Expert Answer:CJ665 NDSU Criminalization Of Gender And Sexuality

  

Solved by verified expert:Part 1: Essay question, 50 points.Using either the Matrix of Domination OR Dean Spade’s analysis of poweras a theoretical framework, describe the cycle of poverty and criminalization that disproportionately affects transgender people of color. Your 2-3-page essay should have a clear thesis statement, sub-claims and detailed supporting evidence. Please cite evidence from the assigned readings with the author name and page number. Short quotations are fine, as long as they are thoroughly analyzed and interpreted in your own words. Your similarity score for the essay question should be 20% or lower. You may study together with classmates, but answers and essays MUST be written in your own words.CHOOSE ONE:A. Describe the relationships between transphobia, racism, poverty & housing instability, underground economy work, policing practices, and likelihood and outcomes of incarceration.In your answer, define and explain intersectionality and the Matrix of Domination. (Use Collins’s theoretical framework to answer the question.)ORB. Describe the relationships between transphobia, racism, poverty & housing instability, underground economy work, policing practices, and likelihood and outcomes of incarceration.In your answer, define and explain disciplinary and population-management power. (Use Spade’s theoretical framework to answer the question.)Part 2: Short answer/Concept IDs (4 points each). Define or describe and give an example or explain the concept, event or person’s historical significance:1. Who was Victoria Arellano? Draw on your understanding of intersectionality or state violence to describe how the carceral system responded to different facets of Arellano’s identity. 2. Who are the Mariposas Sin Fronteras and how do they provide both individual support and fight for broader social change?3. Who is Janetta Johnson? How does her story illuminate the harms of gender misclassification in jails and prisons? How are organizations led by trans women of color fighting against these harms?4. Describe the conditions that led to the Compton’s Cafeteria Riot, and this riot’s historical significance. 5. What is prison abolitionism? What are three concrete steps that abolitionist authors think must be taken toward prison abolition6. What is the perpetrator perspective? Describe Spade’s critique.7. Discuss the case of Bresha Meadows and how the “abuse to prison pipeline” disproportionately affects Black girls.8. In the film Free CeCe, lawyer Chase Strangio says that trans women are perceived as criminals, even when they are victims. Explain this statement, using details from the case of CeCe McDonald.9. Describe the case of Daniel Allen, and explain why this case is important in understanding HIV criminalization.10. Who were the Vanguard youth? What were their social change goals, and what tactics did they use to fight for social change?Part 3: Define the following words and phrases (1 point each):1. Transgender:2. Mutliple choice: Jaimie was ascribed male gender at birth. Jaimie now identifies as female. Jaimie is a transgender_____________________. (Choose one of the options below to fill in the blank.)a. manb. woman3. Genderqueer or non-binary:4. Queer:5. Intersex:6. Intersectionality theory (define without using the word “intersecting”):7. Criminalization:8. Life chances:
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C A P T I V E
G E N D E R S
trans embodiment and the
prison industrial complex
eric a. stanley & nat smith, editors
advance praise for captive genders
_________________________________________
“Captive Genders is an exciting assemblage of writings—analyses, manifestos, stories, interviews—that traverse the complicated entanglements
of surveillance, policing, imprisonment, and the production of gender
normativity. Focusing discerningly on the encounter of transpersons with
the apparatuses that constitute the prison industrial complex, the contributors to this volume create new frameworks and new vocabularies that
surely will have a transformative impact on the theories and practices of
twenty-first century abolition.”
—Angela Y. Davis, professor emerita, University of California,
Santa Cruz
“The purpose of prison abolition is to discover and promote the countless
ways freedom and difference are mutually dependent. The contributors
to Captive Genders brilliantly shatter the assumption that the antidote to
danger is human sacrifice. In other words, for these thinkers: where life is
precious life is precious.”
—Ruth Wilson Gilmore, author of Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California
“Captive Genders is at once a scathing and necessary analysis of the prison
industrial complex and a history of queer resistance to state tyranny. By
analyzing the root causes of anti-queer and anti-trans violence, this book
exposes the brutality of state control over queer/trans bodies inside and
outside prison walls, and proposes an analytical framework for undoing
not just the prison system, but its mechanisms of surveillance, dehumanization, and containment. By queering a prison abolition analysis, Captive
Genders moves us to imagine the impossible dream of liberation.”
—Mattilda Bernstein Sycamore, author of So Many Ways to Sleep
Badly and editor of Nobody Passes: Rejecting the Rules of Gender and Conformity
c
a
p
t
i
v
e
g e n d e r s
Trans Embodiment and the
Prison Industrial Complex
e d i t e d b y e r i c a . s ta n l e y
and nat smith
Captive Genders: Trans Embodiment and the Prison Industrial Complex
Edited by Eric A. Stanley and Nat Smith
All essays © 2011 by their respective authors
This edition © 2011 AK Press (Edinburgh, Oakland, Baltimore)
ISBN-13: 978-1-84935-070-9
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011920478
AK Press
674-A 23rd Street
Oakland, CA 94612
USA
www.akpress.org
akpress@akpress.org
AK Press UK
PO Box 12766
Edinburgh EH8 9YE
Scotland
www.akuk.com
ak@akdin.demon.co.uk
The above addresses would be delighted to provide you with the latest AK
Press distribution catalog, which features several thousand books, pamphlets,
zines, audio and video recordings, and gear, all published or distributed by AK
Press. Alternately, visit our websites to browse the catalog and find out
the latest news from the world of anarchist publishing:
www.akpress.org | www.akuk.com
revolutionbythebook.akpress.org
Printed in Canada on 100% recycled, acid-free paper with union labor.
Cover image: Marie Ueda, photo from the White Night riots,
San Francisco, CA 1979
Courtesy of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Historical Society.
Cover by Kate Khatib | www.manifestor.org/design
Interior by Michelle Fleming with Kate Khatib
contents
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………..ix
Introduction: Fugitive Flesh: Gender Self-Determination,
Queer Abolition, and Trans Resistance……………………………………………..1
Eric A. Stanley
out of time: from gay liberation to prison abolition
Building an Abolitionist Trans & Queer Movement with
Everything We’ve Got………………………………………………………………..15
Morgan Bassichis, Alexander Lee, Dean Spade
“Street Power” and the Claiming of Public Space: San Francisco’s
“Vanguard” and Pre-Stonewall Queer Radicalism……………………………41
Jennifer Worley
Brushes with Lily Law………………………………………………………………..57
Tommi Avicolli Mecca
Looking Back: The Bathhouse Raids in Toronto, 1981…………………….63
Nadia Guidotto
prison beyond the prison: criminalization of the everyday
“Rounding Up the Homosexuals”: The Impact of Juvenile Court on
Queer and Trans/Gender-Non-Conforming Youth………………………….77
Wesley Ware
Hotel Hell: With Continual References to the Insurrection………………85
Ralowe T. Ampu
Regulatory Sites: Management, Confinement,
and HIV/AIDS…………………………………………………………………………99
Michelle C. Potts
Awful Acts and the Trouble with Normal:
A Personal Treatise on Sex Offenders…………………………………………..113
Erica R. Meiners
How to Make Prisons Disappear: Queer Immigrants, the Shackles of
Love, and the Invisibility of the Prison Industrial Complex…………….123
Yasmin Nair
Identities Under Siege:
Violence Against Transpersons of Color………………………………………..141
Lori A. Saffin
walled lives: consolidating difference, disappearing possibilities
Krystal Is Kristopher and Vice Versa……………………………………………165
Kristopher Shelley “Krystal”
“The Only Freedom I Can See:” Imprisoned Queer Writing and the
Politics of the Unimaginable………………………………………………………169
Stephen Dillon
Being an Incarcerated Transperson: Shouldn’t People Care?……………185
Clifton Goring/Candi Raine Sweet
Out of Compliance: Masculine-Identified
People in Women’s Prisons…………………………………………………………189
Lori Girshick
My Story………………………………………………………………………………..209
Paula Rae Witherspoon
Exposure………………………………………………………………………………..215
Cholo
No One Enters Like Them: Health, Gender Variance, and the PIC…217
blake nemec
bustin’ out: organizing resistance and building alternatives
Transforming Carceral Logics: 10 Reasons to Dismantle the Prison
Industrial Complex Using a Queer/Trans Analysis………………………..235
S. Lambel
Making It Happen, Mama: A Conversation with Miss Major………….267
Jayden Donahue
gender wars: state changing shape, passing to play, & body of our
movements…………………………………………………………………………….281
Vanessa Huang
Maroon Abolitionists: Black Gender-oppressed Activists in the AntiPrison Movement in the US and Canada…………………………………….293
Julia Sudbury AKA Julia C. Oparah
Abolitionist Imaginings: A Conversation with Bo Brown,
Reina Gossett, and Dylan Rodríguez…………………………………………..323
Che Gossett
tools/resources
Picturing the PIC Exercise…………………………………………………………345
Critical Resistance
Questions for Abolitionist Work: 7 Easy Steps……………………………..349
Critical Resistance
Addressing the Prison Industrial Complex: Case Studies………………..355
Nat Smith
Resource List………………………………………………………………………….357
Contributors Bios……………………………………………………………………359
acknowledgements
Like all struggle we have not acted alone. We would like to acknowledge the labor, support, and guidance of the following people: Ralowe T.
Ampu, Ryan Conrad, Angela Y. Davis, Jay Donahue, Jason Fritz, Ruth
Wilson Gilmore, Donna Haraway, Rachel Herzing, Rebecca Hurdis,
Kentaro Kaneko, Colby Lenz, Matt Luton, Toshio Meronek, José Muñoz, Yasmin Nair, Isaac Ontiveros, Julia Chinyere Oparah, Adam Reed,
Andrea Ritchie, Chris Smith, the late Will Smith, Dean Spade, Mattilda
Bernstein Sycamore, Chris Vargas, and Ari Wohlfeiler.
Working with organizations, collectives, and with unaffiliated people
is essential to grounding the analysis put forth by this book. While central to the project of abolition, writing must always be produced within
the context of action. Similarly, action devoid of analysis often makes for
shaky ground upon which to build.
AK Press has been supportive of this project from its beginning many
years ago. We are also grateful for the people who have and continue to organize with the Bay Area NJ4 Solidarity Committee, Critical Resistance,
Gay Shame, the Sylvia Rivera Law Project, Transgender, Gender Variant,
and Intersex Justice Project, and the amazing people who organized Transforming Justice, the groundbreaking conference held in 2007.
Captive Genders is evidence of a collective dedication to abolishing
the prison industrial complex (PIC). When we first started talking about
a possible writing project in 2006 we wanted to push the LGBT movement towards a deeper understanding of the role the PIC plays in our
lives. Specifically we wanted to focus on the ways in which the LGBT
ix
Captive Genders
mainstream, through its racist logic, relies on the PIC and is used by the
PIC to criminalize transgender, gender variant, and queer people. We also
wanted to push the anti-prison and PIC abolition movements to more
centrally incorporate and foreground the struggles of transgender, gender
variant, and queer people.
We started by making it clear that we wanted to emphasize writing from folks currently inside as well as former prisoners. Importantly,
discussions of exploitation, inclusion without tokenization, and risking
prisoner safety due to the content of our correspondence were in the
forefront. We attempted to contact all of the members of Transgender,
Gender Variant, and Intersex Justice Project’s contact list as well as our
personal contacts. The Sylvia Rivera Law Project and additional organizations encouraged members to contribute.
Of the hundred or so letters sent out and ads posted in prisoner publications, we received relatively few responses. This makes sense because prison mail is “unreliable” as guards will often tamper with or simply destroy
it, whether it is considered contraband or they just don’t feel like sorting
mail that day. Furthermore, guards sometimes hold a vendetta against activist and/or “othered” prisoners and frequently “disappear” their mail. While
our letters explained openly and honestly what we were attempting to accomplish, some folks inside were understandably wary from being burned
by supposed claims of support by others in the past and declined to submit.
While we recognize that access to writing resources, supporting documents,
and editorial assistance are limited if not completely absent inside, only a
small number of the submissions were editable within our timeframe and
our own limited resources. Additionally and unfortunately, authors of a few
pieces we had chosen for publication were un-locatable as their housing had
changed (and a few folks were released on parole!) and thus we could no
longer contact them (though we tried). Because of these and other reasons
related to mail communication and the busyness of our lives, it took a long
time to gather pieces that we felt demonstrated a broad and essential scope.
Finally, a few contributions (from both within and outside prison)
we were holding out for never materialized and there are definitely some
important ideas and voices missing. However, we collectively covered a
lot of important ground that will make room for even more organizing
and writing in the future, and we invite you to join or continue your
participation in both. Ultimately, Captive Genders is a powerful offering
of struggle, innovation, comeuppance and sorrow; a call to arms and a cry
for true, self-determined justice.
x
fUgitive flesH:
gender self-determination, Queer abolition,
and trans resistance
Eric A. Stanley
We always felt that the police were the real enemy.
—Sylvia Rivera
Bright lights shattered the dark anonymity of the dance floor. The flicker warned of the danger of the coming raid. Well experienced, people
stopped dancing, changed clothing, removed or applied makeup, and got
ready. The police entered, began examining everyone’s IDs, and lined up
the trans/gender-non-conforming folks to be “checked” by an officer in
the restroom to ensure that they were wearing the legally mandated three
pieces of “gender appropriate clothing.” Simultaneously the cops started
roughing up people, dragging them out front to the awaiting paddy wagon. In other words, it was a regular June night out on the town for trans
and queer folks in 1969 New York City.
1
Captive Genders
As the legend goes, that night the cops did not receive their payoff
or they wanted to remind the patrons of their precarious existence. In the
shadows of New York nightlife, the Stonewall Inn, like most other “gay
bars,” was owned and run by the mafia, which tended to have the connections within local government and the vice squad to know who to bribe
in order to keep the bar raids at a minimum and the cash flowing. As the
first few captured queers were forced into the paddy wagon, people hanging around outside the bar began throwing pocket change at the arresting officers; then the bottles started flying and then the bricks. With the
majority of the patrons now outside the bar, a crowd of angry trans/queer
folks had gathered and forced the police to retreat back into the Stonewall.
As their collective fury grew, a few people uprooted a parking meter and
used it as a battering ram in hopes of knocking down the bar’s door and
escalating the physical confrontation with the cops. A tactical team was
called to rescue the vice squad now barricaded inside the Stonewall. They
eventually arrived, and the street battle raged for two more nights. In a
blast of radical collectivity, trans/gender-non-conforming folks, queers of
color, butches, drag queens, hair-fairies, homeless street youth, sex workers, and others took up arms and fought back against the generations of
oppression that they were forced to survive.1
Forty years later, on a similarly muggy June night in 2009, history
repeated itself. At the Rainbow Lounge, a newly opened gay bar in Fort
Worth, Texas, the police staged a raid, verbally harassing patrons, calling them “faggots” and beating a number of customers. One patron was
slammed against the floor, sending him to the hospital with brain injuries, while seven others were arrested. These instances of brutal force and
the administrative surveillance that trans and queer folks face today are
not significantly less prevalent nor less traumatic than those experienced
by the Stonewall rioters of 1969, however the ways this violence is currently understood is quite different. While community vigils and public
forums were held in the wake of the Rainbow Lounge raid, the immediate
response was not to fight back, nor has there been much attempt to understand the raid in the broader context of the systematic violence trans
and queer people face under the relentless force of the prison industrial
complex (PIC).2
Captive Genders is in part an attempt to think about the historical
and political ideologies that continually naturalize the abusive force of the
police with such power as to make them appear ordinary. This is not to
argue that the types of resistance present at the Stonewall riots were com2
Introduction
monplace during that time, nor to suggest that trans and queer folks do
not fight back today; nonetheless one of our aims is to chart the multiple
ways that trans and queer folks are subjugated by the police, along with
the multiple ways that we have and that we continue to resist in the face
of these overwhelming structures.3
I start with the Stonewall riot not because it was the first, most important, or last instance of radical refusal of the police state. Indeed, the
riots at San Francisco’s Compton’s Cafeteria in 1966 and at Los Angeles’s
Cooper’s Doughnuts in 1959 remind us that the history of resistance is
as long as the history of oppression. However, what is unique about the
Stonewall uprising is that, within the United States context, it is made to
symbolize the “birth of the gay rights movement.” Furthermore, dominant lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) political organizations like the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) and the National Gay and
Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) attempt to build an arc of progress starting
with the oppression of the Stonewall moment and ending in the current
time of “equality” evidenced by campaigns for gay marriage, hate crimes
legislation, and gays in the military. Captive Genders works to undo this
narrative of progress, assimilation, and police cooperation by building
an analysis that highlights the historical and contemporary antagonisms
between trans/queer folks and the police state.4
This collection argues that prison abolition must be one of the centers of trans and queer liberation struggles. Starting with abolition we
open questions often disappeared by both mainstream LGBT and antiprison movements. Among these many silences are the radical trans/queer
arguments against the proliferation of hate crimes enhancements. Mainstream LGBT organizations, in collaboration with the state, have been
working hard to make us believe that hate crimes enhancements are a necessary and useful way to make trans and queer people safer. Hate crimes
enhancements are used to add time to a person’s sentence if the offense is
deemed to target a group of people. However, hate crimes enhancements
ignore the roots of harm, do not act as deterrents, and reproduce the force
of the PIC, which produces more, not less harm. Not surprisingly, in
October 2009, when President Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and
James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act into law, extending existing
hate crimes enhancements to include “gender and sexuality,” there was no
mention by the LGBT mainstream of the historical and contemporary
ways that the legal system itself works to deaden trans and queer lives. As
antidote, this collection works to understand how gender, sexuality, race,
3
Captive Genders
ability, class, nationality, and other markers of difference are constricted,
often to the point of liquidation, in the name of a normative carceral state.
Among the most volatile points of contact between state violence and
one’s body is the domain of gender. An understanding of these connections has produced much important activism and research that explores
how non-trans women are uniquely harmed through disproportionate
prison sentences, sexual assault while in custody, and nonexistent medical
care, coupled with other forms of violence. This work was and continues
to be a necessary intervention in the ways that prison studies and activism have historically imagined the prisoner as always male and have until
recently rarely attended to the ways that gendered difference produces carceral differences. Similarly, queer studies and political organizing, along
with the growing body of work that might be called trans studies—while
attending to the work of gender, sexuality, and more recently to race and
nationality—has (with important exceptions) had little to say about the
force of imprisonment or about trans/queer prisoners. Productively, we
see this as both an absence and an opening for those of us working in
trans/queer studies to attend—in a way that centers the experiences of
those most directly impacted—to the ways that the prison must emerge as
one of the major sites of trans/queer scholarship and political organizing.5
In moments of frustration, excitement, isolation, and solidarity,
Captive Genders grew out of this friction as a rogue text, a necessarily
unstable collection of voices, stories, analysis, and plans for action. What
these pieces all have in common is that …
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