Solved by verified expert:Communication theories evolve over time. In the early days, communication theories were “inflexible” in that they did not consider confounding, moderator, cultural, or other type of variables that might affect the results. For example, Media Richness Theory began hypothesizing that some forms of media are always better than others but did not consider the moderator variables of relationship, context, or content. To this end, examine the attached article (Self-Disclosure 1957) below entitled Some Factors in Self-Disclosure by Sidney Jourard and Paul Lasakow and explain if since 1957 has the theory of Self-Disclosure evolved in any way. In your response, identify other theories and their authors as well as any other research that shows the evolution of Self-Disclosure theory. Also, look at the validity of the results by examining the methods used; meaning did they do things the right way? Use APA or MLA when citing sources.
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SOME FACTORS IN SELF-DISCLOSURE1
SIDNEY M. JOURARD 2 AND PAUL LASAKOW
University of Alabama Medical Center and University of Alabama Birmingham Center
HE present paper describes a questionnaire method for measuring the amount
and content of self-disclosure to selected
“target-persons,” and reports the results of
three exploratory studies. Self-disclosure refers
to the process of making the self known to
other persons; “target-persons” are persons
to whom information about the self is communicated.
The process of self-disclosure has been
studied by others from various points of view.
Block (1) and Block and Bennett (2) have
demonstrated that the content of communication about the self is a function of variations
in “own-role.” Lewin (7) noted differences
between typical Germans and Americans
regarding their readiness to confide personal
information to others. Jourard (6) has suggested that accurate portrayal of the self to
others is an identifying criterion of healthy
personality, while neurosis is related to inability to know one’s “real self” and to make
it known to others. Characterological studies
of Fromm (3), Riesman (9), and Horney (4)
have called attention to a tendency common
among persons in our society, to misrepresent
the self to others. This tendency is central to
the “marketing personality,” the “otherdirected character,” and the “self-alienated”
individual, as these have been described by
their respective authors. Since much of social
science is founded upon the self-disclosures
of respondents, the conditions and dimensions
of self-disclosure bear directly upon the
validity of many purported facts in the social
From the foregoing, it may be concluded
that systematic analysis of self-disclosure
holds promise of yielding information that is
relevant to diverse areas of theory and method.
The following questions were proposed
1. Do subjects (5s) vaiy in the extent to
which they disclose themselves to different
target-persons, for example, mother, father,
male friend, and female friend? What is the
effect of the 5s’ marital status on self-disclosure
to parents and friends? What is the effect of
the Ss’ feelings and attitudes toward particular
target-persons upon self-disclosure to them?
The last question was investigated only with
respect to the relationship between 5s’ disclosure of self to parents, and their feelings
and attitudes toward their parents.
2. Are there differences between categories
of information about the self (aspects of self)
with respect to self-disclosure? Do 5s tend to
disclose some aspects of self more fully than
3. Are there differences ascertainable between Negro and white 5s with respect to
4. Are there sex differences regarding selfdisclosure?
The Self-disclosure Questionnaire. A sixty-item
questionnaire was devised. As can be seen in Table 1,
the items are classified in groups of ten within each of
six more general categories of information about the
self (aspects), 5s were given the following instructions
for completing the questionnaire:
The answer-sheet which you have been given has
columns with the headings “Mother,” “Father,”
“Male Friend,” “Female Friend,” and “Spouse.” You
are to read each item on the questionnaire, and then
indicate on the answer-sheet the extent that you have
talked about that item to each person; that is, the extent to which you have made yourself known to that
person. Use the rating-scale that you see on the answers
sheet to describe the extent that you have talked about
The self-disclosure rating-scale was as follows:
0: Have told the other person nothing about this aspect of me.
1: Have talked in general terms about this item. The
other person has only a general idea about this aspect of
2: Have talked in full and complete detail about this
item to the other person. He knows me fully in this
respect, and could describe me accurately.
X: Have lied or misrepresented myself to the other
person so that he has a false picture of me.
The authors are indebted to Drs. A. J. Riopelle,
Emory University, and O. Lacey, University of Alabama, for statistical advice.
Now at the University of Florida, Gainesville.
The numerical entries were summed (X’s were counted
SIDNEY M. JOURAUD AND PAUL LASAKOW
THE SELF-DISCLOSURE QUESTIONNAIRE
Attitudes and opinions
1. What I think and feel about religion; my personal religious views.
2. My personal opinions and feelings about other
religious groups than my own, e.g., Protestants, Catholics, Jews, atheists.
3. My views on communism.
4. My views on the present government—the
president, government policies, etc.
5. My views on the question of racial integration
in schools, transportation, etc.
6. My personal views on drinking.
7. My personal views on sexual morality—how I
feel that I and others ought to behave in
8. My personal standards of beauty and attractiveness in women—what I consider to be
attractive in a woman.
9. The things that I regard as desirable for a man
to be-j-what I look for in a man.
10. My feelings about how parents ought to deal
Tastes and interests
1. My favorite foods, the ways I like food prepared, and my food dislikes.
2. My favorite beverages, and the ones I don’t like.
3. My likes and dislikes in music.
4. My favorite reading matter.
5. The kinds of movies that I like to see best; the
TV shows that are my favorites.
6. My tastes in clothing.
7. The style of house, and the kinds of furnishings
that I like best.
8. The kind of party, or social gathering that I
like best, and the kind that would bore me,
or that I wouldn’t enjoy.
9. My favorite ways of spending spare time, e.g.,
hunting, reading, cards, sports events, parties, dancing, etc.
10. What I would appreciate most for a present.
Work (or studies)
1. What I find to be the worst pressures and
strains in my work.
2. What I find to be the most boring and unenjoyable aspects of my work.
3. What I enjoy most, and get the most satisfaction from in my present work.
4. What I feel are my shortcomings and handicaps
that prevent me from working as I’d like to,
or that prevent me from getting further ahead
in my work.
5. What I feel are my special strong points and
qualifications for my work.
6. How I feel that rny work is appreciated by
others (e.g., boss, fellow-workers, teacher,
7. My ambitions and goals in my work.
8. My feelings about the salary or rewards that I
get for my work.
9. How I feel about the choice of career that I
have made—whether or not I’m satisfied
10. How I really feel about the people that I work
for, or work with.
1. How much money I make at my work, or get
as an allowance.
2. Whether or not I owe money; if so, how much.
3. Whom I owe money to at present; or whom I
have borrowed from in the past.
4. Whether or not I have savings, and the amount.
5. Whether or not others owe me money; the
amount, and who owes it to me.
6. Whether or not I gamble; if so, the way I
gamble, and the extent of it.
7. All of my present sources of income—wages,
fees, allowance, dividends, etc.
8. My total financial worth, including property,
savings, bonds, insurance, etc.
9. My most pressing need for money right now,
e.g., outstanding bills, some major purchase
that is desired or needed.
10. How I budget my money—the proportion that
goes to necessities, luxuries, etc.
1. The aspects of my personality that I dislike,
worry about, that I regard as a handicap
2. What feelings, if any, that I have trouble expressing or controlling.
3. The facts of my present sex life—including
knowledge of how I get sexual gratification;
any problems that I might have; with whom
I have relations, if anybody.
4. Whether or not I feel that I am attractive to
the opposite sex; my problems, if any, about
getting favorable attention from the opposite
5. Things in the past or present that I feel ashamed
and guilty about.
6. The kinds of things that just make me furious.
7. What it takes to get me feeling real depressed
8. What it takes to get me real worried, anxious,
9. What it takes to hurt my feelings deeply.
10. The kinds of things that make me especially
proud of myself, elated, full of self-esteem or
1. My feelings about the appearance of my face—
things I don’t like, and things that I might
like about my face and head—nose, eyes,
hair, teeth, etc.
2. How I wish I looked: my ideals for overall
3. My feelings about different parts of my body—
legs, hips, waist, weight, chest, or bust, etc.
4. Any problems and worries that I had with my
appearance in the past.
5. Whether or not I now have any health problems—e.g., trouble with sleep, digestion, female complaints, heart condition, allergies,
headaches, piles, etc.
6. Whether or not I have any long-range worries
or concerns about my health, e.g., cancer,
ulcers, heart trouble.
7. My past record of illness and treatment.
8. Whether or not I now make special efforts to
keep fit, healthy, and attractive, e.g., calisthenics, diet.
9. My present physical measurements, e.g., height,
weight, waist, etc.
10. My feelings about my adequacy in sexual behavior—whether or not I feel able to perform
adequately in sex-relationships.
SOME FACTORS IN SELF-DISCLOSURE
as zeros), yielding totals which constituted the selfdisclosure scores.
Seventy white unmarried college students of both
sexes were tested for self-disclosure to Mother, Father,
Male Friend, and Female Friend, in a study of reliability. Since the questionnaire included 60 items, and
there were four target-persons, a total of 240 entries
were made by each S. These 240 entries were divided
into halves by the odd-even method, and the subtotal
sums were correlated with each other. The resultant /,
corrected, was .94, indicating that the Ss were responding consistently to the questionnaire over all target
persons, and all aspects of self.
Parent-Cathexis Questionnaires. Mother-cathexis
and Father-cathexis questionnaires, fully described
elsewhere (5), were employed to test 5s’ feelings toward
their parents. The 5s rated their feelings about 40
parental traits, e.g., sense of humor, temper, ability to
make decisions, in accordance with the following scale:
1: Have strong positive feelings; like very much.
2. Have moderate positive feelings.
3. Have no feelings one way or the other.
4. Have moderate negative feelings.
5. Have strong negative feelings; dislike very much.
High scores indicated negative feelings toward the
parents, while low scores signified positive feelings.
The 5s included in the studies to be reported were
taken from larger samples drawn from three Alabama
college populations: two white liberal arts colleges, a
Negro liberal arts college, and a school of nursing
located at a medical school. For the combined sample
300 white and Negro liberal arts college sophomores
and juniors were obtained, and 55 white nursing
students. All 5s were tested in groups by an examiner
of the same race.
For the purpose of analysis, the following randomly
selected subsamples were drawn from the combined
1. From the 300 liberal arts students, a subsample
of 10 white males, 10 white females, 10 Negro males,
and 10 Negro females was drawn for the study of
differences in self-disclosure associated with race, sex,
targets, and aspects of self. All 5s were unmarried, and
in all cases, the parents were living. Mean ages were:
white males, 21.70, SD 2.00; white females, 20.30, SD
.90; Negro males, 22.10, SD 2.02; and Negro females,
20.40, SD .45. All 5s had been tested for self-disclosure
to Mother, Father, Male Friend, and Female Friend.
2. From all the white respondents in the combined
sample, a subsample of 10 married male and 10 married
female 5s was drawn for comparison with the first
subsample of 10 unmarried males and 10 unmarried
females to test the effects of marriage on self-disclosure
patterns. These 5s had indicated self-disclosure to
Mother, Father, Same-sex Friend, and Spouse. Mean
age for the married males was 23.40, SD 1.43, and for
the married females, 20.60, SD 2.42.
3. Thirty-one unmarried nursing students comprised
the third sample, used to examine the relationship
between parent-cathexis and self-disclosure to the
parents, Mean age for this group was 18.59, SD 3.53.
The data were analyzed according to Lindquist’s
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SELF-DISCLOSURE SCORES OF WHITE AND NEGRO, MALE AND
Males vs. Females
Whites vs. Negroes
Sex X Race
Total df Between
(Within groups comparisons)
Between Aspects of Self
Target X Aspect
Group X Target
Group X Aspect
Group X Target X Aspect
Total df Within
Error t (w]
Total Error df
•p < .05. •*P < .01. •"/> < .001. Mean Square df 892.33 573.50 2076.82 126.67 131.61 3 1 1 1 36 39 557.06 952.01 87.49 128.11 32.16 9.61 3 5 15 9 15 45 92 51.17 23.57 5.69 108 180 540 828 959 Error Term Error (b) Erron (w) Error2 (w) Errors (w) Erron (w) Errors (w) Error s (w) 6.78*** 4.36* 15.78*** 10.89*** 40.39*** 15.38*** 2.50* 1.36 1.69** 94 SIDNEY M. JOURARD AND PAUL LASAKOW FATHER MOTHER White Males White Females*—o Negro Males e—* Negro Females*--® 20 UJ ce o o 15 UJ i , — -0 UJ CE UJ QL 1 I 10 o 10 (/>
< 5 l ^ i ASPECTS i_ 10 i i ,»* ^ C*- .i UJ cc UJ K CO
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