Expert Answer:BUS 610 Ashford HR Performance Issues and Motivati

  

Solved by verified expert:HR Performance Issues and MotivationThe relationship between the organization and its members can be greatly influenced by what motivates individuals to work. The style of leadership, job design, resources on the job, and environment can all have a significant effect on the satisfaction of employees and their performance. Performance is also influenced by individual motivations (e.g., social, recognition, financial reward, personal growth and development, and/or intrinsic satisfaction) and can equally impact the organization. There are many theories that attempt to explain the nature of motivation. Write a four- to five-page paper (excluding the title and reference pages) evaluating the relationship between motivation, job satisfaction, and work performance. Be sure to address the following:Describe a performance issue which resulted from a motivational problem (what, why, who).Use a content theory of motivation (e.g., Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, or McClelland) or a process theory (i.e., Adams, Locke, or Heider and Kelley) to explain how the issue creates a performance problem for the organization.Use the theory of motivation you selected to describe an intervention/action to change the motivation/behavior and correct the performance problem.Your paper must use a minimum of three scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook. Your paper must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.Required ResourcesTextBaack, D. (2017). Organizational behavior (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://ashford.content.eduChapter 3: What Employees Perceive and How They LearnChapter 4: Motivational Processes
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BUS610.W2A1.09.2018
Description:
Total Possible Score: 10.00
Describes the Performance Issue
Total: 1.50
Distinguished – Thoroughly describes the motivational problem addressing what, why, and who.
Proficient – Describes the motivational problem addressing what, why, and who. Minor details are missing.
Basic – Partially describes the motivational problem addressing what, why, and who. Relevant details are missing.
Below Expectations – Attempts to describe the motivational problem addressing what, why, and who; however, significant details
are missing.
Non-Performance – The description of the motivational problem is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the
assignment instructions.
Uses a Theory of Motivation to Explain the Problem
Total: 2.50
Distinguished – Thoroughly explains the problem using a theory of motivation.
Expertly applies the concepts and vocabulary from relevant scholarly sources.
Proficient – Explains the problem using a theory of motivation. Sufficiently applies the concepts and vocabulary from scholarly
sources. The explanation is slightly underdeveloped.
Basic – Partially explains the problem using a theory of motivation. Somewhat applies the concepts and vocabulary from
scholarly sources. The explanation is underdeveloped.
Below Expectations – Attempts to explain the problem using a theory of motivation; however, the explanation does not apply the
concepts and vocabulary from scholarly sources and is significantly underdeveloped.
Non-Performance – The use of a motivational theory to explain the problem is either nonexistent or lacks the components
described in the assignment instructions.
Describes an Intervention/Action to Change the Motivation/Behavior Using a
Theory of Motivation
Total: 1.50
Distinguished – Thoroughly describes an intervention/action to change the motivation/behavior using a theory of motivation.
Proficient – Describes an intervention/action to change the motivation/behavior using a theory of motivation. Minor details are
missing.
Basic – Partially describes an intervention/action to change the motivation/behavior using a theory of motivation. Relevant details
are missing.
Below Expectations – Minimally describes an intervention/action to change the motivation/behavior using a theory of motivation.
Significant details are missing.
Non-Performance – The description of an intervention/action to change the motivation/behavior using a theory of motivation is
either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.
Written Communication: Content Development
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – Uses appropriate, pertinent, and persuasive content to discover and develop sophisticated ideas within the
context of the discipline, shaping the work as a whole.
Proficient – Uses appropriate and pertinent content to discover ideas within the context of the discipline, shaping the work as a
whole.
Basic – Uses appropriate and pertinent content, but does not apply it toward discovering or developing ideas. Overall, content
assists in shaping the written work.
Below Expectations – Uses content, though it may be unrelated or inappropriate to the topic. Content does not contribute toward
the development of the written work, and may distract the reader from its purpose.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Critical Thinking: Explanation of Issues
Total: 1.00
Distinguished – Clearly and comprehensively explains in detail the issue to be considered, delivering all relevant information
necessary for a full understanding.
Proficient – Clearly explains in detail the issue to be considered, delivering enough relevant information for an adequate
understanding.
Basic – Briefly recognizes the issue to be considered, delivering minimal information for a basic understanding.
Below Expectations – Briefly recognizes the issue to be considered, but may not deliver additional information necessary for a
basic understanding.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Reading: Analysis
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – Appraises tactics for relating ideas, text structure, or other textual features in order to gain knowledge or insight
within and across texts and disciplines.
Proficient – Recognizes connections among ideas, text structure, or other textual features, to analyze how they support a
sophisticated understanding of the text as a whole.
Basic – Recognizes the connections among portions of a text in considering how these connections contribute to a fundamental
understanding of the text as a whole.
Below Expectations – Makes an effort to recognize portions of a text as needed to respond to inquiries posed in the assignment.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: Control of Syntax and Mechanics
Total: 1.00
Distinguished – Displays meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar.
Written work contains no errors, and is very easy to understand.
Proficient – Displays comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work
contains only a few minor errors, and is mostly easy to understand.
Basic – Displays basic comprehension of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains a few
errors, which may slightly distract the reader.
Below Expectations – Fails to display basic comprehension of syntax or mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work
contains major errors, which distract the reader.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: APA Formatting
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – Accurately uses APA formatting consistently throughout the paper, title page, and reference page.
Proficient – Exhibits APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout contains a few minor errors.
Basic – Exhibits basic knowledge of APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout does not meet all APA requirements.
Below Expectations – Fails to exhibit basic knowledge of APA formatting. There are frequent errors, making the layout difficult to
distinguish as APA.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: Page Requirement
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – The length of the paper is equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Proficient – The length of the paper is nearly equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Basic – The length of the paper is equivalent to at least three quarters of the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Below Expectations – The length of the paper is equivalent to at least one half of the required number of correctly formatted
pages.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: Source Requirement
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – Uses more than the required number of scholarly sources, providing compelling evidence to support ideas. All
sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.
Proficient – Uses required number of scholarly sources to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and cited
correctly within the body of the assignment.
Basic – Uses less than the required number of sources to support ideas. Some sources may not be scholarly. Most sources on
the reference page are used within the body of the assignment. Citations may not be formatted correctly.
Below Expectations – Uses inadequate number of sources that provide little or no support for ideas. Sources used may not be
scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are not used within the body of the assignment. Citations are not formatted
correctly.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
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Supplement to the Week Two Lecture
Edward Ong
All Sec ons
The Path-Goal Model on Motivation
The path-goal model was derived from the 1958 path-goal hypothesis of Georgopolous, Mahoney,
and Jones (House, 1971). However, the foundation concept of the model utilized the expectancy theory
on motivation formulated by the psychologist, Vroom in 1964. Lloyd, Shriberg, and Shriberg (2002)
mentioned that expectation theory claimed that the three principal components that influence
employee’s motivation are: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. House (1971) proposed the pathgoal model theory of leadership, which simply states that the function of the leader is to motivate by
enhancing the follower’s expectancy (perception that effort will result into performance), instrumentality
(perception of the likelihood that performance will result into outcomes), and valence (perception of the
worth of the outcome).
According to Lloyd, Shriberg, and Shriberg (2002), the path-goal model states that the function of
the leader is to motivate the followers by clarifying/clearing the path towards goal attainment, defining
the action needed by the followers to reach the outcome, and by linking the needs of the followers to
the rewards for achieved goals. The followers then increase their effort, resulting in the achievement of
organizational goals. The path-goal theory proposed by House links the achievement of the goal to the
situational condition of the followers. The theory’s emphasis on goal attainment makes the theory
distinct from other situational theories, such as the 1964 contingency theory of Fiedler and the 1969
Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model. The path-goal theory bridged the principles of the
scientific management era in terms of goal attainment, and the social person era focuses on human
relations. The theory was able to link the human relationship aspect of follower’s motivation to the
attainment of the organization’s goal, providing a good balance of task and relationship
consideration. The five expectancy variables of the model that the leader must measure in assessing
the followers are the following:
Valences (perception of the worth of the outcome)
Instrumentalities (perception that performance will result in outcomes)
Expectancies (perception that effort will result into performance)
Equity of rewards for achieved goals
Clarity of follower’s role to attain performance
The model then recommends four different leadership styles to match the need of the followers and
the nature of the task. The four different leadership styles are directive, supportive, participative, and
achievement-oriented. Table 1 provides a summary of the proposed leadership style per the different
situational conditions.
Leadership Style
Directive
(provide guidance)
Supportive
(provide support)
Participative
(provide
involvement)
AchievementOriented
(provide challenges)
Need of Followers
Nature of Task
Need to clarify the path
towards goal attainment
Unclear and ambiguous
Need for affiliation and
Repetitive and mechanical
nurturing in the performance
of the task towards goal
attainment
Need to feel in charge and be Unclear and ambiguous
an integral part of the goal
attainment
Need to boost confidence that Unclear, ambiguous, and
they have the ability to
challenging
attain/achieve the goal
Table 1. Matching leadership style to the needs of the followers & nature of the task
This model provides a theoretical framework that integrates motivation principles and goal attainment
into a pragmatic theory on leadership; however, the model does have some weaknesses. The first issue
on the path-goal model is that the model indirectly measures the expectancy variable. This method of
indirect measurement is susceptible to errors and inaccuracy. The second issue pertains to the practical
use of the model, Liska and Wofford (1993) mentioned that the model measures five expectancy
variables of the followers, propose four leadership styles, and considering that situational and followers
factors affect the leadership style selection, the model can become very complex. The last issue
pertains to the practical implementation of the model for leadership. Levinson (2003) discusses an
important weakness regarding the implementation of similar goal setting leadership model, in that this
tends to focus on the organization goals and miss considering the personal goals of the leader or the
followers, which is an important consideration during implementation. In order for the model to remain
relevant in the modern leadership environment, it needs to address the issues previously mentioned.
Wofford and Liska (1993), recommend the following to address the deficiencies of the path-goal theory
model: First, the model should adopt a direct and more precise method of measuring the expectancy
variables. Second, future research should consider other simpler decision theories in assessing the
followers to replace the expectancy theory, which makes the model too complex for practical
application. Lastly, instead of the model defining the appropriate broad leadership style, it should put
more focus on defining day-to-day leadership behavior, which is more appropriate to the dynamic
nature of the environment.
References
House, R. (1971). A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science
Quarterly, 16, 321-338.
Levinson, H. (2003). Management by whose objectives? Harvard Business Review, 82
(4), 107-116.
Lloyd, C., Shriberg, A., & Shriberg, D. (2002). Practicing leadership: Principles and
applications (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Wofford, J., & Liska, L. (1993). Path-Goal theories of leadership: A meta-analysis.
Journal of Management, 19(4), 857-876.
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Weekly Lecture
Week Two Lecture
Perception, what is it and how is it linked to the working environment?
Perception involves the selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli or sensory impressions in
order to understand or give meaning to the environment. Perception involves selecting, organizing, and
interpreting those stimuli (Pomerantz, 2003). Work-related person perceptions are used to understand
when another person behaves based on internal causes and when external causes result in the
behavior. Baack (2012) suggests distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency shape perceptions of
internal and external causes. For example is stimuli is distorted then the intended message may not be
received by an individual therefore a negative perception could surface. Have you ever received a memo
from a supervisor or leader and it is not stated correctly or information is missing only later to be revised?
in this instance a member may perceive this information as negative due to the missing components and
may associate this with poor leadership communication.
Within the working environment members may exhibit attitudes and values which may or may not be
conducive to the environment. An attitude is a predisposition toward a person, object, concept, or event.
Attitudes can be favorable or unfavorable. Attitudes contain cognitive, affective, and behavioral
components. In organizational behavior, two key attitudes are job satisfaction and job involvement.
Values are strongly held convictions regarding objects and ideas. The idea is to find congruence between
a person’s values, his or her attitudes, and the company’s environment. Have you experienced a
coworker’s negative attitude or values and fought hard not to assume them as well?
Learning within the working environment
Learning may be defined as the process of acquiring new knowledge or a new skill. At times, learning
results in changes in behavior that occur as the result of experience (Weiss, 1990). In others, it is
possible to learn something without any detectable change in behavior. What type of psychology is
involved with how employees learn? John B. Watson studied the role of the environment in learning
during the early 1900s. He was among the first to use the term “behaviorism,” which suggests that only
observable behaviors should be considered in order to scientifically understand the nature of learning
and other human phenomena (Watson, 1919). Watson strongly believed learning was determined by
environmental cues. B. F. Skinner (1953) frowned on the use of the term “learning,” because he believed
the word was a construct, or “convenient fiction” used to describe an unobservable process. You cannot
observe “learning;” you can only observe changes in behavior. Managers should concentrate on the
behaviors rather than the words used to describe them (Skinner, 1977). Albert Bandura (1977) created a
theory of learning that integrates cognitive, behavioral, and environmental elements into a single
perspective. The social learning theory approach emphasizes a variety of sources of learning. Bandura
suggested that behavior, human thought, and the consequences of activities all interact to create
learning. In short there are a host of theories and concepts related to learning and understanding the
psychology behind each one can assist management in improving on the job learning and training.
As you read this chapter, reflect on the following: In the working environment how do you learn? Is your
learning style conducive to understanding or mastering job tasks? What methods does your organization
utilize to ensure members are able to learn effectively?
Motivational Processes
Motivation is a key concept in terms of identifying ways to enhance performance or influence others to
perform. Have you ever asked yourself why are you going to work daily? Have you ever worked a job
that you didn’t like but continued anyway? Clearly there was an underlying issue of motivational factors.
R. Jones (1955) defined motivation as what starts behaviors; what maintains behaviors; and what stops
behaviors.
Motivational Theories
Early motivation theories begin with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which notes a progression of needs as
follows: physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization. Maslow’s work applies humanism, the
concept that people are essentially good and that they seek to improve throughout life.
Alderfer’s ERG theory simplifies the hierarchy of needs by breaking it down into existence, relatedness,
and growth needs (or physical, social, and psychological needs). Alderfer builds on the concept of
satisfaction–progress by noting frustration–regression, in which the movement to a higher-order need
cannot be achieved and results in frustration and regression to the previous need as a result.
McClelland’s need theory examines the roles that achievement, power, and affiliation play in a person’s
behaviors.
Herzberg’s two-factor theory notes that hygiene factors, including wages, hours, working conditions,
supervision, and relationships with peers, increase dissatisfaction if inadequate, but cannot motivate,
even if adequate. Motivators, including achievements, recognition, the actual work, responsibility, and the
chance to be promoted, should be built into the job. Motivators range from no satisfaction to satisfaction
in terms of their impact.
Operant process theories include Skinner’s concepts and an applied program called organizational
behavior modification. OB Mod consists of five steps, including identifying critical, performance-related
behaviors; finding ways to count and observe those behaviors; conducting a functional analysis
associated with those behaviors; designing a program; and following up. The program primarily relies on
positive reinforcement and extinction to modify behaviors. Punishment is reserved for extreme
circumstances.
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