Expert Answer:Amazon Organizational Behavior & Employee Turnover

  

Solved by verified expert:Kindly choose an existing company abd diagnose the mechanisms that are causing the problem or issue of concern in the organization. Initially, you may notice many symptoms (for instance, high turnover, seemingly low morale, low commitment, motivation etc.), but your task is to get to the underlying reason for these symptoms. Andbeware, sometimes the initial symptoms we think we see are not what they appear to be. PART 1 Executive SummaryPART 2 The Group Contract PART 3 Case Study Analysis PART 4 Group ReflectionPART 5 Conclusion.PART 6 ReferencingPART 7 Group presentation ( Powerpoint slides )Please carefully read OB group project document attached + chapter attached is to support your answer
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Essentials of Organizational Behavior
Fourteenth Edition, Global Edition
Chapter 15
Organization Structure
and Design
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
After studying this chapter you should be
able to:
1. Identify the seven elements of an organization’s structure.
2. Identify the characteristics of the functional structure, the
divisional structure, and the matrix structure.
3. Identify the characteristics of the virtual structure, the
team structure, and the circular structure.
4. Describe the effects of downsizing on organizational
structures and employees.
5. Contrast the reasons for mechanistic and organic
structural models.
6. Analyze the behavioral implications of different
organizational designs.
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
What Is Organization Structure?
• Organizational Structure:
Defines how job tasks are formally divided,
grouped, and coordinated
– Key elements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Work specialization
Departmentalization
Chain of command
Span of control
Centralization and decentralization
Formalization
Boundary spanning
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Key Questions and Answers
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Work Specialization
• Work specialization:
Describes the degree to which activities in the
organization are subdivided into separate jobs
– Also known as division of labor
– Benefits
▪ Greater efficiency and lower costs
– Costs
▪ Human costs when carried too far
▪ Job enlargement as a solution
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Work Specialization Economies
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Departmentalization
• Departmentalization:
Basis by which jobs are grouped together so that
common tasks can be coordinated
• Common bases:




Functional
Product or service
Geography
Process and customer
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Chain of Command
• Chain of command:
Unbroken line of authority that extends from the
top of the organization to the lowest echelon and
clarifies who reports to whom
– Authority: positional rights
– Unity of command: one boss
• Fewer organizations find this is relevant
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Span of Control
• Span of control:
The number of employees a manager is expected
to effectively and efficiently direct
– Determines the number of levels and managers an
organization has
▪ Trend is toward wider spans of control
▪ Wider span depends on knowledgeable employees
▪ Affects speed of communication and decision making
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Contrasting Spans of Control
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Centralization and Decentralization
• Centralization:
Degree to which decision making is concentrated
at a single point in the organization
– Only includes formal authority: positional rights
– Highly centralized when top managers make all the
decisions
– Decentralized when front line employees and
supervisors make decisions
– Trend is toward increased decentralization
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Formalization
• Formalization:
Degree to which jobs within the organization are
standardized
– Formal: minimum discretion over what is to be done,
when it is done, and how
– Informal: freedom to act is necessary
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Boundary Spanning
• Boundary spanning:
When individuals form relationships outside their
formally assigned groups
– Liaison roles
– Development activities
▪ Job rotations
– Organizational goals and shared identity
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Common Organizational Designs
• Three common organizational frameworks:
1. Simple structure
2. Bureaucracy
3. Matrix structure
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Simple Structure
• Low degree of departmentalization
• Wide spans of control
• Authority centralized in a single person
• Little formalization
• Difficult to maintain in anything other than small
organizations
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Bureaucracy
• Highly routine operating tasks achieved through
specialization





Formal rules and regulations
Centralized authority
Narrow spans of control
Tasks grouped by functional departments
Decision making follows the chain of command
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Functional and Divisional Structures
• Functional structure: groups employees by their
similar specialties, roles, or tasks
• Divisional structure: groups employees into
units by product, service, customer, or geographic
market area
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Structure
• Combines two forms of departmentalization
– Functional
– Product
• Dual chain of command
• Advantages:
– Facilitates coordination and efficient allocation of
specialists
• Disadvantages:
– Possible confusion, fosters power struggles, stress
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Matrix Structure for a College of Business
Administration
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
New Design Options
• Virtual Organization:
A small core organization that outsources its major
business functions
– Highly centralized with little or no departmentalization
– Provides maximum flexibility while concentrating on
what the organization does best
– Reduced control over key parts of the business
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
A Virtual Organization
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
The Team Structure
• Team structure:




Eliminates the chain of command
Has limitless spans of control
Replaces departments with empowered teams
Breaks down geographical barriers
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
The Circular Structure
• Circular structure: Top management is at the
center of the organization with its vision spreading
outward in rings grouped by function
– May be confusing for employees
– May be used to spread CSR initiatives
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
The Leaner Organization: Downsizing
• Downsizing:
A systematic effort to make an organization leaner
by selling off business units, closing locations or
reducing staff
– Controversial because of the negative impact on
employees
– Impact on organizational performance has been very
controversial
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Organizational Design Models
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Determinants of Structure
• Organizational Strategy
– Innovation strategy: introduce new offerings-prefer
organic structures
– Cost-minimization strategy: cost control–prefer
mechanistic structures
– Imitation strategy: minimal risk and maximum profit–
both structures used
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Optimal Structural Option
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
More Determinants of Structure
• Organization Size
– Move toward mechanistic structure as size increases
• Technology
– Routine activities prefer mechanistic structures, nonroutine prefer organic structures
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Still More Determinants of Structure
• Environment




Dynamic environments lead to organic structures
Capacity
Volatility
Complexity
• Institutions
– Act as guidelines for appropriate behavior
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
The Environment
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Organizational Designs and Employee
Behavior
• Cannot generalize any link between structure and
performance
• Consider employee preferences for:




Work specialization
Span of control
Centralization
Predictability versus autonomy
• National culture influences organizational
structure
– High power distance cultures accept mechanistic
structures
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Implications for Managers
• Specialization can make operations more efficient, but excessive
specialization can create dissatisfaction and reduced motivation.
• Avoid designing rigid hierarchies that overly limit employees’
empowerment and autonomy.
• Balance the advantages of remote work against the potential pitfalls
before adding flexible workplace options.
• Downsize your organization to realize major cost savings, and focus
the company around core competencies-but only if necessary because
downsizing can have a significant negative impact on employee affect.
• Consider the scarcity, dynamism, and complexity of the environment,
and balance the organic and mechanistic elements when designing an
organizational structure.
Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Group Project Guidelines
Groups of five are required to prepare a written report and deliver a 20 minutes,
informative presentations dealing with any chosen topic or case related to
Organization Behavior.
The purpose of the project is to give your team an opportunity to apply what has
been learned in the course (through course lectures, readings, and discussions) to
issues occurring in an organization of your team’s choice. Thus, your choice shall be
of a recent case study and shall allow you as a group to explore/apply Organizational
Behavior theories and issues and examine the outcomes/responses to those issues.
Your goal is to diagnose the mechanisms that are causing the problem or issue of
concern in the organization. Initially, you may notice many symptoms (for instance,
high turnover, seemingly low morale, low commitment, motivation etc.), but your
task is to get to the underlying reason for these symptoms. And beware, sometimes
the initial symptoms we think we see are not what they appear to be.
The following are a list of suggested guidelines for you and your group to follow
and successfully complete your group report as part of the overall assessment of
your Organizational Behavior course.
PART 1 Executive Summary
A short section that summarizes your report in such a way that readers can
rapidly become acquainted with a large body of material without having to read
it all.
PART 2 The Group Contract
The group should allocate roles, agree on how they will work together and when
they will meet as the basis of their contract.
PART 3
Case Study Analysis

Identify a case study that the group is going to examine using Change
Management theories and perspectives.

An overview of the case including the group’s rationale (reasons for
choosing the case study) and relevant information on the organization’s plot
etc. should be provided; this can be a summary and should not exceed one
page in length.

The next task is to examine the ethical issue, critically analyse it and
present your overall group’s opinion. Theories and frameworks, which were
discussed as part of class are to be related to the case study.

Answer the following questions as a guide to writing the project.
o Describe the company’s background? (Make this brief).
o Identify the issues or problems facing the organization?
o What course concepts can be applied to understand why this
problem is occurring?
o What recommendations can you offer to help improve
organizational functioning?

HINT: The choice of case study is based on the group’s own
interests and experience which will indirectly demonstrate the group’s
analytical and behavioral skills in how they go about choosing their case.
PART 4
Group Reflection
The final task of the project involves the group revisiting their work at each stage
of the project, reflecting on their experience of completing each part from
the perspective of the group.
PART 5
Conclusion
The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in
your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your
ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your
opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.
PART 6
Referencing
The project should include a bibliographical list of references used by the group
throughout the tasks including lecture materials and video clips.
PART 7
Group presentation

The presentation should provide a description/examination of a recent
topic/case on change and must include critical analysis/opinion by the group.
In other words, your presentation should present what’s in you written report.

Groups are encouraged to develop creative presentational strategies that
demonstrate group collaboration and adequate preparation.
General Guidelines

A suggested page guideline should be (1” margins, 14 point font)
and should not exceed a maximum of 15 pages. If your project ranges
between 5-10 pages this is satisfactory.

Project submission will be on
Week 11 It should include:

Your team name

The names of your group Member + ID numbers

Table of content

The rest of the required assignments

list of references
LATE PROJECT WRITE-UPS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED

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