Why and how do incentives motivate employees, 600 to 700 words essay, business and finance homework help

  

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Grading Criteria for Group Research Paper
Bus 107 – Organizational Behavior
Abstract: An abstract includes topic of the research paper, problem statement and/or main objective of
the paper and presents the main findings and the conclusion. Length of the abstract should be 100 to
150 words.
_______2 points
Introduction: Introduction is clear and well organized. This section includes at least one citation from
peer reviewed journal and it should be 400 to 500 words in length.
_______5 points
Problem Statement: Problem statement is clear and relates to introduction. Length of the problem
statement should be no more than 100 words in length.
_______2 points
Research Questions: Paper includes a minimum of three research questions which are clearly articulated.
_______3 points
Methodology: Paper includes brief explanation of the methodology used in finding the information for
writing the paper. This section includes specific database used for finding the research articles for the
paper. Length of this section should be no more than 100 words in length.
_______3 points
Results and Findings: Each question is restated in the paper and response for each question is between
500 to 700 words in length. Additionally, response to each question includes relevant citation from peer
reviewed journal.
Research Question No. 1_______________________ 10 points
Research Question No. 2_______________________ 10 points
Research Question No. 3_______________________ 10 points
Conclusion: Conclusion is clearly stated and connections to the research and position are clear and
relevant. The underlying logic is explicit. Conclusion should be 100 to 150 words in length.
_______5 points
Recommendations: Two recommendations are based on the results and findings. Recommendations
provide with an explanation how to implement in an organization.
Each recommendation should be 100 to 150 words in length.
_______4 points
References: A minimum of five references are provided. All references are cited in the paper and must be
from peer reviewed journals.
_______1 points
1
Presentation Quality ( written report):





Cover page ( 1 point)
Table of contents ( 1 point)
Correct use of grammar and no spelling errors ( 1 point)
Consistency of the format ( font, size, etc.) ( 1 point)
Page numbers ( 1 point)
_______5 points
2
Grading Criteria for Group Research Paper
Bus 107 – Organizational Behavior
Abstract: An abstract includes topic of the research paper, problem statement and/or main objective of
the paper and presents the main findings and the conclusion. Length of the abstract should be 100 to
150 words.
_______2 points
Introduction: Introduction is clear and well organized. This section includes at least one citation from
peer reviewed journal and it should be 400 to 500 words in length.
_______5 points
Problem Statement: Problem statement is clear and relates to introduction. Length of the problem
statement should be no more than 100 words in length.
_______2 points
Research Questions: Paper includes a minimum of three research questions which are clearly articulated.
_______3 points
Methodology: Paper includes brief explanation of the methodology used in finding the information for
writing the paper. This section includes specific database used for finding the research articles for the
paper. Length of this section should be no more than 100 words in length.
_______3 points
Results and Findings: Each question is restated in the paper and response for each question is between
600 to 700 words in length. Additionally, response to each question includes relevant citation from peer
reviewed journal.
Research Question No. 1_______________________ 10 points
Research Question No. 2_______________________ 10 points
Research Question No. 3_______________________ 10 points
Conclusion: Conclusion is clearly stated and connections to the research and position are clear and
relevant. The underlying logic is explicit. Conclusion should be 100 to 150 words in length.
_______5 points
Recommendations: Two recommendations are based on the results and findings. Recommendations
provide with an explanation how to implement in an organization.
Each recommendation should be 100 to 150 words in length.
_______4 points
References: A minimum of five references are provided. All references are cited in the paper and must be
from peer reviewed journals.
_______1 points
1
Presentation Quality ( written report):





Cover page ( 1 point)
Table of contents ( 1 point)
Correct use of grammar and no spelling errors ( 1 point)
Consistency of the format ( font, size, etc.) ( 1 point)
Page numbers ( 1 point)
_______5 points
2
Results and Findings:
1) Why is stress management important to obtain objectives and overall success in
an organization?
Organizations are constantly developing new methods to be more effective and
successful in a competitive market. One issue that has risen in the last several years is
stress management. The concept of stress is described as “the condition or feeling in
which one is when one believes that demands in one’s life exceed personal and social
means which one has at one’s disposal” (Olorunsola and Ajibua 2012). Stress at work is
recognized worldwide as a major challenge to workers’ individual health and the
organizations performance. According to Olorunsola and Ajibua (2012) “If one has
inadequate talent or training for his job, it is expected that the output will be low and this
may lead to stress.” McHugh and Brennan (1992) remarked that the adverse effects of
stress for individuals and organizations resulting from the change process may be seen in
poor job performance, high levels of absenteeism, discontent among the workforce, high
labor turnover with the loss of “good” employees and a large increase in recruitment and
retraining costs. Organizations that have cultures that are unwilling to recognize the
symptoms of stress and its effects can suffer along with the employee.
Stress varies from one occupation to another. Workplace stress most likely comes
from the poor fit between an individual and the job environment. One of the difficulties
in starting a stress management program is the lack of cooperation from top managers;
many of them believe that stress is a problem that employees must deal with individually.
“Total stress management may be viewed as a pervasive organizational philosophy…that
1
aims to help organizations achieve optimal stress levels in all areas of organizational
functioning and in all individual employees so that they may experience enhanced levels
of effectiveness” (McHugh and Brennan, 1992). Every manager should do something to
help reduce stress within the organization.
Due to the recent recession, organizations have been downsizing and doing
layoffs which have forced many corporations to have a heavier workload on their current
employees. Workers who are stressed are more likely to be less motivated, less
productive, and less safe at work. This causes the organizations to be less successful in a
competitive market. Stress at work can be a real problem to the organization and its
employees. This is why employers must protect their employees from stress that arises
due to work. “This is especially true in organizations undergoing a constant change and
development process where personnel at all levels are exposed to a range of experiences
which may be perceived as stressful” (McHugh and Brennan, 1992). If employers are
able to understand the causes and triggers of job stress then it would be easier for them to
help reduce it before harmful consequences occur. The costs of stress for organizations in
the U.S. can range from $150 to $300 billion a year. “…the organization should perceive
the savings to be accumulated by stress prevention and management initiatives in terms
of lost working days, absenteeism, poor performance, premature death and retraining”
(McHugh and Brennan, 1992). Most U.S. companies use stress management initiatives
by providing health care, stress prevention and keep-fit programs for their employees.
“Organizations will not only have satisfied, committed and productive workers, but also
reduce cost related to stress” (Olorunsola and Ajibua, 2012).
While a certain amount of job stress is to be expected, the effects of workplace
2
stress can cause decreased productivity and increased absenteeism, accidents, employee
turnover, and even increased healthcare costs. Learning to identify the factors that cause
job stress and implementing programs that can monitor and decrease stress levels will
result in a happier and healthier workplace.
2) What are the warning signs and symptoms of stress?
Stress is a threatening situation to individual’s everyday life. They may be
experiencing stress throughout their busy schedules with work, deadlines, family, friend,
financial struggles among others. All which can lead individuals to face life-or-death
situations. Stress becomes to be a personal condition because what one person finds it to
be stressful another may not. Therefore the warning signs and symptoms may be different
to identify. As stress is prolonged our bodies react, our hearts start beating faster, our
blood pressure elevates and senses are heightened. According to Getting to grips with
stress in the workplace: Strategies for promoting a healthier more productive
environment “it is important to realize that our bodies do not distinguish between
physical and psychological threats” (Carr, 2011). The most important factor to avoiding
physical or mental overload is to identify the problem on time. Some of the most
common warning signs and symptoms of stress are Cognitive, physical, emotional, or
behavioral symptoms.
Cognitive symptoms deal directly with people’s minds. Due to the work overload
they begin to act differently. The minds begin to drift apart from their train of thought
causing memory problems and inability to concentrate. They begin to constantly stress
over every task in their jobs such as projects, sales meeting or just going to work. This
3
can lead to having a negative attitude towards everything or having poor judgment. They
begin to feel very anxious and having racing thoughts, all of which will affect their entire
life. Our minds control our daily actions, it is very important to recognize any of these
symptoms on time.
Physical symptoms are those that are most noticeable. The body reacts to any
abnormal activity such as aches and pains. It can interfere with people’s health and cause
diarrhea, constipation, nausea, dizziness, chest pain or even cause a rapid heartbeat.
Stress can overpower people’s health in many other ways causing them to have frequent
colds and even loss their sex drive. In order to maintain a healthy life style one must pay
attention to any of these symptoms that may occur as they can lead to much more severe
physical damages.
Emotional symptoms are those that people cannot hide when they are under stress
which leads to moodiness. Emotions are triggered through different activities in the
workplace which cause people to have extremely short temper an inability to relax. These
emotions can rise upon a stressful meeting, argument or even overload of work.
Individuals begin to feel overwhelmed with a sense of loneliness and isolation. Soon all
these emotions develop to make a person feel depressed and unhappy. The body is unable
to relax and becomes unstable showing many of the symptoms listed above.
Behavioral symptoms are noticed immediately. Stress can cause people’s
behavior to have an unusual behavior; it can be as simple as loss of appetite, overeating
or picking up abnormal habits such as using alcohol, cigarettes or any other drugs to help
relief stress. Stress can also cause an individual to be nervous around others leading them
to isolation and neglecting their responsibilities. When people become stressed they lose
4
themselves and forget the values in life. They allow the problem overpower them as
individuals causing them major changes in their lives.
Stress is inevitable but can be managed if identified on time. It is important that
people are aware of what is causing stress in their lives. In order to find solutions, the
problem needs to be identified. Every person will have a different reaction towards the
same issues in the workplace and the management teams should know how to react
towards any issue. However, individuals are encouraged to speak up when they feel they
need assistance as well. If anyone experiences any of the symptoms listed above they
should reach out for help because it can be life changing for some.
3) How can stress be overcome?
Stress is found everywhere, from one’s household to one’s workplace. In fact it is
such a common problem that many studies have been undertaken to identify the problems
with a stressful life. But the problem is few studies try to find specific solutions to
reducing instances of stress. One stress article that tries to identify ways of overcoming
stress in the workplace is Dr. Martin Levinsons’ Managing Organizational Stress through
General Semantics. In this paper he identifies stress reducing methods such as having
reasonable expectations, delaying reactions, and more.
Wendell Johnson, author of People in Quandaries developed the Idealization to
Frustration to Demoralization syndrome. Essentially it is when someone takes a concept
and over-idealizes it, for example someone may have heard all about the good and bad
about a task, but they choose only to listen about the good things (Levinson, 2004). After
a while they become frustrated that the task isn’t what they thought it was. Soon this
5
frustration leads to demoralization and wanting to give up on the task. They become
burned out because they had set too high of an expectation on the task at hand. In each
step of IFD Syndrome the level of stress rises; when one raises expectations to an
unobtainable level, the odds of success diminish because distress levels rise, and eventual
failure ensues.
Another valuable way of reducing stress is by delaying reactions to decisions
(Levinson, 2004). While in today’s fast place global workplace quick decisions are
important to the success of a business, it is important to note that decisions need to be
thought about prior to answering. This can be done by receiving a potential decision
question and waiting until the decision maker can stop and physically think about the
decision on hand. Along the lines of Dr. Levinsons’ example, a young professional may
want to accept any responsibility given to her. However rather than always saying yes to
more tasks, it is important to ensure the added task will not be detrimental to works in
progress. A big portion to stress management is by ensuring one’s life map matches the
territory they are in (Levinson, 2004).
In many cases employees strive to succeed in the wrong areas. Perhaps the
employee feels they are on the right path by always doing work correctly and in a timely
manner, but in all actuality they are not working towards developing relationships with
co-workers and bosses and being a team player. Often times one sets their path prior to
even beginning a task. An example of this would be say a library branch closure results
in a librarian who is retained is forced to work at another library. He knows the commute
to work will be longer, not to mention in a bad neighborhood, thus he is disappointed to
go to the new location on the first day. He never really connects with the other staff
6
members, and six months later he is contemplating leaving. A better way of thinking
about the new position would have been to think of it as a new chapter in life (no pun
intended), and gone in happy to make new connections and friends at the new branch.
According to Dr. Levinson, one other method of stress reduction is to not jump to
conclusions. Far too often people think they know something and they conjecture an
elaborate story to back it up, when in verity nothing factual can be found. Oftentimes
stress can be attributed to office politics, in which case often times the best way to
combat stress is to not jump to conclusions about bosses and coworkers. Perhaps an
employee feels they are not liked by the boss because the delivery route they have been
assigned forces them to drive across town multiple times. This driver may feel like they
have done something wrong in the past, and be stressed they will do something else
wrong in the future. But in reality perhaps the boss likes the employee and thought the
assigned route while longer in miles, was shorter in length of time due to traffic patterns,
ensuring the employee was always home for dinner with the family.
Some other potential solutions to reducing stress are offered by Bo Netterstrom
and Per Bech in their work published in BMC Public Health (Netterstrom, et.al., 2010):
a. Change of workplace
b. Change of job tasks
c. Conflict resolution
d. Reduced number of working hours
e. Sick leave, possibly on a part-time basis
But to begin with, the best ways to replace workplace stress are to enable employees to
realize it is okay to say no to added tasks; also make sure the tasks they do take on are
small enough to be attainable. In a marathon it is about running a continuous pace, not
sprinting and collapsing, springing and collapsing. Employees and employers should
7
have reasonable expectations about each other. Make observations about each other and
don’t jump to conclusions. Ensuring organizations know these elementary yet powerful
stress management techniques means the organization will be able to be productive and
stress free in the future.
Conclusion:
Throughout the research process, our group was able to find an abundance of
articles emphasizing the importance of stress management to achieve a more productive
and committed personnel. The research literature also provided important and interesting
methods to recognize the symptoms and warning signs of stress, and ultimately strategies
to overcome its negative effects. The results of the investigation reinforce our idea that
organizations should implement measures to identify job stressors and develop strategies
to reduce their impact on employees. By doing so, organizations will not only benefit
from a more efficient labor force but also from a reduction in health-care expenses and
other costs that can arise as a consequence of a burned-out staff.
Recommendations:
1. As stated in the answer for the first question, the adverse effects of stress are reflected
in a reduced job performance, poorer health, absenteeism, and high labor turnover among
others. Our recommendation for managers is to be aware of the problem and take
initiatives to detect, prevent and eliminate job stressors for the well-being of their
8
employees and the success of their organizations. Being able to recognize the most
common warning signs listed in this study such as cognitive, physical, emotional, and
behavioral symptoms is an important step toward the prevention of staff burnout.
2. Our advice to overcome stress and create healthier, happier, and more productive
environments is to follow the strategies cited in our research. Having reasonable
expectations, delaying reactions, and avoiding the jumping to conclusions are approaches
that employees and managers can take for addressing the problem of job stress. However,
these strategies require the active participation of managers and employees, both should
be committed to their jobs but also be conscious of their limitations.
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References:
Beehr, T. A., & Newman, J. E. (1978). Job stress, employee health, and organizational
Carr Jolynn, Becky Kelley, Rhett Keaton, Chad Albrecht, (2011) “Getting to grips with
stress in the workplace: Strategies for promoting a healthier, more productive
environment”, Human Resource Manage …
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