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G224/PHI2103 Section 02 Introduction to Critical Thinking – Online Plus – 2019 Winter Quarter
Term 2
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Module 06 – Cogent Reasoning
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Take Test: Module 06 Final Exam
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G224/PHI2103 Section 02 Introduction to Critical Thinking – Online Plus 2019 Winter Quarter Term 2














Course Home
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Tutoring
Syllabus
eText – Becoming a Critical Thinker: A User Friendly Manual, 6th ed
Getting Started
Discussions
Module 01 – Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Module 02 – Logical Fallacies
Module 03 – Opinion and Evaluation
Module 04 – Bias and Opinion
Question 1
1.
Accepting an unsuitable practice because doing so follows an accepted way of doing things.
A. Traditional Wisdom
B. Irrelevant Reason
C. Categorical Proposition
D. Worldview
1 points
Question 2
1.
A way of saying something that literally says one thing though the intended meaning is something
else, usually opposite to its literal meaning.
A. Tokenism
B. Analogy
C. Puffery
D. Irony
1 points
Question 3
1.
The positive or negative overtones of a word or expression.
A. Denial
B. Emotive Meaning
C. Biased Statistics
D. Composition
1 points
Question 4
1.
The fallacy in which a wrong is justified on the grounds that lots or most others do that sort of
thing.
A. Irrelevant Reason
B. Common Practice
C. Ad Hominem Attack
D. Suppressed Evidence
1 points
Question 5
1.
A reason offered in support of an argument’s conclusion.
A. Equivocation
B. Worldview
C. Categorical Proposition
D. Premise
1 points
Question 6
1.
The predicate of the conclusion of a syllogism.
A. Major Term
B. Composition
C. Questionable Premise
D. Tokenism
1 points
Question 7
1.
To attempt to take advantage of the failure of one’s opponent to cross every t and dot every i, to
spell out what should be taken for granted.
A. Quibble
B. Appeal to Authority
C. Questionable Cause
D. Provincialism
1 points
Question 8
1.
Generalized, vague, or exaggerated claims, particularly when asserted humorously
A. Claim
B. Concatenated Reasoning
C. Slanting
D. Puffery
1 points
Question 9
1.
A questionable analogy.
A. Mood
B. Faulty Comparison
C. Premise
D. Delusion
1 points
Question 10
1.
The tendency to keep our beliefs, and thus our actions, within the bounds of what society as a
whole will accept.
A. Irrelevant Reason
B. Biased Statistics
C. Herd Instinct
D. Claim
1 points
Question 11
1.
Valid reasoning from justified premises that include all likely relevant information.
A. Slippery Slope Reasoning
B. Rationalization
C. Higher Level Inductions
D. Cogent Reasoning
1 points
Question 12
1.
The attitudes or feelings expressed by a passage.
A. Essay
B. Questionable Cause
C. Tone
D. Form
1 points
Question 13
1.
Assuming as a premise some form of the very point that is at issue – the conclusion we intend to
prove.
A. Begging the Question
B. Questionable Analogy
C. Suppressed Evidence
D. Biased Statistics
1 points
Question 14
1.
A word that appears to make little or no change in a passage while in fact sucking out most of its
content.
A. Composition
B. Delusion
C. Suppression
D. Weasel Word
1 points
Question 15
1.
A strong belief held despite strong evidence invalidating it.
A. Common Practice
B. Dilemma
C. Rationalization
D. Delusion
1 points
Question 16
1.
Believing that something is true because there is no good evidence that it is false.
A. Appeal to Ignorance
B. Either-Or Fallacy
C. Loyalty
D. Pseudoscientific Theories
1 points
Question 17
1.
Arguing for a course of action by showing that likely alternatives are less desirable.
A. Major Term
B. Comparison of Alternatives
C. Higher-Level Induction
D. Premise
1 points
Question 18
1.
Mistakenly reasoning from two alternatives, one claimed to be bad (to be avoided), so that we
ought to choose the other alternative in particular when there is at least another viable alternative.
A. Questionable Premise
B. Composition
C. False Charge
D. Either-Or Fallacy
1 points
Question 19
1.
A theory that is without an actual scientific foundation.
A. Traditional Wisdom
B. Delusional
C. Irrelevant Reason
D. Pseudoscientific
1 points
Question 20
1.
Misrepresentation wherein a true statement is made to suggest something else.
A. Self-deception
B. Slanting
C. Questionable Cause
D. Irony
1 points
Question 21
1.
For each of the following questions provide a short answer (1-3 sentences).
On your way to a restaurant you notice a billboard advertising a local gym. There is a picture of a
fit, young man and woman in workout clothes, laughing. To one side is the name of the gym, and
on the other is the following sentence:”Who Says Working Out Can’t Be Fun?” Which of the two
basic kinds of advertisements would this fall under? Why?
Question 22
1.
For each of the following questions provide a short answer (1-3 sentences).
By the time you reach the restaurant, you are no longer feeling hungry because the billboard made
you realize how out of shape you have become. As you try to figure out the best light beer to buy
from the list, you remember that one advertises with the slogan, “The Ultimate Light Beer
Experience,” and decide to give it a try. This slogan can be termed as “puffery.” Why?
Question 23
1.
For each of the following questions provide a short answer (1-3 sentences).
After dinner, you go home and flip through the mail. You find a direct mailing from a local car
dealership advertising a 3.5% interest rate and $1500 rebate on the purchase of a new car. There is
also a fine print statement at the bottom of the page that says, “Offer only good through Friday for
buyers with a credit rating of 850 or better interested in buying a gray, 4-Door 2011 Chevy
Impala.” What would you call this final disclaimer and why?
Question 24
1.
There are few publications as ideologically different as The Nation and The National Review.
After reading the appropriate article sections, answer the following questions: Article 1: (2010).
The Week. National Review, 62(11), 4-14. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
The latest flare-up of violence off the Gaza coast has been months in the planning.
Hamas, the Islamist movement that seized power in Gaza, does everything it can to bring
in weapons and gunmen. Naturally there is an Israeli blockade. This time, Hamas got
open Turkish backing to prepare and launch a flotilla of ships to enter Gaza. Hundreds of
activists from all over the world, united only in hatred of Israel, were recruited to sail and
provide civilian cover. Either the ships would dock, in which case the blockade would
prove useless, or, more likely, there would be a confrontation, and Israel would be made
to look bad. Either way, Hamas was sure to generate immense publicity, and that would
be victory enough. As expected, Israeli commandos stormed the lead ship. Activists
resisted, and nine or maybe ten people were killed.
Article 2: NICHOLS, J. (2010) SPEAKING OUT ON ISRAEL. Nation, 290(24), 5. Retrieved
from Academic Search Complete database. Link to article
Having read both reports on the same event, what is the bias of each news source?
Question 25
1.
There are few publications as ideologically different as The Nation and The National Review.
After reading the appropriate article sections, answer the following questions: Article 1: (2010).
The Week. National Review, 62(11), 4-14. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
The latest flare-up of violence off the Gaza coast has been months in the planning.
Hamas, the Islamist movement that seized power in Gaza, does everything it can to bring
in weapons and gunmen. Naturally there is an Israeli blockade. This time, Hamas got
open Turkish backing to prepare and launch a flotilla of ships to enter Gaza. Hundreds of
activists from all over the world, united only in hatred of Israel, were recruited to sail and
provide civilian cover. Either the ships would dock, in which case the blockade would
prove useless, or, more likely, there would be a confrontation, and Israel would be made
to look bad. Either way, Hamas was sure to generate immense publicity, and that would
be victory enough. As expected, Israeli commandos stormed the lead ship. Activists
resisted, and nine or maybe ten people were killed.

Article 2: NICHOLS, J. (2010) SPEAKING OUT ON ISRAEL. Nation, 290(24), 5. Retrieved
from Academic Search Complete database. Link to article
Focusing on the second article, what indicates to you that there is bias in this article?
Question 26
1.
There are few publications as ideologically different as The Nation and The National Review.
After reading the appropriate article sections, answer the following questions: Article 1: (2010).
The Week. National Review, 62(11), 4-14. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
The latest flare-up of violence off the Gaza coast has been months in the planning.
Hamas, the Islamist movement that seized power in Gaza, does everything it can to bring
in weapons and gunmen. Naturally there is an Israeli blockade. This time, Hamas got
open Turkish backing to prepare and launch a flotilla of ships to enter Gaza. Hundreds of
activists from all over the world, united only in hatred of Israel, were recruited to sail and
provide civilian cover. Either the ships would dock, in which case the blockade would
prove useless, or, more likely, there would be a confrontation, and Israel would be made
to look bad. Either way, Hamas was sure to generate immense publicity, and that would
be victory enough. As expected, Israeli commandos stormed the lead ship. Activists
resisted, and nine or maybe ten people were killed.
Article 2: NICHOLS, J. (2010) SPEAKING OUT ON ISRAEL. Nation, 290(24), 5. Retrieved
from Academic Search Complete database. Link to article
Focusing on the first article, what indicates to you that there is bias in this article?
Question 27
1.
For each of the following arguments, determine whether each is valid or invalid. If valid,
determine whether it is deductive or inductive. If invalid, explain why.
My younger sister went to Mom and told that I pushed her into the door that cut her cheek. But it
didn’t happen. I never pushed her. She must’ve just walked into the door on her own.
Question 28
1.
For each of the following arguments, determine whether each is valid or invalid. If
valid, determine whether it is deductive or inductive. If invalid, explain why.
It is still my belief that it is safest to buy bottled water rather than drink from the tap. I’ve heard
about the most recent studies, the ones that say that bottled water is no purer than regular tap
water. Yes, I have read that chemicals in the plastic bottles can be leeched into the water if they sit
too long. But really, how can something coming from the tap be as good? It just can’t be.
Question 29
1.
For each of the following arguments, determine whether each is valid or invalid. If
valid, determine whether it is deductive or inductive. If invalid, explain why.
Whenever it rains at night, I can’t sleep. If I don’t sleep, my work suffers. If it rains at night, my
work suffers.

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