Expert Answer:—Sentence Structure —-

  

Solved by verified expert:InstructionsStep 1 View the following VideosWhat is a sentence Sentence PatternsSimple and Compound SentencesSimple and Compound SentencesStep 2 Review the following handoutSentences Patterns Reading Ch 21-36.pdfStep 3 Answer the questions on the following worksheet
Creating-compound-sentences Worksheet.pdf
sentences_patterns_reading_ch_21_36.pdf

creating_compound_sentences_worksheet.pdf

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Expert Answer:—Sentence Structure —-
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

Unformatted Attachment Preview

SENTENCE PARTS
AND PATTERNS
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
THE FIVE BASIC
SENTENCE PATTERNS
Subject
Predicate
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
22.1
INDEPENDENT (MAIN) VS.
DEPENDENT
(SUBORDINATE) CLAUSES
➤A main or independent clause
makes a complete statement and
can stand alone as a sentence: The
sky darkened.
➤A subordinate or dependent
clause is just like a main clause
except that it begins with a
subordinating word: when the sky
darkened; whoever calls.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
23.1
EXERCISE
Sentence combining: Sentence structures
Combine each set of simple sentences below to produce the
kind of sentence specified in parentheses. You will have
to add, delete, change, and rearrange words.
1. Recycling takes time. It reduces garbage in
landfills. (Compound.)
2. People begin to recycle. They generate
much less trash. (Complex.)
3. White tissues and paper towels biodegrade
more easily than dyed ones. People still buy
dyed papers. (Complex.)
4. The cans are aluminum. They bring
recyclers good money. (Simple.)
5. Environmentalists have hope. Perhaps more
communities will recycle newspaper and glass.
Many citizens refuse to participate.
(Compound-complex.)
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
23.2
ANSWERS TO EXERCISE
Possible answers
1. The turn of the twentieth century
ushered in improved technology and new
materials.
2. A sturdy steel skeleton made the
construction of skyscrapers possible.
3. By 1913 the towering Woolworth
Building, with its Gothic ornaments, stood
760 feet (55 stories).
4. At 1450 feet the Sears Tower in
Chicago now doubles the relatively puny
height of the Woolworth Building.
5. Skyscrapers would not have been
practical if Elisha Graves Otis had not built
the first safe passenger elevator in 1857.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
23.3
TESTS FOR FINITE AND
NONFINITE VERBS (VERBALS)
Test 1: Does the word require a change in
form when a third-person subject
changes from singular to plural?
Yes
Finite verbs: It sings. They sing.
No
Nonfinite verb (verbal): bird singing,
birds singing
Test 2: Does the word require a change in
form to show the difference in present,
past, and future?
Yes
No
Finite verb: It sings. It sang. It will
sing.
Nonfinite verb (verbal): The bird
singing is/was/will be a robin.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
25.1
TERMS USED TO DESCRIBE
VERBS
 Tense
➤ The time of the verb’s action.
 Mood
➤ The attitude of the verb’s speaker or writer.
 Voice
➤ The distinction between the active, in which the
subject performs the verb’s action, and the
passive, in which the subject is acted upon.
 Person
➤ The verb form that reflects whether the subject
is speaking, spoken to, or spoken about.
 Number
➤ The verb form that reflects whether the subject
is singular or plural.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
25.2
EXERCISE
Distinguishing
sit/set, lie/lay, rise/raise
Choose the correct verb and then supply the past tense or
past participle, as appropriate.
1. Yesterday afternoon the child (lie, lay) down
for a nap.
2. The child has been (rise, raise) by her
grandparents.
3. Most days her grandfather has (sit, set) with
her, reading her stories.
4. She has (rise, raise) at dawn most mornings.
5. Her toys were (lie, lay) out on the floor.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
25.3
ANSWERS TO EXERCISE
1. Yesterday afternoon the child lay
down for a nap.
2. The child has been raised by her
grandparents.
3. Most days her grandfather has sat
with her, reading her stories.
4. She has risen at dawn most mornings.
5. Her toys were laid out on the floor.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
25.4
TENSES OF A REGULAR VERB
(ACTIVE VOICE)
 Present
➤ Simple present: I walk.
➤ Present progressive: I am walking.
 Past
➤ Simple past: I walked.
➤ Past progressive: I was walking.
 Future
➤ Simple future: I will walk.
➤ Future progressive: I will be walking.
 Present perfect
➤ Present perfect: I have walked.
➤ Present perfect progressive: I have been
walking.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
26.1
TENSES OF A REGULAR VERB
(ACTIVE VOICE) continued
 Past perfect
➤ Past perfect: I have walked.
➤ Past perfect progressive: I had been walking.
 Future perfect
➤ Future perfect: I will have walked.
➤ Future perfect progressive: I will have been
walking.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
26.2
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE
Active Voice The Subject acts.
Subject = actor
The city
Transitive verb
in active voice
controls
Direct object
rents.
Passive Voice The subject is acted upon.
Subject =
object of
action
Transitive verb
in passive
voice
Rents
are controlled
Rents
are controlled.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
By actor
(optional)
by the city.
28.1
CASE FORMS OF
NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
Subjective
Objective
Possessive
Boy
Boy
Boy’s
Jessie
Jessie
Jessie’s
1st person
I
Me
My, mine
2nd person
You
You
Your, yours
3rd person
He
Him
His
She
Her
Her, hers
It
It
Its
1st person
We
Us
Our, ours
2nd person
You
You
Your, yours
3rd person
They
Them
Their, theirs
Who
Whom
Whose
Whoever
Whomever
Which, that, what
Which, that, what
Everybody
Everybody
Nouns
Personal pronouns
Singular
Plural
Relative and interrogative pronouns
Indefinite pronouns
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
Everybody’s
30.1
A Test for Case Forms in
Compound Constructions
 Identify a compound construction.
➤ (He, Him) and (I, me) won the prize
➤ The prize went to (he, him) and (I, me.)
 Write a separate sentence for each part of the
compound.
➤ (He, Him) won the prize. (I, Me) won the prize.
➤ The prize went to (he, him). The prize went to (I,
me).
 Choose the pronouns that sound correct.
➤ He won the prize. I won the prize. [Subjective]
➤ The prize went to him. The prize went to me.
[Objective]
 Put the separate sentences back together.
➤ He and I won the prize.
➤ The prize went to him and me.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
30.2
A Test for Who vs. Whom
in Questions
 Pose the question.
➤ (Who, Whom) makes that decision?
➤ (Who, Whom) does one ask?
 Answer the question, using a personal
pronoun. Choose the pronoun that sounds
correct, and note its case.
➤ (She, Her) makes that decision. She makes that
decision. [Subjective]
➤ One asks (she,her). One asks her. [Objective]
 Use the same case (who or whom) in the
question.
➤ Who makes that decision? [Subjective]
➤ Whom does one ask? [Objective]
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
30.3
A Test for Who vs. Whom in
Subordinate Clauses
 Locate the subordinate clause.
➤ Few people know (who, whom) they should ask.
➤ They are unsure (who, whom) makes the
decision.
 Rewrite the subordinate clause as a separate
sentence, substituting a personal pronoun for
who, whom. Choose the pronoun that sounds
correct, and note its case.
➤ They should ask (she,her). They should ask her.
[Objective]
➤ (She, her) makes the decision. She makes the
decision. [Subjective]
 Use the same case (who or whom) in the
suboridnate clause.
➤ Few people know whom they should ask.
[Objective]
➤ They are unsure who makes the decision.
[Subjective]
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
30.4
EXERCISE
Choosing between subjective and
objective pronouns
Select the appropriate subjective or objective
pronoun(s) for each sentence.
➤ Lisa and (I, me) were competing for places on
the relay team.
➤ The fastest runners at our school were (she, her)
and (I, me), so (we, us) expected to make the
team.
➤ (She, Her) and (I, me) were friends but also
intense rivals.
➤ The time trials went badly, excluding both (she,
her) and (I, me) from the team.
➤ Next season we are determined to earn at least
one place between (she, her) and (I, me).
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
30.5
ANSWERS TO EXERCISE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
I
she, I, we
She, I
her, me
her, me
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
30.6
AGREEMENT
Agreement helps readers understand the
relations between elements in a sentence.
Subjects and verbs agree in number and
person.
Subject
Verb
More Japanese Americans live in Hawaii
and California than elsewhere.
Pronouns and their antecedents agree in
person, number, and gender.
antecedent
Hawaiians value Senator Inouye’s work
pronoun
for them.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
31.1
WAYS TO CORRECT
AGREEMENT WITH
INDEFINITE WORDS
 Change the indefinite word to a plural, and
use a plural pronoun to match.
➤ Faulty: Every athlete deserves their privacy.
➤ Revised: Athletes deserve their privacy.
 Rewrite the sentence to omit the pronoun.
➤ Faulty: Everyone is entitled to their own locker.
➤ Revised: Everyone is entitled to a locker.
 Use he or she (him or her, his or her) to
refer to the indefinite word.
➤ Faulty: Now everyone has their private space.
➤ Revised: Now everyone has his or her private
space.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
31.2
EXERCISE
Revising: Pronoun-antecedent
agreement
Revise the sentences so that pronouns and
their antecedents agree in person and
number.
1. Each girl raised in a Mexican-American family
in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas hopes that
one day they will be given a quinceañera party
for their fifteenth birthday.
2. Such celebrations are very expensive because it
entails a religious service followed by a huge
party.
3. A girl’s immediate family, unless they are
wealthy, cannot afford the party by themselves.
4. The parents will ask each close friend or
relative if they can help with the preparations.
5. Surrounded by her family and attended by her
friends and their escorts, the quinceañera is
introduced as a young woman eligible for
Mexican American society.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
31.3
ANSWERS TO EXERCISE
1.
Each girl raised in a Mexican American
family in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas hopes
that one day she will be given a quinceañera party
for her fifteenth birthday.
2.
Such a celebration is very expensive because
it entails a religious service followed by a huge
party. Or: Such celebrations are very expensive
because they entail a religious service followed by
a huge party.
3.
A girl’s immediate family, unless it is
wealthy, cannot afford the party by itself.
4.
The parents will ask each close friend or
relative if he or she can help with the preparations.
Or: The parents will ask close friends or relatives if
they can help with the preparations.
5.
Sentence correct.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
31.4
FUNCTIONS OF
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
 Adjectives modify
➤ NOUNS: Serious student
➤ PRONOUNS: ordinary one
 Adverbs modify
➤ VERBS: warmly greet
➤ ADJECTIVES: only three people
➤ ADVERBS: quite seriously
➤ PHRASES: nearly to the edge of the cliff
➤ CLAUSES: just when we arrived
➤ SENTENCES: Fortunately, she is employed.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
33.1
DEGREES OF IRREGULAR
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
good
better
best
bad
worse
worst
little
littler, less
littlest, least
more
most
well
better
best
badly
worse
worst
Adjectives
many
some
much
Adverbs
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
33.2
IDENTIFYING AND REVISING
DANGLING MODIFIERS
 Identify the modifier’s subject.
➤ If the modifier lacks a stated subject, identify
what the modifier describes.
 Compare the subject of the modifier and
the subject of the sentence.
➤ Verify that what the modifier describes is in
fact the subject of the main clause.
 Revise as needed.
➤ Either recast the dangling modifier with a stated
subject of its own, or change the subject of the
main clause to be what the modifier describes.
 Dangling: When in diapers, my mother
remarried.
 Revised: When I was in diapers, my mother
remarried.
 Or: When in diapers, I attended my mother’s
second wedding.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
34.1
EXERCISE
Revising: Dangling modifiers
Revise the following sentences to eliminate any dangling
modifiers.
1. After accomplishing many deeds of valor,
Andrew Jackson’s fame led to his election to
the presidency in 1828 and 1832.
2. By the age of fourteen, both of Jackson’s
parents had died.
3. To aid the American Revolution, service as a
mounted courier was chosen by Jackson.
4. Though not well educated, a successful career
as a lawyer and judge proved Jackson’s ability.
5. Winning many military battles, the American
public believed in Jackson’s leadership.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
34.2
POSSIBLE
ANSWERS TO EXERCISE
1. After Andrew Jackson had accomplished
many deeds of valor, his fame led to his
election to the presidency in 1828 and 1832.
2. By the time Jackson was fourteen, both of his
parents had died.
3. To aid the American Revolution, Jackson
chose service as a mounted courier.
4. Though not well educated, Jackson proved his
ability in a successful career as a lawyer and
judge.
5. Because Jackson won many military battles,
the American public believed in his leadership.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
34.3
COMPLETE SENTENCE VS.
SENTENCE FRAGMENT
 A complete sentence or main clause
➤ Contains a subject and a verb
 The wind blows.
➤ And it is not a subordinate clause
 A sentence fragment
➤ Lacks a verb
 The wind blowing.
➤ Or lacks a subject
 And blows.
➤ Or is a subordinate clause not attached to a
complete sentence
 Because the wind blows.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
35.1
TESTS FOR COMPLETE
SENTENCES
Perform all three of the following tests to be
sure your sentences are complete.
 Find the verb.
 Find the subject.
 Make sure the clause is not subordinate.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
35.2
EXERCISE
Revising Sentence Fragments
Correct any sentence fragments below.
1. Human beings who perfume themselves. They
are not much different from other animals.
2. Animals as varied as insects and dogs release
pheromones. Chemicals that signal other
animals.
3. Human beings have a diminished sense of
smell. And do not consciously detect most of
their own species’ pheromones.
4. The human substitute for pheromones may be
perfumes. Especially musk and other fragrances
derived from animal oils.
5. Some sources say that humans began using
perfume to cover up the smell of burning flesh.
During sacrifices to the gods.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
35.3
ANSWERS TO EXERCISE
1.
Human beings who perfume themselves are
not much different from other animals.
2.
Animals as varied as insects and dogs release
pheromones, chemicals that signal other
animals.
3.
Human beings have a diminished sense of
smell and do not consciously detect most of
their own species’ pheromones.
4.
The human substitute for pheromones may be
perfumes, especially musk and other
fragrances derived from animal oils.
5.
Some sources say that humans began using
perfume to cover up the smell of burning flesh
during sacrifices to the gods.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
35.4
SITUATIONS THAT MAY
PRODUCE COMMA SPLICES
AND FUSED SENTENCES
 The first clause is negative; the second, positive.
➤ Splice: Petric is not a nurse, she is a doctor.
➤ Revised: Petric is not a nurse; she is a doctor.
 The second clause amplifies or illustrates the
first.
➤ Fused: She did well in college her average was
3.9.
➤ Revised: She did well in college; her average was
3.9.
 The second clause contains a conjunctive adverb
or other transitional expression, such as however
or for example.
➤ Splice: She had intended to become a biologist,
however, medicine seemed more exciting.
➤ Revised: She had intended to become a biologist;
however, medicine seemed more exciting.
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
36.1
Situations that May Produce
Comma Splices and Fused
Sentences (continued)
 The subject of the second clause repeats or refers
to the subject of the first clause.
➤ Fused: Petric is an internist she practices in
Topeka.
➤ Revised: Petric is an internist. She practices in
Topeka.
 Splicing or fusing is an attempt to link related
ideas or to smooth choppy sentences.
➤ Splice: She is very committed to her work, she
devotes almost all her time to patient care.
➤ Revised: Because she is very committed to her
work, she devotes almost all her time to patient
care.
 Words identifying the speaker divide a quotation
between two complete sentences.
➤ Splice: “Medicine is a human frontier,” Petric
says, “The boundaries are unknown.”
➤ Revised: “Medicine is a human frontier,” Petric
says. “The boundaries are unknown.”
Copyright © 1995–2007 by Pearson Education, publishing as Longman
Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Sixth Edition
36.2
EXERCISE
Revising: Comma splices and
fused sentences
Identify and revise the comma splices and fused
sentences in the following paragraph.
All those parents who urged their children to
eat broccoli were right, the vegetable really is
healthful. Broccoli contains sulforaphane,
moreover, this mustard oil can be fo …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code ESSAYSHELP