Expert Answer:Attitudes Toward Death End of Life Issues Diversit

  

Solved by verified expert:Please follow the attached doc “Question 1-4 ” for the questions to answerQuestions 1 a.) Attitudes Toward Death Notice that the Chapter 1 reading for this week is a helpful lead-in to the following discussion topic. This is the beginning of the course, so let’s comment on what our attitudes about death are at the present time. Some individuals have anxiety thinking or speaking about death. Although many of you are taking this course to learn more about the process of dying, death, grief, and bereavement, and associated sociological and political issues, for your career track or to enhance your work experience in the field; there are always classmembers among us who have recently experienced death of someone in their relationships or know someone with a terminal disease and have a need for expression, understanding and support. You will see that this is a significant course in your college experience. Right now, you are to enter a response about your attitude toward death as it is today. Please discuss in 1-2 paragraphs(single-space) being open and forthright. Remind yourself that while we are in this class for the next two months, we will be a fictive family. b.) Death Education: Modern Beginnings A pioneer in the study of death education beginning in the late 50’s, Herman Feifel, contended that the psychological community considered death a dark symbol not to be stirred or taught, certainly not in universities and professional schools. His symposium and seminal publication, The Meaning of Death (1959) changed that perception and practice and gave impetus to other researchers whose clinical perceptions and empirical findings are provocative. Some findings of interest are that death is a directive force present in all of us from our very beginning. Wahl (1959) and others contend that when we shield children from the experience of death, we hinder their emotional growth.Various subcomponents of the fear of death are evident in fear of the unknown, loss of identity, not able to live life “completely,” fear of going to hell, or other spiritual beliefs (Gillespie, 1963).How we anticipate future events, such as death, determines how we behave in life.Acceptance of personal mortality is a foremost entry to self-knowledge. Feifel reminds us that too many of us delay or camouflage death resulting in social pathology rather than using that energy wasted on denial for more constructive and positive aspects of living.Death education needs to assume a rightful role in our cultural upbringing. Death is a psychological presence in ourselves that needs to be attended to throughout our life stages. Note: This material is referenced from The American Psychologist, April 1990 and other of Feifel’s work. It is dated but permeates later writings on death education. Your task is to select one finding or statement and discuss it by thinking critically, referring to any of the readings or scholarly works, and your own feelings, reasoning, or perspective. The entry should be at least 1-2 paragraphs(single –space). Key Terms and Phrases The following are terms and phrases associated with death and dying. It is important to understand what they refer to when you hear them or need to use them in communication with others and for your own benefit. KEY TERMS AND PHRASES Average life expectancy: the average remaining length of life that can be expected for individuals of a specific age and often related to a specific society Death attitudes: dispositions, postures; settled tendencies to acting, representing one’s feelings or opinions about death; the other component, in addition to encounters and practices, of overall experiences with death Death rates: the number of individuals in a particular group who die during a particular time period; usually expressed as some number of deaths per 1,000 or per 100,000 persons in the population; also called mortality rates Dying trajectory: the duration or shape of a dying process Encounters with death: ways in which one confronts or meets up with death; an aspect of experiences with death Experiences with death: the sum of one’s overall death-related encounters, attitudes, and practices Mortality patterns: typical ways in which one encounters death To get some practice, choose one term and use it in a meaningful sentence as though you are in conversation with others. Reading material Read chapter 1 in the Bryant and Peck textbook Handbook of Death and Dying. Chapter 1: The Universal Fear of Death and the Cultural Response CALVIN CONZELUS MOORE & JOHN B. WILLIAMSON
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Questions 1
a.)
Attitudes Toward Death
Notice that the Chapter 1 reading for this week is a helpful lead-in to the following discussion topic.
This is the beginning of the course, so let’s comment on what our attitudes about death are at the
present time. Some individuals have anxiety thinking or speaking about death.
Although many of you are taking this course to learn more about the process of dying, death, grief,
and bereavement, and associated sociological and political issues, for your career track or to enhance
your work experience in the field; there are always classmembers among us who have recently
experienced death of someone in their relationships or know someone with a terminal disease and
have a need for expression, understanding and support.
You will see that this is a significant course in your college experience. Right now, you are to enter a
response about your attitude toward death as it is today. Please discuss in 1-2 paragraphs(singlespace) being open and forthright. Remind yourself that while we are in this class for the next two
months, we will be a fictive family.
b.)
Death Education: Modern Beginnings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A pioneer in the study of death education beginning in the late 50’s, Herman Feifel, contended that the
psychological community considered death a dark symbol not to be stirred or taught, certainly not in
universities and professional schools. His symposium and seminal publication, The Meaning of
Death (1959) changed that perception and practice and gave impetus to other researchers whose
clinical perceptions and empirical findings are provocative.
Some findings of interest are that death is a directive force present in all of us from our very
beginning.
Wahl (1959) and others contend that when we shield children from the experience of death, we hinder
their emotional growth.
Various subcomponents of the fear of death are evident in fear of the unknown, loss of identity, not
able to live life “completely,” fear of going to hell, or other spiritual beliefs (Gillespie, 1963).
How we anticipate future events, such as death, determines how we behave in life.
Acceptance of personal mortality is a foremost entry to self-knowledge. Feifel reminds us that too
many of us delay or camouflage death resulting in social pathology rather than using that energy
wasted on denial for more constructive and positive aspects of living.
Death education needs to assume a rightful role in our cultural upbringing. Death is a psychological
presence in ourselves that needs to be attended to throughout our life stages.
Note: This material is referenced from The American Psychologist, April 1990 and other of Feifel’s
work. It is dated but permeates later writings on death education.
Your task is to select one finding or statement and discuss it by thinking critically, referring to any of
the readings or scholarly works, and your own feelings, reasoning, or perspective. The entry should be
at least 1-2 paragraphs(single –space).
Key Terms and Phrases
The following are terms and phrases associated with death and dying. It is important to understand
what they refer to when you hear them or need to use them in communication with others and for your
own benefit.
KEY TERMS AND PHRASES
Average life expectancy: the average remaining length of life that can be expected for individuals of a
specific age and often related to a specific society
Death attitudes: dispositions, postures; settled tendencies to acting, representing one’s feelings or
opinions about death; the other component, in addition to encounters and practices, of overall
experiences with death
Death rates: the number of individuals in a particular group who die during a particular time period;
usually expressed as some number of deaths per 1,000 or per 100,000 persons in the population; also
called mortality rates
Dying trajectory: the duration or shape of a dying process
Encounters with death: ways in which one confronts or meets up with death; an aspect of experiences
with death
Experiences with death: the sum of one’s overall death-related encounters, attitudes, and practices
Mortality patterns: typical ways in which one encounters death
To get some practice, choose one term and use it in a meaningful sentence as though you are in
conversation with others.
Reading material
Read chapter 1 in the Bryant and Peck textbook Handbook of Death and Dying.
Chapter 1: The Universal Fear of Death and the
Cultural Response
CALVIN CONZELUS MOORE & JOHN B. WILLIAMSON
http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/death/n1.xml Required
http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/death/n2.xml
optional
Question 2
a.)
Diversity and Death
Although the issue of death is still not comfortably thought about and discussed by most individuals,
our lives are affected dramatically by the death of family members, close friends, and co-workers.
Members in my classes have lost persons close to them during the class experience. There have also
been those who were grieving the impending death of a terminally ill family member or close friend
and even themselves. There are those who grieved a death by suicide or homicide.
Talking about death to someone with a terminal illness is very difficult: yet, it can be therapeutic and
meaningful to the dying person to share life experiences and the fear or readiness for death. Such
disclosures can be comforting for the ill person and, for the survivor, it can provide meaningful
reminiscence as well as serve as a reminder to prepare for their own ultimate transition.



Cultural conceptions of death and dying vary; so, it is of interest for us to learn more about the
meaning of life and death and customs and beliefs associated with D&D from your cultural
perspectives. Your task, therefore, is to write a brief essay incorporating the following aspects:
Present your personal cultural conception of dying and death. Be certain to give ethnic background,
any diversity issue that would help us become more knowledgeable about different perspectives and
practices.
Describe family customs to comfort/care for those with impending death.
What insight does your spiritual system give regarding death. Is there a belief in afterlife?
b.)
Homicide
Attitudes and assumptions about homicide vary. In the United States, the assessment of homicide can
be criminal or noncriminal depending on the circumstances and intent. The noncriminal category
identifies justifiable acts. Note that law enforcement and capital punishment (CP) are included in
justifiable acts. Because of the escalation of violence in the U.S., segments of society support capital
punishment as a deterrent, while others contend that society is engaging in murder itself by carrying
out the act of court and state sanctioned capital punishment.
From your perspective, what types of homicide committed by a person would justify their death by CP.
If your spiritual/religious beliefs influence against CP, how do you explain the well known passage that
includes “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” Is CP a justifiable homicide? Your task is to present
your opinion/belief about this issue. Be certain to give the logic or supporting background information
for your side on this matter.
This topic is worth 2 points.
c.)
Disasters and Megadeaths
There have been many disasters in the lifetime of each of us, irrespective of our age which varies
greatly in our classes. These disasters result from human activities and natural phenomena, such as
earthquakes, tsunamis, tornadoes, that typically result in megadeaths.
Most of us may never have experienced a disaster but watched on TV in awe as we viewed what was
happening, and the aftermath with survivors in states of trauma and need, some of whom had lost
family members, friends, or co-workers. Meeting the needs of survivors is essential, as I found out as
a mental health member of a Red Cross Team sent to Louisiana for Katrina. Even so, regaining
emotional stability for survivors takes years, especially when they have experienced death of others in
horrendous ways.
Disasters come in many sizes, not all of great scope, so some of us may have personally experienced
one in our life time. Your assignment is to describe or comment on a disaster that you have related to
that may have involved yourself, family, or your environment. If you have had not this experience;
then report on one in the media that you have witnessed in your lifetime.
Present the situation, how you experienced it, how it affected your feelings/emotions, and how you
reacted/responded.
Discuss, also, your thoughts about any elements or functions of a “death system” that were
encountered. The death system and events of September 11th are especially relevant for many.
Elements of a death system include: People (social roles, support and rescue, funeral directors),
Places (cemeteries, healthcare facilities, hospitals), Times (occasions associated with death, 9/11,
Memorial Day), Objects (death certificates, tombstones, caskets) Symbols (dirge organ music, black
armbands, skull and crossbones) and others (Corr, 2013).
This topic is worth 4 points.
More Key Terms and Phrases
The following are more terms and phrases associated with death and dying. It is important to
understand what they refer to when we hear them or need to use them in communication with others
and for our own benefit.
KEY TERMS AND PHRASES
Anticipatory grief and mourning: process of reacting and coping begins in response to awareness of
the expected loss of a loved one.
Bereavement: being deprived of something valued; the objective situation of someone who has
experienced a loss.
Grief: reaction to loss; the subjective situation of someone who has experienced a loss; in addition to
feelings, grief may be manifested in physical, psychological, social, spiritual and behavioral ways.
Mourning: coping or learning to live with loss; efforts to incorporate or integrate loss into ongoing
living.
Complicated grief: responses that overwhelm the bereaved person in a persistent way and lead to
maladaptive behavior.
To get some practice, choose one term and use it in a meaningful sentence as though you are in
conversation with others.
Reading material to USE
Chapter 4: Death Denial: Hiding and Camouflaging
Death
BERT HAYSLIP JR.
http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/death/n4.xml
Required
Chapter 3: Dealing with Death: Western Philosophical
Perspectives
MICHAEL R. TAYLOR
http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/death/n3.xml optional
Question 3
a.)
Facing Death
People who are dying are “living human beings” with a range of needs, desires, plans, joys, hopes,
fears and sufferings Corr (2009). Once diagnosed with a terminal illness such as cancer, the second
leading cause of death that symbolizes, perhaps, the worst physical fear of our age, a person focuses
on the uncertainty surrounding dying and death.
The awareness of death, then, is a constant that an individual must cope with, both in a problem
focused and an emotional focused approach. What do we know about coping with dying? Nothing,
unless we ourselves have a terminal diagnosis. We can read about it, or we may have witnessed
death of a close family member or friend and may still be grieving, but how do we know what the tasks
of dying are like for others? There are stages of dying (Kubler-Ross, 1969) and tasks of dying (Corr
and others), but what must it be like to cope with dying; physically, psychologically, socially, and/or
spiritually?
How would you cope if today you were diagnosed with a terminal disease not knowing if you have 9
months or 2 years to live? How might your behaviors change? How does forgiveness enter in? What
about your condition would cause you the most anxiety? Who would you share your condition with or
keep if from? How do you feel others would interact with you — the same as always?
Are you afraid? Do you “hate” the idea of dying? Are you angry? Would you feel cheated about time
left to live, depending on your age? Has your life had meaning and purpose up to this time? If you
could, would you arrange for active euthanasia/right to die?
The questions embedded thus far are to get you seriously thinking about you own eventual dying
trajectory. Your assignment is to spend time thinking through the questions as though you really have
been diagnosed by Dr. Death. Spend quiet time on this — think about it in your own life context and
environment. You will come up with other thoughts and questions of your own that you will want to
answer. You will not be able to respond immediately if you consider the seriousness of this
assignment.
You are to respond in 2-3 substantial paragraphs. Do not list questions and answers. Make this
response as though it is a lengthy personal journal entry. Do not get into legal or funeral aspects at
this time.
This assignment is one that you will likely keep with you the rest of your life.
b.)
Research: Caring for the Dying




To satisfy one of the course outcomes “to distinguish among models of care for the dying” and also
a research component for this class, you are to:
Locate 1 research article relating to caring for persons coping with dying.
Submit a discussion of at least two paragraphs with your comments about what stood out for you.
Provide the journal/article information so others can refer to it for future reference.
You may want to refer to the Social Science Toolkit (in the Content Section) for some background in
research/study articles.
c.)
Coping with Dying and Community Care
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
There are practical roles of specific institutions that offer care for individuals who are coping with
dying: hospitals that focus on acute care; home health programs with a focus on home care of a dying
person; long-term care facilities that focus on chronic care; and hospice which focuses on end of life
care (Corr, 2009).
Many gerontologists contend that there is evidence of shortcomings among institutions and reference
the growing awareness of the need for better care for dying persons. It is important for you to fully
understand the differences in these health care programs that are intended to respond to needs of
those who are dying.
Your task is to complete and discuss in a paragraph one of the following items.
The primary goal in responding to needs of the dying
The phrase “hospice is a philosophy, not a facility” means
In contemporary American society, most people die in
Nursing homes differ from hospitals in that they
Home health care services are distinguished by
The modern hospice movement got its impetus in England led by its founder
Some aspects of caregiver stress of those in medical, nursing, emergency or other health care
professionals are
Depersonalization of a dying patient may take place
Key Terms and Phrases
The following are more key terms and phrases associated with death and dying. It is important to
understand what they refer to when you hear them or need to use them in communication with others
and for your own benefit.
Death-related practices: patterns of communication; typical ways of caring for the ill and dying;
mourning, funerals, and other ritual activities
Euphemism: the substitution of a “pleasant” or “less offensive” word or phrase for one thought to be
“unpleasant” or” offensive,” usually because of its blunt or direct character
The Holocaust: the killing of millions of persons – especially Jews – by the Nazis during World War II
merely because of who they were, not because of what they did
Socially-sanctioned death: activities like war and genocide in which societal actions bring about death
among their own members or among members of other societies
Teachable moments: unanticipated life events that offer important occasions for developing insights
and learning about death
Terrorism: violent acts or threats designed to intimidate or create fear on behalf of some religious,
political, or ideological goal while deliberately targeting or disregarding civilians
Stage-based model of coping with dying: describes “stages” in how those who are coping react to and
attempt to manage their stressors
Reading Material to USE
Chapter 42: Death Awareness and Adjustment Across
the Life Span
BERT HAYSLIP JR. & ROBERT O. HANSSON
http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/death/n42.xml
– Required
Chapter 43: Dying as Deviance: An Update on the
Relationship between Terminal Patients and Medical
Settings
CHARLES EDGLEY
http://sk.sagepub.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/reference/death/n43.xml optional
Question 4
Notable Older Individuals – Dead!
a.)
Read Chapter 83 and specifically the Social Status section.



A number of notable figures died during these past seven years, each representing a different dying
trajectory. There was forewarning in the death of some; however, others occurred “off time” — or
unexpectedly.
Your task is to research the death of a noted individual and discuss the following:
What is fascinating about the deaths of public or notable individuals?
How do questionable circumstances affect the public’s interest in such deaths? Cause of death?
What was your reaction and feelings about the death of an individual in the creative, scientific,
political, financial or humanitarian environment? Do you think the public saw it as a positive or
negative event?
You may respond in several substantial paragraphs. Give background of the person; why notable in
their own country or worldwide. This is not to be just a sterile copy of your source. Read sources on
early background as to how that influenced them as individuals even in their childhood, as
appropriate.
Note: Be sure to put the name of the person in your subject line so others do not report on the same
person.
b.)
Myth or Reality?
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross’ stages of dying, death, and grief are known worldwide by gerontologists,
psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, counselors, thanatologists and others. As you noted in
Chapter 84 (Experience of Grief and Bereavement) Kubler-Ross derived her framework for the five
stages in the dying process from interviews with terminally ill hospitalized patients. The stages
are:denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. These were intended as defense
mechanisms. The application is not just for the dying person but can also be for the loved ones, “the
bereaved.”
Even so, the stages have been disputed by Kastenbaum (2006) and others and referred to as a myth
by Friedman and James (F&J) in Counseling Today (March, 2009). The authors contend that there is
wide acceptance vs. scientific fact that these stages exist and are appropriately named. Yet, they
note that a bereaved person states that his mother died. He doesn’t deny it so he isn’t in a stage of
denial. The authors contend that disbelief is a more appropriate description.
Anger, too, is refuted as a universal feeling, so it cannot be considered a stage. Bargaining, also, the
authors contend, doesn’t relate to the grief people feel when someone important to them
dies. Yearning to have them back is prevalent but, again, not a stage that all go through. Moreover,
all dying persons do not bargain to live longer.
In fact, not all grievers are clinically depressed states F&J, so how can depression be identified as the
fourth stage?
As for acceptance, the authors state it is a vague and amorphous term!
There you have it! Now it is your turn to weigh in with your support, opinions, or perceptions on this
well known theory.
The topic is for your benefit with no points assigned and is an excellent exercise for you to think
logically about the theory and interact!
Note: This is a topic that you will discuss/interact/debate with each other and, although read by the
professor, no contextual responses will be given.
c.)
Task-based Theories
You are to review the task-based theories of Wor …
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