Solved by verified expert:For the following assignment, students must analyze the documents and answer the questions based on evidence in the primary sources. Students may also wish to go back to previous sections to read the Secondary sources. Students must cite at least one document in each response. You must answer all 4 questions. Each response must be no less than 300 words.Please explain the motivation for the Age of Exploration in the 1400 and 1500. Discuss Christopher Columbus ‘ motivation and the plans sent to the Jamestown Farmer.For which reasons did Martin Luther and other reformers contest the power and authority of the Catholic Church? How did his “reformation” impact the politics of Europe? Be sure to quote the document “Luther to the German Princes” and the Complete 95 Theses . What levels of authority is being tested?3.What impact did the European trade in the Indian Ocean trade have after 1490? Use the document called “Documents,” https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/learn-us-east-1…4. Immanuel Kant’s famous work, “On Enlightenment”, discusses the important aspects of the Enlightenment period. What major institutions is he witting against? What is he encouraging people to do?https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/learn-us-east-1…
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Extracts of the Journal of Christopher Columbus
August 2, 1492
Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies
of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the
above-mentioned countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and
the proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land
to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that
any one has gone. So after having expelled the Jews from your dominions, your Highnesses, in the same month of
January, ordered me to proceed with a sufficient armament to the said regions of India, and for that purpose granted
me great favors, and ennobled me that thenceforth I might call myself Don, and be High Admiral of the Sea, and
perpetual Viceroy and Governor in all the islands and continents which I might discover and acquire, or which may
hereafter he discovered and acquired in the ocean; and that this dignity should be inherited by my eldest son, and
thus descend from degree to degree forever. Hereupon I left the city of Granada, on Saturday, the twelfth day of
May, 1492, and proceeded to Palos, a seaport, where I armed three vessels, very fit for such an enterprise, and
having provided myself with abundance of stores and seamen, I set sail from the port, on Friday, the third of August,
half an hour before sunrise, and steered for the Canary Islands of your Highnesses which are in the said ocean,
thence to take my departure and proceed till I arrived at the Indies, and perform the embassy of your Highnesses to
the Princes there, and discharge the orders given me. For this purpose I determined to keep an account of the
voyage, and to write down punctually every thing we performed or saw from day to day, as will hereafter appear.
Moreover, Sovereign Princes, besides describing every night the occurrences of the day, and every day those of the
preceding night, I intend to draw up a nautical chart, which shall contain the several parts of the ocean and land in
their proper situations; and also to compose a book to represent the whole by picture with latitudes and longitudes,
on all which accounts it behooves me to abstain from my sleep, and make many trials in navigation, which things will
demand much labor.
What is Columbus’ motive for sailing across the Atlantic Ocean? What does he hope to receive?
How is this different from what you might have learned earlier?
Instructions for the Virginia Colony 1606
In the first decade of the seventeenth century England began a second round of colonizing attempts. This
time jointstock companies were used as the vehicle to plant settlements rather than giving extensive
grants to a landed proprietor such as Gilbert or Raleigh, whose attempts at colonization in the 1570s and
1580s had failed.
The founding of Virginia marked the beginning of a twenty-five year period in which every colony in the
New World was established by means of a joint-stock company. A variety of motives intensified the
colonizing impulse – international rivalry, propagation of religion, enlarged opportunity for individual
men – but none exceeded that of trade and profit. The companies were created to make a profit; their in
vestments in the colonies were based on this assumption. Early in the 1630’s merchants and investors
discovered that they could employ their money in other more rewarding enterprises. After 1631,
therefore, no colony was founded by mercantile enterprise, but by that date the enterprisers had left a
legacy of colonization that was to endure.
In these instructions for the Virginia Company, the power of Spain and the fear derived from past failures
invade every line. The detail and precision of the instructions reflect the work of experienced men;
Richard Hakluyt, the younger, for example, probably had a hand in writing them.
As we doubt not but you will have especial care to observe the ordinances set down by the King’s Majesty
and delivered unto you under the Privy Seal; so for your better directions upon your first landing we have
thought good to recommend unto your care these instructions and articles following.
When it shall please God to send you on the coast of Virginia, you shall do your best endeavour to find
out a safe port in the entrance of some navigable river, making choice of such a one as runneth farthest
into the land, and if you happen to discover divers portable rivers, and amongst them any one that hath
two main branches, if the difference be not great, make choice of that which bendeth most toward the
North-West for that way you shall soonest find the other sea.
When you have made choice of the river on which you mean to settle, be not hasty in landing your
victuals and munitions; but first let Captain Newport discover how far that river may be found navigable,
that you make election of the strongest, most wholesome and fertile place; for if you make many removes,
besides the loss of time, you shall greatly spoil your victuals and your caske, and with great pain transport
it in small boats.
But if you choose your place so far up as a bark of fifty tuns will float, then you may lay all your
provisions ashore with ease, and the better receive the trade of all the countries about you in the land; and
such a place you may perchance find a hundred miles from the river’s mouth, and the further up the better.
For if you sit down near the entrance, except it be in some island that is strong by nature, an enemy that
may approach you on even ground, may easily pull you out; and if he be driven to seek you a hundred
miles [in] the land in boats, you shall from both sides of the river where it is narrowest, so beat them with
your muskets as they shall never be able to prevail against you.
And to the end that you be not surprised as the French were in Florida by Melindus, and the Spaniard in
the same place by the French, you shall do well to make this double provision. First, erect a little stoure at
the mouth of the river that may lodge some ten men; with whom you shall leave a light boat, that when
any fleet shall be in sight, they may come with speed to give you warning. Secondly, you must in no case
suffer any of the native people of the country to inhabit between you and the sea coast; for you cannot
carry yourselves so towards them, but they will grow discontented with your habitation, and be ready to
guide and assist any nation that shall come to invade you; and if you neglect this, you neglect your safety.
When you have discovered as far up the river as you mean to plant yourselves, and landed your victuals
and munitions; to the end that every man may know his charge, you shall do well to divide your six score
men into three parts; whereof one party of them you may appoint to fortifie and build, of which your first
work must be your storehouse for victuals; the other you may imploy in preparing your ground and
sowing your corn and roots; the other ten of these forty you must leave as centinel at the haven’s mouth.
The other forty you may imploy for two months in discovery of the river above you, and on the country
about you; which charge Captain Newport and Captain Gosnold may undertake of these forty discoverers.
When they do espie any high lands or hills, Captain Gosnold may take twenty of the company to cross
over the lands, and carrying a half dozen pickaxes to try if they can find any minerals. The other twenty
may go on by river, and pitch up boughs upon the bank’s side, by which the other boats shall follow them
by the same turnings. You may also take with them a wherry, such as is used here in the Thames; by
which you may send back to the President for supply of munition or any other want, that you may not be
driven to return for every small defect.
You must observe if you can, whether the river on which you plant doth spring out of mountains or out of
lakes. If it be out of any lake, the passage to the other sea will be more easy, and [it] is like enough, that
out of the same lake you shall find some spring which run[s] the contrary way towards the East India Sea;
It were necessary that all your carpenters and other such like workmen about building do first build your
storehouse and those other rooms of publick and necessary use before any house be set up for any private
person: and though the workman may belong to any private persons yet let them all work together first for
the company and then for private men.
And seeing order is at the same price with confusion, it shall be adviseably done to set your houses even
and by a line, that your street may have a good breadth, and be carried square about your market place
and every street’s end opening into it; that from thence, with a few field pieces, you may command every
street throughout; which market place you may also fortify if you think it needfull.
You shall do well to send a perfect relation by Captaine Newport of all that is done, what height you are
seated, how far into the land, what commodities you find, what soil, woods and their several kinds, and so
of all other things else to advertise particularly; and to suffer no man to return but by pasport from the
President and Counsel, nor to write any letter of anything that may discourage others.
Lastly and chiefly the way to prosper and achieve good success is to make yourselves all of one mind for
the good of your country and your own, and to serve and fear God the Giver of all Goodness, for every
plantation which our Heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted out.
Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin
Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and ordinary lecturer therein at
Wittenberg, intends to defend the following statements and to dispute on them in that
place. Therefore he asks that those who cannot be present and dispute with him orally
shall do so in their absence by letter. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, Amen.
1. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, “Repent” (Mt 4:17), he willed the
entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
2. This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that
is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.
3. Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is
worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh.
4. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self (that is, true inner
repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
5. The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed
by his own authority or that of the canons.
6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has
been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his
judgment. If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the
guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.
7. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things
and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest.
8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the
canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.
9. Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in
his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.
10. Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve
canonical penalties for purgatory.
11. Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were
evidently sown while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25).
12. In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before
absolution, as tests of true contrition.
13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the
canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them.
14. Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it
great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear.
15. This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to
constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.
16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and
assurance of salvation.
17. It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease
and love increase.
18. Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture, that
souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love.
19. Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are
certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely
certain of it.
20. Therefore the pope, when he uses the words “plenary remission of all
penalties,” does not actually mean “all penalties,” but only those imposed by
21. Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved
from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.
22. As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which,
according to canon law, they should have paid in this life.
23. If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all,
certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.
24. For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and
high-sounding promise of release from penalty.
25. That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the
power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese
26. The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by
the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for
27. They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks
into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.
28. It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can
be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God
29. Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have
exceptions in St. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend.
30. No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having
received plenary remission.
31. The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent;
indeed, he is exceedingly rare.
32. Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have
indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers.
33. Men must especially be on guard against those who say that the pope’s pardons
are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.
34. For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of
sacramental satisfaction established by man.
35. They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend
to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach
36. Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt,
even without indulgence letters.
37. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of
Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence
38. Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded,
for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission.
39. It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same
time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true
40. A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins;
the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate
them — at least it furnishes occasion for hating them.
41. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think
that they are preferable to other good works of love.
42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of
indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.
43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy
does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.
44. Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does
not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from
45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet
gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God’s
46. Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they
must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on
47. Christians are to be taught that they buying of indulgences is a matter of free
choice, not commanded.
48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and
thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.
49. Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not
put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of God because
50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence
preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes
than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep.
51. Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish to give of his
own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to many of
those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money.
52. It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the indulgence
commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security.
53. They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the
preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may
be preached in others.
54. Injury is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger
amount of time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word.
55. It is certainly the pope’s sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very
insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one
ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached
with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.
56. The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes indulgences,
are not sufficiently discussed or known among the people of Christ.
57. That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many
indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them.
58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the
latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the
59. St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the church,
but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.
60. Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the
merits of Christ, are that treasure.
61. For it is clear that the pope’s power is of itself sufficient for the remission of
penalties and cases reserved by himself.
62. The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of
63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last (Mt.
64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for
it makes the last to be first.
65. Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly …
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