of rebellion (identification of problems and steps toward solutions)
• Mobilizing organizations (labor, religious, student)
Factors affecting outcomes of revolutions
• Structural conditions
– Economic (in)dependence, international agreements, social organization
• International support and sanctions
– More likely to help violent revolutions than nonviolent, which depend more on
local and mass mobilization
• Security force defections and unreliability
– More important for nonviolent revolutions, where reprisals and international
sanctions give repression a higher moral and political cost
• Repression
– Can crush or invigorate protesters, especially if they are unarmed, which can
further delegitimize the government


Strategy of violent revolution
– Choices about targets, timing, and tactics to defeat the military and leave the ruler
unprotected
– Often seen as the only option against a ruler with absolute power
Strategy of nonviolent revolution
– Relational view: rulers only possess power given to them by the people
– Electoral approach: organize to produce fair elections
– Gandhian approach: withdraw authority, cooperation, material resources, and
skills, undermine the state’s sanctioning power
Examples of non-violent revolutions from Nepstad 2011
Type of regime
Successful revolution
Failed revolution
Socialist regime
German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
China
Military regime
Chile
Panama
Personal dictator
Philippines
Kenya

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