Expert Answer:essay about climate change

  

Solved by verified expert:The research topic is the effect of students’ perceptions of climate change-induced environment changes on students’ choice of travel.ORThe research topic is the effect of students’ perceptions of climate change-induced environment changes on students’ travel decision.i just need finish part 1 !
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Geography 3P21: Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, 2019.
David Butz, C315, x3205 (dbutz@brocku.ca)
1
Geography 3P21 – Seminar 1 (Week of January 14)
Interviewing Project Guidelines
Introduction
Each of you is required to
• design an interview-based research project (Part 1 – 25% – due in seminar Week
of March 4);
• conduct and transcribe a standardized open-ended interview (Part 2 – 10% – due
March 22); and
• write an essay based on your interpretation of a set of standardized open-ended
interview transcripts (Part 3 – 25% – due April 12).
The lecture material will prepare you to undertake these tasks, and the seminars are
designed to help you work through the necessary steps in detail. If you come to seminars
well-prepared, you should be able to do much of the interviewing project work during
seminar time.
The theme for the term project is climate change. Your task is to design an interviewing
project that explores some aspects of Brock students’ experiences, attitudes, perceptions,
opinions or behaviours as they relate to climate change. As you will see after reading the
articles assigned for next week’s seminar, the possibilities are almost endless; the most
important thing is that you choose a geographical or tourism-related topic that can be
well-investigated by interviewing Brock students. Feel free to interpret the theme
broadly. We will spend some time in next week’s seminar talking about social, cultural,
economic and environmental issues relating to climate change (i.e., potential research
topics).
Please be sure to read the assigned articles for next week’s seminar, and prepare for the
seminar as instructed on the handout for Seminar Two (readings and handout are
available on SAKAI.)
Part 1 – Designing an Interview-Based Research Project (25% – due
week of March 4)
I would like each of you to:
• choose a research topic that relates in some way to Brock students’ experiences,
attitudes, perceptions, opinions or behaviours as they relate to climate change and
that you can investigate by interviewing Brock University students (Seminar –
week of January 28). The research topic should have a geographical component;
• refine that topic down to two carefully-worded qualitative research questions that
you can answer using information collected by interviewing Brock University
students (Seminar – week of February 4);
Geography 3P21: Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, 2019.
David Butz, C315, x3205 (dbutz@brocku.ca)


2
design a sampling strategy to choose an appropriate group of 20 students to
interview (Seminar – week of January 28);
craft a standardized open-ended interview that you could administer to your
sample of university students, in order to collect information that would help you
answer your research questions (Seminar – weeks of February 11 and February
25).
Each of these steps will require you to do some background reading on (a) other scholarly
research and writing on the topic you have chosen, and (b) the real-life local context for
your topic (Seminar – week of January 21, will get you started with this).
You will have a chance to work on each of these steps during seminars, and to get
feedback on your progress from your seminar leader.
You are required to submit for grading, in seminar during the week of March 4:
• a description and explanation of your research topic of approximately two doublespaced pages (exactly what is it you want to investigate and why; please cite
relevant academic and contextual literature to help you make your case);
• two or three carefully-worded qualitative research questions that you want to
answer;
• a detailed description (one to two pages) of what you are looking for in your
sample of interview participants, and how you will identify and gain access to the
participants you need;

a standardized open-ended interview consisting of (a) 15-20 questions, sequenced
and worded as you would intend to ask them (you don’t have to actually conduct
the interview at this stage), (b) relevant prefatory and summary statements
inserted where appropriate, (c) some loosely-phrased probes, follow-ups, support
and recognition responses, and (d) a face sheet;
• a bibliography of at least five academic references that you have used in refining
your topic and research questions, and in developing your sample and interview
questions. Please provide a brief description of how each reference has helped
you design/refine your research.
Your submission should have a title and must be accompanied by a signed “Statement of
Academic Integrity.” When referencing or citing sources please use the referencing and
bibliographic conventions stipulated by the journal Studies in Social Justice (i.e., APA).
Part 2 – Interview Transcript (10% – due March 22)
In order to complete Part 3 of the project each student needs a set of several interview
transcripts to analyse and interpret. It is far too time-consuming for each of you to
conduct and transcribe multiple interviews. Instead, after grading Part 1 of the project
your seminar leader will choose one student’s submission from each seminar group to be
the research topic, research design, and interview for that group. (Each seminar group
will have a different topic, and a different interview.) (Seminar – week of March 11)
Geography 3P21: Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, 2019.
David Butz, C315, x3205 (dbutz@brocku.ca)
3
Each student in the seminar will conduct, record and transcribe verbatim (word-for-word)
a standardized open-ended interview with a Brock student who fits the sampling criteria
outlined in the selected submission, using the interview questions included in the
submission.
Note that in order to transcribe the interview word-for-word it will have to be recorded
(tape or digital). The department has several recorders, but not nearly enough for all
students; if you don’t have your own recorder please try to borrow one for this part of the
project.
You are required to submit for grading, on March 22:
• a copy of the recorded interview;
• a paper copy of the transcribed interview;
• an electronic copy of the transcribed interview (in MS Word or rtf);
• the original copy of the informed consent form, signed by the interview
participant and you
Part 3 – Analysing and Interpreting Interview Data (25% – due April 12)
Each student will be provided with a set of approximately 20 open-ended interview
transcripts (which each student will have contributed one interview to), as well as the
research topic and research questions for which the interviews were collected.
You will then:
• code and analyse the interviews (Seminars – weeks of March 25 & April 1);
• conduct additional literature-based research relevant to the topic; and
• write a 10-15 page essay in which you develop an interpretation of the interviews
and other literature-based material you have collected, in order to address the
research questions the research was designed to answer.
You are required to submit for grading, on April 12:
• a fully-referenced 10-15 page essay that is based substantially on your
interpretation of the interview data, and which addresses the research questions
for which the research was designed.
Your submission should have a title and must be accompanied by a signed “Statement of
Academic Integrity.” When referencing or citing sources please use the referencing and
bibliographic conventions stipulated by the journal Studies in Social Justice (i.e., APA).
More information will be provided on Parts 2 and 3 of the project as the
term progresses.
Geography 3P21: Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, 2019.
David Butz, C315, x3205 (dbutz@brocku.ca)
1
Geography 3P21 – Seminar 2 (Week of January 21)
“Climate Change”
Introduction:
Each of you is required to design an interview-based research proposal (due in seminar during the week
of March 4th) that investigates some aspects of Brock students’ experiences, attitudes, perceptions,
opinions, or behaviours as they relate to climate change.
Why climate change?
Climate change is a pressing environmental, economic, social and cultural issue, as well as a prominent
focus of research in physical geography, human geography and tourism studies. As an atmospheric
process and as a discourse, climate change affects us all. It can’t be ignored, even by those who don’t
believe human activity contributes to it, or that it is a problem, or that it is happening. It affects house
prices, travel plans, urban design, government policy, intergovernmental relations, environmental
discourse, insurance formulas, holiday industry advertising, identities, friendships and romantic
relationships, family relations, university programs, elementary education, social movements, global
migration, consumer choices, shipping patterns, geographical stereotypes, NGO funding, style, diet,
attitudes about nature, voting behavior, Indigenous politics, geopolitical strategy, etc.
Climate change relates to almost every field of Geography or Tourism Studies, often in ways that pertain
to people’s experiences, attitudes, perceptions, opinions, or behaviours, and therefore in ways that may
productively be investigated using interviews. Whatever your specific interests, you should have no
trouble developing an interesting topic, or finding literature to help you design your project and interpret
your data. There is great potential to develop an excellent research design.
Seminar Preparation:
As a starting point in the process of developing a research topic that investigates some aspect of Brock
students’ experiences, attitudes, perceptions, opinions, or behaviours as they relate to climate change, I
would like you to read the following before this week’s seminar (available on SAKAI in a folder called
“Seminar 2 – Assigned Readings”):
Read both:


Hulme, M. (2015). Climate and its changes: A cultural appraisal. Geo: Geography & Environment, 2(1), 1-11.
Wachholz, S., Artz, N., & Chene, D. (2014). Warming to the idea: University students’ knowledge and attitudes
about climate change. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 15(2), 128-141.
Read one of:


Wolf, J., & Moser, S. C. (2011). Individual understandings, perceptions, and engagement with climate change:
insights from in depth studies across the world. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2(4), 547-569.
Gössling, S., Scott, D., Hall, C. M., Ceron, J. P., & Dubois, G. (2012). Consumer behaviour and demand response of
tourists to climate change. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1), 36-58.
Geography 3P21: Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, 2019.
David Butz, C315, x3205 (dbutz@brocku.ca)
2
While you are reading, try to:
• develop a general understanding of climate change as a focus of academic study in the social
sciences;
• think about climate change – and climate change discourse – in your own life;
• create a list of potential topics related to climate change that would be suitable to investigate (a)
using a qualitative interview approach, with (b) Brock University students as interview
participants.
Bring your notes to seminar. Together with other students’ notes they will be used as a basis for
brainstorming potentially suitable research topics for your interviewing research project.
Supplementary Readings:
I have also listed below (and placed on SAKAI in a sub-folder of the “Readings” folder called
“Supplementary Climate Change Readings”) numerous supplementary articles and chapters that will be
helpful to you now as you brainstorm topics, and later as you refine your topic into a research problem.
Of course this is only a tiny fraction of the vast literature dealing with climate change as a social issue,
so please don’t allow your imaginations to be constrained by the resources I have provided
The works referenced below are just places to start. As you refine your topic, you should search the
bibliographies of these pieces (and on-line search engines, especially Google Scholar) to find academic
and non-academic literature that is more specifically relevant to the direction you are taking. Don’t
forget to pay attention to newspaper, magazine or blog articles, as they often identify researchable
issues, controversies and public opinions just as they are emerging.












Adger, W. N., Barnett, J., Brown, K., Marshall, N., & O’brien, K. (2013). Cultural dimensions of climate change
impacts and adaptation. Nature Climate Change, 3(2), 112.
Adger, W. N., Barnett, J., Chapin III, F. S., & Ellemor, H. (2011). This must be the place: Underrepresentation of
identity and meaning in climate change decision-making. Global Environmental Politics, 11(2), 1-25.
Becken, S. (2007). Tourists’ perception of international air travel’s impact on the global climate and potential climate
change policies. Journal of sustainable tourism, 15(4), 351-368.
Brace, C., & Geoghegan, H. (2011). Human geographies of climate change: Landscape, temporality, and lay
knowledges. Progress in Human Geography, 35(3), 284-302.
Corner, A., Roberts, O., Chiari, S., Völler, S., Mayrhuber, E. S., Mandl, S., & Monson, K. (2015). How do young
people engage with climate change? The role of knowledge, values, message framing, and trusted
communicators. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 6(5), 523-534.
Dickinson, J. E., Robbins, D., & Lumsdon, L. (2010). Holiday travel discourses and climate change. Journal of
Transport Geography, 18(3), 482-489.
Hares, A., Dickinson, J., & Wilkes, K. (2010). Climate change and the air travel decisions of UK tourists. Journal of
transport geography, 18(3), 466-473.
Hermans, M., & Korhonen, J. (2017). Ninth graders and climate change: Attitudes towards consequences, views on
mitigation, and predictors of willingness to act. International Research in Geographical and Environmental
Education, 26(3), 223-239.
Hulme, M. (2008). Geographical work at the boundaries of climate change. Transactions of the Institute of British
Geographers, 33(1), 5-11.
Kroesen, M. (2013). Exploring people’s viewpoints on air travel and climate change: Understanding
inconsistencies. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(2), 271-290.
Lorenzoni, I., Nicholson-Cole, S., & Whitmarsh, L. (2007). Barriers perceived to engaging with climate change
among the UK public and their policy implications. Global environmental change, 17(3-4), 445-459.
Lorenzoni, I., & Pidgeon, N. F. (2006). Public views on climate change: European and USA perspectives. Climatic
change, 77(1-2), 73-95.
Geography 3P21: Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, 2019.
David Butz, C315, x3205 (dbutz@brocku.ca)



3
Nielsen, J. Ø., & D’haen, S. A. L. (2014). Asking about climate change: Reflections on methodology in qualitative
climate change research published in Global Environmental Change since 2000. Global Environmental Change, 24,
402-409.
Weber, E. U. (2010). What shapes perceptions of climate change?. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate
Change, 1(3), 332-342.
Whitmarsh, L. (2009). What’s in a name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of “climate
change” and “global warming”. Public understanding of science, 18(4), 401-420.
Geography 3P21: Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, 2019.
David Butz, C315, x3205 (dbutz@brocku.ca)
1
Geography 3P21 – Seminar 3 (Week of January 28)
“Developing a Research Topic and Sample”
1 Please come to the seminar with a broad research topic in mind (something to do with Brock
students’ experiences, attitudes, perceptions, opinions, or behaviours as they relate to climate
change):
• This needs to be a topic that you think you could investigate by interviewing approximately 1520 Brock University students;
• In order to come up with this topic you should have:
o Followed up on ideas that arose in a lecture or course
o Reflected on your own outside interests or experiences as they relate to the general topic
area
o Searched non-academic literature relating to climate change
o Searched academic literature related to your general topic to help you refine it. Be sure to
search literature that is specific to your topic, as well as those broad thematic literatures
that relate to your topic (the assigned readings for Seminar 2 will be helpful here).
2 The purpose of this seminar is to:
• help you refine your general topic into a research problem that is clear and concise, and that
can be investigated by interviewing Brock University students (see Appendix 1)
o we will talk about phrasing research problems in more detail in class
o note that attempting to phrase a research problem clearly and concisely is part of the
process of honing your topic… clarifying for yourself and others just what you want to
study
• help you begin thinking of the characteristics you should be looking for in a sample of 15-20
students, in order to get the most useful information. You can’t make final sampling decisions
until after you have formulated research questions, but you should start thinking of it early (see
Appendix 2)
o we will talk about sampling in more detail next class
o note that random sampling is not an option; with a small sample size for interviewing
research you need to employ a purposeful sampling strategy.
3 This may involve explaining your topic to the class, and listening to other students’ comments and
suggestions.
4 Before you leave the seminar you should submit to your seminar leader:
• A concise 1-2 sentence statement of your research problem
• A one paragraph more detailed description of what it is you want to investigate
• A one paragraph description of the sorts of characteristics you will be looking for in a sample of
participants, and why.
5 Your seminar leader will comment on these submissions and return them to you the following
seminar (or before the end of this seminar, if time allows), but will not grade them.
Geography 3P21: Qualitative Research Design and Methodology, 2019.
David Butz, C315, x3205 (dbutz@brocku.ca)
2
Appendix 1 – Research Problems
1 The first stage in the design of any research project is to identify a problem
• an issue that is not fully understood
o e.g., attachment to place
o e.g., residential location
• a set of relationships or patterns that is not fully understood
o e.g, the relationship between residential location and fear of crime
o e.g., the relationship between students’ reasons for coming to Brock and their satisfaction
with their experience at Brock
• a process that is not fully understood
o e.g., gentrification
o e.g., the process of career-training
o e.g., the process of developing friendships (say, with other students)
2 Identifying a problem is prior to asking, in any formal way, a research question. A problem is merely
a perplexing issue of some sort. It need not be particularly precise, and it should not imply, at this
stage, a particular answer. Precision comes with narrowing the problem down into a research
question.
3 Research problems often take the form of
a observations that you would like to investigate:
• homeless people congregate in the downtown areas of large cities
• middle class people avoid particular parts of cities at nights
• people behave differently in their own neighbourhood than elsewhere
• run-down inner city houses are being renovated and upgraded
• the concentration of student accommodations in downtown St. Catharines.
• the segregation of ethnic minorities in Toronto.
• the decline/deterioration of St. Catharines’ central business district.
b relationships you would like to understand:
• the relationship between changing residence and experiencing a life crisis
• the relationship between fear and women’s choice of parking at Brock.
• the relationship …
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