Expert Answer:compose a brief for a reading


Solved by verified expert:Please compose your brief in a similar fashion. You will only be completing the brief for Lao Tzu’s “Thoughts for the Tao-te Ching” and compose a brief.***In the “purpose” section of your brief, please add some rhetorical devices Tzu uses (with evidence from text) to support/further his claims/purpose.15 reading pages pdf for Lao Tzu’s “Thoughts for the Tao-te Ching”Here is the model brief for how the text should be.attachments below :-1- The brief2- Lao Tzu’s “Thoughts for the Tao-te Ching”


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Lecture Outline
I. “Becoming Human”
a. Early hominids
II. Paleolithic Societies
a. Hunter-Gatherer communities
b. String Revolution
III. Agricultural Revolution
a. Development of settled agricultural communities
and pastoral nomadic communities
Module 1 Learning Outcomes
• Describe the characteristic of early hominids
• Explain the social dynamics of early HunterGatherer communities during the Paleolithic
• Compare the development of early settled
agricultural communities to pastoral nomadic
Becoming Human
What make us human? In other words, what
separates us humans (homo sapiens) from other
mammals? Brainstorm at least 5 characteristics
that make us human.
Think about how we developed into the
most dominate species on our planet. From
living in caves to building skyscrapers.
Becoming Human
Keep those characteristics in mind as we start
our journey through world history.
For us humans our story begins with the earliest
of hominids in Africa. (I should mention that
Africa is not a country but a continent with
several countries. Much like North America is a
continent with 23 counties, which includes our
own USA)
Early Hominids and Adaptation
I. Characteristics of Early
– Lucy 3.2 MYA (millions of
years ago)
– stood three feet tall and
– They were not human but
carried the genetic and
biological material out of
which modern humans
would later develop
• v
Early Hominids and Adaptation
– Bipedalism
– Freed their arms and
hands to perform tasks
– Ability to migrate to
favorable environment
Early Hominids and Adaptation
Environmental Changes
– Ice Age(s)
– 15-10 MYA
– Adapting to the
Moved down from the
trees, learned to walk
– Opposable thumbs
– Larger brains
– Cognitive skills
Map 1.1 Early Hominids
Early Hominids and Adaptation
Homo habilis (2.5 MYA)
– “Skillful man”
– Made tools
– Bipedal
Early Hominids and Adaptation
Homo erectus (1.8 MYA)
– “Standing man”
– Family dynamic
– Use of Fire
– Migration
Homo Erectus and Family Dynamic
Homo erectus (1.8 MYA)
– Family dynamic
The family dynamic comes from the development of larger
brains. As the brain becomes bigger, the child needs to evacuate
mommy before the child cannot fit through the birth canal. For
our mom’s in class, think about giving a natural birth to a 4
month old. Yikes! Our new born children, they are not fully
developed in comparison to other mammal newborns. Hence,
the development of the family dynamic. Homo erectus and
eventually homo sapiens will need to settle in a favorable
environment to raise the child until they walk.
Map 1.2 Early Migrations
Early Hominids and Adaptation
Homo sapiens (200,000 years
– Cognitive thinking
– Language skills
– Greater ability to adapt to
harsher environments
– Hunter and Gatherers
The San Hunters and Gatherers
of Southern Africa
Major characteristics that define our
hominid branch from the others
What makes us human?
Characteristics of what makes us human
Major characteristics that define our
hominid branch from the others
What makes us human:
1) Bipedalism
2) Controlling fire
3) Tool making
4) Cognitive thinking
5) Sense of “self”
Part II
Paleolithic Societies
Hunting and Gathering
Megafaunal extinction
• 15,000-10,000 years ago the climate warmed
which caused glaciers to melt and contributed
to the extinction of megafaunal mammals.
– Woolly mammoths, mastodons, and woolly rhinos
in Eurasia
– Camels, horses, and giant sloths in the Americas
– Giant kangaroos and wombats in Australia
Giant sloth from North
America, recovered from the
La Brea Tar pits in Los Angeles
Hunting and Gathering
Megafaunal extinction
• 15,000-10,000 years ago the climate warmed
which caused glaciers to melt and contributed to
the extinction of larger mammals
– Woolly mammoths, mastodons, and woolly rhinos in
– Camels, horses, and giant sloths in the Americas
– Giant kangaroos and wombats in Australia
• Climate change and these extinctions allowed
humans to migrate into new areas (e.g. North
Hunting and Gathering
• Homo sapiens originated 200,000 years ago
• Humans were hunters and gatherers from
200,000 to 12,000 years ago
– In other words, for 95% of human existence we
hunted and gathered
• Keep in mind that it only takes about 2-3 hours a day to
hunt and gather, which means a lot more free time to
engage in fun activities.
Hunting and Gathering
• A few modern-day societies
continue to live in huntergatherer communities
– A lot of these small
populations are in nonindustrialized regions of the
world. The !Kung people from
Africa are just one example of
human populations that still
maintain a hunter-gatherer
Hunting and Gathering
Foraging for Food
• Recent research in anthropology suggests that
these early Paleolithic peoples gathered more than
they hunted.
• Archaeological records show that these
Paleolithic peoples lived closer to water (ocean,
lakes, rivers) and their protein mostly came from
– Fishing is a lot safer than hunting a heard of buffalos
that can trample you to death.
Hunting and Gathering
Characteristics of Hunter-Gatherer Societies
• Twenty or thirty people
• Lacked material wealth
• Age, sex, and personality mattered in
Paleolithic societies
• Hunted animals and foraged for food
– Did not farm
Hunting and Gathering
Reflect of the following questions:
What does it mean to hunt?
What does it mean to gather?
Who does the hunting? The gathering?
10,000 BC movie (2008)
Hunters and Gatherers
I am sure all of you said, “Men
hunted and women gathered!”
Think about this, can a pregnant
woman fish?
Can a woman create traps and
snares for small game?
Can children do these things?
If you have seem the movie The Hunger Games
movie, Katniss Everdeen was creating traps and
snares while in the capital in front of the
Hunters and Gatherers
• In most societies, men in
groups hunted large game
– These hunts were dangerous,
very often unsuccessful, and
therefore did not comprise the
majority of the groups’ food
• The demands of pregnancy and
lactation made women’s
participation in large game
hunting difficult
• Women did hunt small game
(rabbits, birds, etc.) and fish,
along with children and men
Tools for food preparation and transport
Stone bowl for crushing
berries, insects, and nuts
Part of weaved basket for
carrying food
Hunting and Gathering
• For 95% of human history (Paleolithic) women
provided the majority of food in hunter-gatherer

Traps and snares
Edible plants, fruits, nuts, roots, insects
Egalitarian society
• Women and men lived in smaller groups and relied on one
another to survive. Women provided most of the food the group
consumed and therefore had a high status. This relationship,
between control of food production and women’s status,
changes in some cultures after the agricultural revolution.
• Venus figurines from the Paleolithic era reflect the
importance of women and reproduction in hunter-gatherer
societies across the planet
Venus of Wilendorf
• Made from
• 11 cm/ 4.3 in.
• Found in Austria,
dated 24,000-22,000
• Explain what this
Venus figurine could
reveal about
Paleolithic society?
Cave Paintings
After looking at
these cave
paintings, watch
the video clip from
“Cave of Forgotten
Chauvet Cave Art in France
Part III
Agricultural Revolution
When and where did the agricultural revolution take place?
Agricultural production emerged in many regions of the world at different times.
The variety of patterns reflected the local resources and conditions.
Ecological Revolution
The Ice Age (110,000-12,000 years ago)
• Glacier land bridges
– Connected Asia to North America
• Migrations of early humans across the globe
• 11,000 BCE warmer climate
– Fertile soil
– Wild grasses
Ecological Revolution
The Ice Age (110,000-12,000 years ago)

Video Questions (0-9:30 min.):
• Explain how the climate change affected life on earth?
• What tool was found by archaeologists?
• What was that tool used for?
• How did the cultivation of wheat and barley change
hunter-gatherer communities?
• Explain why grains were appealing for hunter-gatherer
String Revolution
• Knowledge of the
environment allowed
Paleolithic peoples to
create string from
• Plant fibers, like
hemp, were used in
the creation of various
• String was used for
creating weapons
(bow string), fishing
lines, nets, and
baskets (for carrying
food or babies).
String Revolution
String Revolution
String baskets stored extra food, and
began the process of transforming
these hunter-gatherer groups into
settled agricultural communities, as
they no longer needed to migrate
from one location to another looking
for food.
San Diego Presidio Kumeyaay
MAP 1.4
MAP 1.4
Are there any common geographic features among these early food producing
Is there any evidence of agricultural borrowing between various regions?
Why do you think agriculture emerged in these areas and not others?
Sorghum in Sahel
Millet in
Yellow River Valley
Maize in Mesoamerica
Rice in
Yangzi River Valley
Barley in Fertile Crescent
Manioc in Mesotropics
• Humans began to manipulate various crops; picking the
most desirable crops.
• Maize from Mesoamerica was originally the size of a
• The process of genetically modifying edible plants
took a long time and did not happen over night.
Maize from Mesoamerica
• Regions, like Europe,
borrowed farming
techniques from
neighboring agricultural
• Franchthi Cave in S. Greece
is an example of
agricultural borrowing.
• Barley and lentils are
not native to the
region but their seeds
were found in the
MAP 1.8
Evidence for agricultural borrowing in Franchthi Cave in S. Greece
MAP 1.4
Identify an advantage to agriculture: ???
Identify a disadvantage to agriculture: ???
MAP 1.4
Advantage: Control the food supply, important during floods and famine when food is
scarce. Create a food surplus. Specialization of labor. Increase in caloric intake.
Disadvantage: Radically changed the environment. Farming is hard manual labor.
Domestication of wild animals
• Cattle, sheep, chickens, and goats
– Humans domesticated wild animals that were first a
threat to the wild grass
– Through human ingenuity these wild animals became
• Dogs
– Watch video clip on the domestication of dogs.
– 0-2:27 min
1) Grey Wolves that did not attack humans were
domesticated by Paleolithic humans.
2) The function of early domesticated dogs was
protection from other predators.
3) As these Grey wolves became domesticated, they
relied on humans for food.
MAP 1.4
Advantage to pastoralism: ???
Disadvantage to pastoralism: ???
MAP 1.4
Advantage: Domesticated animals provide meat and milk, as well as wool and leather for shelter
Disadvantage: Consistent migration of grass areas to feed livestock (Steppe lands), which
prevents the creation of a settled community. Limitation of domesticated animals due to
geographic location, i.e., Mesoamerica. Diseases between humans and animals.
Agriculturalists and Pastoralists
• Agricultural communities traded goods with
pastoral nomadic groups
• Salt was a major commodity that was traded
from agricultural communities to pastoral
nomadic groups
– Preserved meats (Nile River Valley)
• There were no refrigerators in the Paleolithic era
– Flavored foods
– Provided nutrients for domesticated animals
Agriculturalists and Pastoralists
How did agriculturalists and pastoralists view
each other?
• Book of Genesis story of Cain and Abel
In the narrative, the
brothers Cain,
agriculturalist, and Abel,
pastoralist, make their
offerings and God is
pleased with Abel’s
offering and not Cain’s.
The narrative ends with
Cain killing his brother
Abel out of jealousy.
This narrative reflects the
lifestyle of the early
Hebrews as they were
nomadic pastoralists.
This narrative is similar to
the ancient Sumerian
story of Emesh and
The Sumerians are a
settled agricultural group
in the Fertile Crescent
Enlil, the air-god, has set his mind to bring forth trees and grain and to establish abundance and
prosperity in the land. For this purpose two cultural beings, the brothers Emesh and Enten, are
created, and Enlil assigns to each specific duties.
Enten [pastoralist] caused the ewe to give birth to the lamb, the goat to give birth to the kid,
Cow and calf he caused to multiply, much fat and milk he caused to be produced,
In the plain, the heart of the wild goat, the sheep, and the donkey he made to rejoice,
The birds of the heaven, in the wide earth he had them set up their nests
The fish of the sea, in the swampland he had them lay their eggs,
In the palm-grove and vineyard he made to abound honey and wine,
The trees, wherever planted, he caused to bear fruit,
The furrows . . .,
Grain and crops he caused to multiply,
Like Ashnan (the grain goddess), the kindly maid, he caused strength to appear.
Emesh [agriculturalist] brought into existence the trees and the fields, he made wide the stables
and sheepfolds,
In the farms he multiplied the produce,
The . . . he caused to cover the earth,
The abundant harvest he caused to be brought into the houses, he caused the granaries to be
heaped high. ///
But whatever the nature of their original duties, a violent quarrel breaks out between the two
brothers. Several arguments ensue, and finally Emesh challenges Enten’s claim to the position of
“farmer of the gods.” And so they betake themselves to Nippur where each states his case
before Enlil. Thus Enten complains to Enlil:
Enten: “O father Enlil, knowledge thou hast given me, I brought the
water of abundance,
Farm I made touch farm, I heaped high the granaries,
Like Ashnan, the kindly maid, I caused strength to appear;
Now Emesh, the . . . . the irreverent, who knows not the heart of the
On my first strength, on my first power, is encroaching;
At the palace of the king . . .“
Enlil answers Emesh and Enten:
“The life-producing water of all the lands, Enten is its ‘knower,’
As farmer of the gods he has produced everything,
Emesh, my son, how dost thou compare thyself with Eaten, thy
The exalted word of Enlil whose meaning is profound,
The decision taken, is unalterable, who dares transgress it!
Emesh bent the knees before Enten,
Into his house he brought . . ., the wine of the grape and the date,
Emesh presents Enten with gold, silver, and lapis lazuli,
In brotherhood and friendship, happily, they pour out libations,
Together to act wisely and well they determined.
In the struggle between Emesh and Enten,
Enten, the steadfast farmer of the gods, having proved greater than
. . . O father Enlil, praise!
Agriculturalists and Pastoralists
How did agriculturalists and pastoralists view each
In this Sumerian story, both brothers reconcile their
differences. This also reflects the attitudes of a settled
agricultural group that knows it needs to interact with
the nomadic pastoral groups for meat and other trade
items, like gold and lapis lazuli.
Agriculturalists and Pastoralists:
Fertile Crescent, East Asia, and Mesoamerica
Fertile Crescent:
Interaction between agriculturalist and
• Pastoralist produced meat,
dairy, and wool for textiles
and traded them with an
agricultural community
which produced grain
(wheat and barley),
pottery, and other staples
MAP 1.5
Two types of pastoralists and their
interactions with agriculturalist
Transhumant migrate
Nomadic pastoralist are
short distances with their
horse riding herders on
flock following the
the Eurasian steppe lands
seasons and returned to
that constantly move with
their primary location
their flocks across this
agricultural zone—Steppe
Pastoral Nomads
These nomadic pastoralists from the steppe lands connected east and west and were
innovative in domesticating the horse, development of weaponry, and the transmission of
people and ideas across the Eurasian steppe lands
East Asia
Large Two-handled
Yangshao Pot
• Domestication of rice and
• The Yellow River deposited
rich soil which allowed for
the cultivation of millet in the
• The Yangzi River allowed for
the cultivation of rice
• Domesticated pig, duck,
chicken, and cattle
– Water Buffalo for plowing
MAP 1.6
• Domestication of maize and squash in
– The planting of these three crops: beans,
squash, and corn provided a nutritional based
diet and also nourished the soil.
• Domestication of animals: llamas in South
America and turkey in North America
in the
• 5000 BCE Mexico
• 1500 BCE Southwest
• 200 CE Northeast
Milpa (complementary farming)
Beans, and
Farming in the Americas
• Agriculturalists in the Americas manipulated the
physical environment for better farming, for
example in terrace farming and building floating
agricultural surfaces called Chinampas.
Terrace Farming (Mexico)
Terrace Farming (Peru)
Building Chinampas
Chinampa Agriculture
Modern-Day Chinampa
American Crops
• Maize
• Squash (pumpkins,
zucchini, acorn squash,
butternut squash, etc.)
• Pinto bean
• Tomato
• Potato
• Avocado
• Peanuts
• Chicle (gum)

Chili peppers
Cacao (chocolate)
Social Revolution and Gender Relations
Results from the Ag-Rev:
• Hunter-Gatherer  pastoral and
agricultural communities
• Food consumption from
domesticated plants and animals
• Revolutionized the very social
structure of humanity
Social Revolution and Gender
• Women were instrumental in the cultivation and
domestication of both plants and animals.
• 6,500 BCE the development of pottery = better
food storage and transportation
• Specialized labor pottery and basket weaving
– String Revolution
• The Ag-Rev transformed various hunter-gatherer
communities who were previously nomadic to
sedentary lifestyle
Social Revolution and Gender
The social transformation resulting from the Ag-Rev changed the social
structure of early human communities:
from egalitarian to non-egalitarian
1) “[The] archaeological record does not positively
indicate gender hierarchies. Without evidence to the
contrary, [scholars] assert that we should not discount
the possibility that egalitarian or even matriarchal
systems existed.”
From Kathrine L. French and Allyson M. Poska, Women and Gender in the Western Past, 5.
Social Revolution and Gender
The social transformation resulting from the Ag-Rev changed the social
structure of early human communities:
from egalitarian to non-egalitarian
2) [Many] early cultures had [narratives] that
explained their origins from first mothers followed by
the overthrow of that female dominance by a
patriarchal society
Social Revolution and Gender
Book of Genesis: Story of Adam,
Eve, and the Serpent
• The ancient Canaanites
worshipped the goddess
Ashera who was represented
by The Tree of Life
• Trees = fertility
• “Mother of All”
• There are 40 references to
Ashera in the Hebrew text —
all hostile
Similar to the Sumerian narr …
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