Need an research paper on application of engineering principles. Needs to be 8 pages. Please no plagiarism. Particular attention must be given to temperature when determining viscosity.The figure shows in more detail how the viscosity varies from fluid to fluid and how for a given fluid it varies with temperature, whereas for gases an increase in temperature causes an increase in viscosity. This difference in the effect of temperature on the viscosity of liquids and gases can again be traced to the difference in molecular structure. The liquid molecules are closely spaced, with strong cohesive forces between these intermolecular forces. As the temperature increases, these cohesive are reduced with a corresponding reduction in resistance to motion. Since viscosity is an index of this resistance, it follows that the viscosity is reduced by an increase in temperature. In gases, however, the molecules are widely spaced and intermolecular forces negligible. In this case resistance to relative motion arises due to the exchange of momentum of gas case resistance to relative motion arises due to the exchange of momentum of gas molecules between adjacent layers. As molecules are transported by a random motion from a region of bulk velocity to mix with molecules in a region of higher bulk velocity (and vice versa), there is an effective momentum exchange that resists the relative motion between the layers. As the temperature of the gas increases, the random molecular activity increases with a corresponding increase in viscosity.Where c and s are empirical constants and T is the absolute temperature. Thus, if the viscosity is known at two temperatures, c and s can be determined. Or, if more than two viscosities are known, the data can be correlated with the above equation by using some type of curve fitting scheme.Where D and B are constants and T is the absolute temperature. This equation is often referred to as Andrade’s equation. .
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