Expert Answer:Behaviours, Attributes, Skills and Competencies

  

Solved by verified expert:This paper should focus on your behaviours, attributes, skills and competencies. You have completed a number of assessments as part of you weekly coursework. The goal of this paper is to synthesize your assessments, and present the following parts, noted below. The expected length is approximately 5 pages (double spaced), if it were written out in narrative.Don’t merely list a number of points – explain and give examples. Make it compelling, possibly with a timeline and/or other illustrations! Things to consider when writing you paper Go over all of your personal self-assessments from the textbook and reflect on them. Highlighting some of your personal Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT).Add any details about your life that you believe contributed to your assessment scores. For example, how did your family, education, religion, etc. contribute to any of your assessment scores? Articulating your personal self-concept and brand (from chaper 2) and relate this to A).To conclude your paper, you will need to analyze and synthesize of your findings. What do your findings tell you about yourself? What do you think that means? When writing this section it is important to remember that an analysis and synthesis are two distinct concepts, and should be written as such. This assignment will be marked for depth of thought, analysis, synthesis and effort.Things to note, You will need to incorporate all your self-assessments (minimum of 7) How well you integrate all of your assessments and the synthesis of them (conclusions) you draw from them. The paper should be no less than 5 pages double spaced. Please provide a list of all the self-assessments you used, and place the list in an appendix. Pleae use at least 3 sources other than the textbook
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Chapter 2
Developing
SelfAwareness
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-1
To be someone…is one of the deep urges
of the human heart…[It] is a need that
becomes more intensely felt – and also
more difficult to satisfy – as the course of
history carries us all further away from the
old realities that structured our identities
and life experiences for us.
Political Scientist Walter Truett Anderson
Author of Reality Isn’t What It Used To Be
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-2
Why Self-Awareness?
You cannot manage others well
unless you can manage yourself.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-3
Successful Managers…
• Know what they want and why they want it
• Have a plan of action for getting it
• Understand their styles, strengths, weaknesses
• Understand how they are perceived by others and how
these perceptions affect their ability to gain support
• Have self-confidence, humility, and adaptability that
enables them to appreciate the views and styles of
others
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-4
Managerial Styles Lacking in Self Awareness
• Empty Suits have much style and substance but not
much content.
• Expansive Executives are genuinely committed to the
organization, set high goals, and work very hard – but
they gain self-worth primarily through their unconscious
needs for control, mastery, and professional success.
Consequently, their actions are designed to meet their
unconscious needs rather than the needs of the
organization.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-5
Barriers to Self-Awareness
• Managers may fear tampering with the
“winning formula” that helped them
achieve their success so far
• Managers are often isolated from direct
reports’ feedback
• Direct reports, even when asked, may not
want to give honest feedback to someone
in a higher hierarchical position
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-6
Barriers to Self-Awareness (cont’d)
• Managers often hire people in their own
image and thus are unlikely to be criticized
• Managers are often too busy at home and
at work to take time out for reflection
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-7
Creating the Brand Called You
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-8
What Tom Peters Has To Say
About “The Brand Called You”
Regardless of age, regardless of position,
regardless of the business we happen to be
in, all of us need to understand the
importance of branding. We are CEOs of
our own companies: Me Inc. To be in
business today, our most important job is to
be head marketer for the brand called You.
Tom Peters
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-9
Branding:
What Qualities Make Me Distinctive
• What do I do that I’m most proud of?
• What do I do that adds remarkable, measurable,
distinguished, distinctive value?
• What would my colleagues/customers say is my greatest
and clearest strength? My most noteworthy personal
trait?
• What have I done lately — this week — that added value
to the organization?
• In what ways is what I do difficult to imitate?
Tom Peters
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-10
Branding: Additional Advice
• Be an exceptional expert in something that has real
value and that is not easy to copy
• Be an exceptional team-mate and supportive colleague
• Be a broad-gauged visionary; Anticipate problems before
they become crises
• Be a businessperson obsessed with pragmatic outcomes
• Think of your job as a set of projects, each of which adds
value to the organization
• Consistently delivery high-quality work on time
Tom Peters
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-11
Manage Your Shadow Resume:
Your Brand on the Internet
• Recruiters and college admissions personnel are
searching online to conduct background checks on
potential employees and students through Google,
Facebook, LinkedIn, Friendster, etc.
• They look for red flags that may suggest poor judgment,
lack of professionalism, or lack of fit with the organization
(inappropriate language of photos)
• Google yourself to see what others see about you
• Create a professional online brand to be consistent with
the image you want other people to see
Tom Peters
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-12
Understanding the SelfConcept
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-13
What is the Self-Concept?
The self-concept is an internalized set of perceptions
that each of us has about ourselves that are relatively
stable over time, consistent across situations, resistant
to change, and of central importance to us.
Our self-concept is made up of our beliefs about our
personalities, interests and skills, strengths and
weaknesses, what makes us similar to others, and what
makes us unique.
Our self-concept influences our everyday thoughts and
actions.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-14
Influences on the Self-Concept
Family
(parental style,
birth order, significant family
events)
Interpersonal
relationships
Transportation,
communication,
and information
technologies
Genetic
differences
Self-Concept
Group influences
(identity and
organizational
groups)
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
National Culture
and subcultures
Social institutions
(schools, workplaces,
religious institutions)
Possible selves
(celebrities, management
gurus, role models)
2-15
Cultural Influences on the Self-Concept
Independent
Interdependent
• Separate from others
• Connected to others
• Internal, private self focus
• External, public self focus
• Self-esteem based on
ability to understand,
express, and validate one’s
self
• Self-esteem based on
ability to understand and
adjust to others, control
oneself, maintain harmony
• Self-focused emotions
(pride, frustration)
• Other focused emotions
(sympathy, shame)
• Express emotions
• Keep emotions private
• Self-enhancement and self- • Self-critical and selfpromotion bias
improvement bias
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-16
I Am Assessment
• Private self-concept: Refer to self in ways that
emphasize your personal traits, states, or behaviors (I
am smart)
• Public self-concept: Refer to self in ways that emphasize
your relationships with others (I am loved)
• Collective self-concept: Refer to self in ways that
emphasize your group memberships (I am Korean)
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-17
Advantages of Culture View of Self-Concept
• Encourages us to look outward to our cultures to
understand who we are
• Encourages us to try to respond to others on their own
terms rather than as variations of or deviations from
ourselves
• Broadens our ways of thinking about what constitutes
normal and effective, thus expanding our options for
perceiving situations and behaving
• Enables us to be wise users of culturally-biased
management theories and practices
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-18
Social Influences on the Self-Concept
• Family: parental style, early losses, birth
order
• Other people’s expectations: self-fulfilling
prophecies
• Group influences: identity (gender, race,
religion, nationality) and organizational
groups (profession, organization, and
hierarchical level)
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-19
Why the Self-Concept is Important
• Attention
• Memory and speed of attention
• Interpretation and decision-making
• Social relations
• Moral decision-making
• Ability to cope with stress
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-20
Fundamental Human Needs





Meaning
Belonging
Competence
Control
Consistency
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-21
Identity Challenges
Technology
Globalization
Increased diversity
Mass Media
Celebrities
We must make sense
of a world that’s
increasingly difficult to
understand
We must make
decisions even though
many of today’s
problems are too
complex to anticipate
all the consequences
We try to feel a sense
of control in a world
that is in flux
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
We experience:
Gap between
who we are and
who we believe
we should be
Gap between
what we know
and what we
believe we
should know
2-22
Updated Self-Concept
• Managers as bricoleurs
• Managers as meaning-makers
• Managers with high selfcomplexity (multiple selves)
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-23
Managers as Bricoleurs
…are comfortable tinkering with ideas about
themselves, others, and their environment
and improvising new ways of thinking and
behaving on the spot. Effective tinkering
involves changing habitual routines, breaking
traditional boundaries, and using taken-forgranted resources in new ways.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-24
Managers as Bricoleurs
Tend to try one thing, step back, reconsider,
and try another. For planners, mistakes are
steps in the wrong direction; bricoleurs
navigate through midcourse corrections.
Sherry Turkle
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-25
Managers as Bricoleurs
…remain creative under pressure, precisely
because they routinely act in chaotic
conditions and pull order out of them. Thus,
when situations unravel, this is simply
normal natural trouble for bricoleurs, and
they proceed with whatever materials are at
hand.
Karl Weick
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-26
Managers as Meaning Makers
In a world with shifting meanings, multiple
realities, and conflicting yet often equally
reasonable ideas, managers must not only
try harder to make sense of themselves, the
world, and their place in it, but they must
help others do the same.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-27
Managers as Meaning Makers
The person that is most easily recognized as
an organizational leader is one who rises
above and beyond the specification of formal
structure to provide members of the
organization with a sense that they are
organized, even amidst an everyday feeling
that at a detailed level everything runs the
danger of falling apart.
Linda Smircich and Gareth Morgan
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-28
Contrasting Views of the
Managerial Self-Concept
Self in Industrial Age
“I think therefore I am”
Self in Post-Modern Age
“I think, therefore I think I am”
• Concrete, stable,
homogeneous, predictable
• One fixed identity
• Well-integrated, bounded
and aligned identity
• Stable self across time and
place (to thine own self be
true)
• Fact-finder and problem
solver
• Self-discovery: finding one’s
true self
• Virtual, fluid, heterogeneous,
unpredictable
• Multiple selves
• Shifting, flexible boundaries,
sometimes contradictory selves
• Flexible self that changes across
time and place (to thine own selves
be true)
• Meaning-maker and bricoleur
• Self-expansion: developing
multiple identities
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-29
People with Multiple Selves May
Reap the Rewards of:
• The unique knowledge gained by membership in
multiple groups
• The freedom that is gained by being able to “rise above
the restrictions defined by specific group memberships
• The value of being able to bring both an insider’s and
outsider’s perspective to situations
• The value of being able to resist categorization and
“polarization”, accept their own and others’ “inconsistent
personae”, and adapt more fluidly to diversity
Aida Hurtado
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-30
“The benefits of having multiple selves are the quick
assimilation into different environments, the ability to
influence a group from the inside instead of outside,
and the satisfaction of being effective in different
settings. With multiple selves between home and
work, I can easily separate the two worlds, so that the
frustrations and stress that I might experience in one
tend not to be carried over to the other.”
Japanese MBA Student
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-31
Views of Multiple-Selves
No sooner do we think we have assembled a comfortable life than we
find apiece of ourselves that has no place in it.
Gail Sheehy, Passages
Self knowledge comes too late and by the time I’ve known myself I
am no longer what I was.
Ademola Reflections: Nigerian Prose and Verse
I’m the kind of woman that wants to enjoy herselves in peace.
Alice Walker, The Temple of My Familiar
When stuck on a hard problem [MIT-educated investor] Levy tries a
mental trick he invented in the third grade. He asks himself, “how
would I answer this if I were a smart person?”
Fortune Magazine
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-32
Caveats to Multiple Selves:
• Even for people with high self-complexity, the different
parts of one’s selves are integrated by some deeply
held common beliefs and values that are consistent
over time and place
• Having multiple selves is likely to have greater benefits
when one chooses one’s identities and sees them as a
desirable part of oneself rather than a burden or a
façade.
Aida Hurtado
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-33
What is Self-Monitoring?
Self-monitoring refers to a person’s
willingness and ability to be attentive to
social and interpersonal situational cues –
and adapt behavior in response.
Snyder and Gangestad
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-34
Differences Between
High and Low Self Monitors
High Self Monitors
Low Self Monitors
Highly sensitive to social
and interpersonal cues
Less sensitive to social
and interpersonal cues
Highly willing and able
to modify their behavior
in response
Less willing and able to
adapt their behaviors in
response
Asks self: Who does this
situation want me to be
and how can I be that
person?
Asks self: Who am I and
how can I be me in this
situation?
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-35
Differences Between
High and Low Self Monitors
High Self Monitors
More likely to:
•change employers
•move geographically
•get promotions
•perform better in boundary spanning jobs
•resolve conflict through collaboration and
compromise
•emerge as leaders of work groups
•rationalize failure
•seek out prestigious work
•attend to image
•rely on social networks for career
decisions
•have instrumental relationships
•be flexible about forming new
relationships elsewhere
•Have more stress
Low Self Monitors
More likely to:
•be committed to current employers and
friends
•be less likely to move
•invest emotionally in particular
relationships so that they can be
themselves
•value freedom to pursue work compatible
with own interests rather than work that is
prestigious or well defined
•may not need to gather so much
information from external sources
regarding diverse career opportunities
because they have greater self knowledge
concerning career preferences
•may be more trusted in a crisis
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-36
Is High or Low Self Monitoring Better?
Neither high or low self monitoring is generally
better. Instead, it’s important to understand
your preferred style and the ways it may be
helping or hindering you and the people who
depend on you achieve important goals.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-37
Self-Monitoring and Mr. Sony’s Struggle
What accounted for Akio Morita’s unique ability as a
Japanese businessman to establish and sustain beneficial
relationships with the most important Western business and
political leaders? There is striking agreement among those
who knew him over time that he was special because he was
someone who seemed to understand them, and, as
important, whom they could understand…Morita could
conduct a dialogue, and while he was a very patriotic
Japanese and a firm defender of the Japanese point of view,
he could communicate it in a way that was meaningful to
non-Japanese…
Fortune Magazine
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-38
Mr. Sony’s Struggle
But was he really as effortlessly at ease in the company of his
foreign friends as he appeared, as familiar and at home with
their way of perceiving the world and behaving in it? Did Morita
truly understand his foreign friends and associates, and did they
truly know him?…There is no unambiguous answer. But there
is evidence to suggest that Morita had to labor hard to achieve
what may have been the illusion of familiarity. There is even
room for speculation that Morita’s lifelong, tireless campaign to
install Sony in the West required a painful personal struggle to
reconcile a foreign sensibility with his own and that…he was
never able to resolve that tension satisfactorily.
Fortune Magazine
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-39
Adaptable as human beings are and have to be, I
sometimes sympathize with the chameleon who had a
nervous breakdown on a patchwork quilt.
John Stephen Strange
We are what we pretend to be so be careful
of what you pretend to be.
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Author
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-40
Authenticity
Perhaps it’s better to view authenticity as a work-inprogress rather than a static end-state. Viewing
authenticity as a work in progress assumes that we are
always learning about ourselves, the world around us,
and what others need from us. It assumes that
responding ethically and effectively to others and our
environments challenges us to be thoughtful about when
to fully express ourselves and when to hold back and
consider others’ feelings and needs, when to stick to our
position and when to find common ground, when to hold
onto parts of ourselves that are precious and when to let
go of parts of ourselves so that we can grow.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-41
Authenticity
It may be most useful to view the concepts of
the “true self” and “multiple selves” not as
opposites, but as options, both of which can
help us achieve the authenticity,
responsiveness, and growth that we desire and
that others deserve from us.
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-42
Remember…
A leader has the responsibility [to have self
knowledge] not only for his or her own sake, but
for everyone else in the organization. Unless
the leader has a degree of self-knowledge and
self-understanding, there is a risk that he or she
will use the organization to address his or her
own neuroses.
Peter Senge citing Alain Gauthier
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2-43
Personality Assessment
E
Extrovert
S
Sensin
g
T
Thinking
J
Judging
Where you get energized
Outward
Inward
How you see the world
Details
Big Picture
How you solve problems
Logic
Values
How you come to closure
Keep
alternatives
Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
open
Closed, decisive
I
Introvert
N
Intuitive
F
Feeling
P
Perceiving

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