Write 5 pages with APA style on Cultural Considerations in International Project Management. Culture plays a significant role in binding such groups together. International projects are based on informal, boundary-spanning networks (Marrewijk, 2007). Since the participants come from diverse backgrounds, the project culture consists of multiple fragmented subcultures. Behavioral variables have a critical role in project success (Shore & Cross, 2005). Various dimensions of culture such as power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and individualism can influence the outcome of the project.2. Cross-cultural studies conducted by Hofstede and Trompennars have given rise to cultural dimensions along which value systems have been defined. Since these value systems affect human thinking, feeling, and acting, and the behavior of organizations and institutions (Anbari, Khilkhanova, Romanova & Umpleby, 2000), the project managers or the ‘social architects’ need to have a deeper understanding (Marrewijk, 2007).Hofstede distinguishes between individualism (people take care of themselves) and collectivism (people are cared for by the group) which affect relations between people (Shore & Cross, 2005). Different nations score differently on the Individualism Index and hence would affect the functioning of a group as a team.Power distance is the degree to which power is distributed unequally among the members of a group. In high power distance cultures (Malaysia, Mexico) power is shared unequally whereas it is more equally shared in low power distance cultures (Austria, Denmark).Culture can make its members feel comfortable or uncomfortable in certain situations. When the society or its members feel threatened there is a tendency to avoid the unknown and maintain orderliness, structure and laws (Shore & Cross, 2005). .
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