Expert Answer:Functions of the Human Resource Management essay

  

Solved by verified expert:Human Resource Management Final Paper. The paper must have a total of 8 pages excluding title and reference page. The essay should not be written in the passive voice. Should have a clear thesis statement and exceptional conclusion. At the least 5 scholarly references and at least one reference from the class book. The paper should be completed by Monday, the 11th. Please make sure you follow APA format.
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Week 5 – Final Paper
Functions of HRM
[WLO: 3] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
The primary function of HRM is to increase the effectiveness and contribution of
employees attaining organizational goals and objectives. Consider all the areas of HRM
that have been discussed in this course:





Performance management
Human resources planning, recruitment, and selection
Human resources development
Compensation and benefits
Employment and labor laws and regulations
In your final paper,





Provide a high-level overview of each HRM area listed above.
Discuss HR functions within a performance management system that contribute
to effective training and development.
Explain how an effective performance management system along with
compensation and benefits can attract, develop, and retain talented employees.
Analyze employment and labor laws and regulations that impact these areas of
HRM listed above and the relationships between employees and employers.
Explain how the functions of HRM work together in order to optimize
organizational and employee behavior.
For additional support with completing your final paper, please refer to the following
tools:




Finding HR Journals in the AU Library (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.. This tip sheet will support you in researching through the Ashford
University Library.
What Is CRAAP: A Guide to Evaluating Web Sources (Links to an external
site.)Links to an external site.. This will assist you in determining the reliability of
an HR website.
Scholarly and Popular Resources(1) (Links to an external site.)Links to an
external site.. This tutorial explains the differences between scholarly and popular
resources.
Human Resource Research With FindIt@AU (Links to an external site.)Links to
an external site.. This tip sheet will support you in researching through the
Ashford University Library.
The Functions of HRM paper
1







Must be seven to eight double-spaced pages in length (not including title and
references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the
Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.)Links to an external
site.
Must include a separate title page with the following:
Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted
For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for
Word 2013 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..





Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external
site.)Links to an external site. resource for additional guidance.
Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph.
o For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external
site.)Links to an external site., refer to the Ashford Writing Center resources.
Must use at least five scholarly, peer-reviewed, or credible sources in addition to
the course text.
o The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an
external site.)Links to an external site. table offers additional guidance on
appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific
source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your
instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for
a particular assignment.
Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the
Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)Links
to an external site.
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style
as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References
List (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. resource in the Ashford
Writing Center for specifications.
Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external
site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
2
Performance Appraisal:
Measurement, Assessment,
and Management
6
shirinosov/iStock/Thinkstock
Learning Outcomes
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
• Use a holistic approach to define work performance and identify its dimensions.
• Discuss the outcomes of effective performance appraisal.
• Link performance appraisal with other functions within the HRM process.
• Apply the concepts of validity and reliability to performance measurement.
• Describe various commonly used performance appraisal methods.
• Identify emerging trends, opportunities, and challenges in performance appraisal.
143
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What Is Job Performance?
Section 6.1
Introduction
It is inconceivable that an organization would not want to see high performance from its employees, yet it is very common for organizations to measure performance poorly and, thus, be in the
dark about the quality of their employees’ performances. This fact is especially true in light of the
increasing emphasis on service jobs. Unfortunately, services are much harder to measure than
tangible products. Consequently, performance measurement in today’s business world requires
more creativity and a more holistic approach. However, managers tend to dislike the confrontational and judgmental aspects of assessing their employees’ performances. In fact, next to firing
employees, performance appraisals are the second most disliked task reported by managers
(Heathfield, 2007; Jackson, 2012). The opening case study sheds some light on why that might be
the case. This chapter discusses the characteristics of effective performance appraisal systems,
as well as the importance and challenges associated with performance management.
Opening Case Study
Jack Welch and His (In)Famous Rank-and-Yank System
Access the following links:
http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/educate/college/careers/Advice/advice4-18-05.htm
http://www.forbes.com/sites/petercohan/2012/07/13/why-stack-ranking-workedbetter-at-ge-than-microsoft/
http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970203363504577186970064375222
As you will learn in this chapter, performance appraisal systems can have absolute or relative standards. The system adopted by Jack Welch, former General Electric CEO, is an extreme
example of relative performance appraisal standards. Employees are compared to each other
and ranked accordingly. Jack Welch believes this system to be “kind” to employees, under the
right conditions. Other organizations have adopted or adapted GE’s former “rank-and-yank”
system, with varying degrees of success.
6.1 What Is Job Performance?
Job performance is the total expected value to the organization of discrete behavioral episodes
that an employee carries out over a prescribed period of time (Motowidlo, 2003). This definition implies that job performance is a property of behavior. That is, job performance is an aggregation of multiple, discrete behaviors that occur over a span of time. A further implication is
that some sets of behavior are distinct from other sets of behavior in their contributions to, or
detractions from, the effectiveness of the organization and therefore receive greater attention.
Finally, results are states or conditions of things that are changed by what employees do in ways
that help or hinder the organization in reaching its objectives, and this accounts for results being
so appealing as a focal point when considering employee performance (Motowidlo, 2003).
The above discussion points toward a holistic approach to performance appraisal involving
a multidimensional system of interrelated parts. In this section, several components of performance are discussed and integrated. These components provide the foundation for the
design, measurement, assessment, and management of an effective performance appraisal
© 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
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Section 6.1
What Is Job Performance?
system that can be conducive to continuous performance improvement at both the individual
and organizational levels.
1. Employee Productivity
Productivity is the most prominent component of performance. Generally speaking, any
job or role has a core set of functions, duties,
and responsibilities that its incumbent needs
to perform. Often, there are also some standards regarding the minimum level of acceptable performance for each of these functions,
duties, and responsibilities. This predetermined set of criteria can be used as the bare
minimum to define and measure employees’ performances. Employee productivity can then be defined as the ratio of the
actual employee production to the planned
or anticipated production for the core set of
functions, duties, and responsibilities of the
job performed.
Jim West/age footstock/Superstock
Employee productivity can be defined as the
ratio of what employees actually produce and
what an organization predicted employees
would produce based on the specific
responsibilities of a job.
2. Employee Attitudes
Attitudes can be defined as cognitive and emotional appraisals that shape subsequent
behavioral tendencies. Employees’ attitudes have a direct influence on their productivity, as
well as on the organizational culture as a whole. As you learned in Chapter 5, this fact makes
employee attitudes valid predictors of performance. Some organizations want a more accurate depiction of their employees’ performances; these organizations should incorporate
employees’ attitudes in their performance appraisals. Because attitudes are subjective, two
people may appraise the same situation differently and, therefore, be inclined to respond
to it differently.
Important positive attitudes in the workplace include:
• Job satisfaction (Judge, Thoresen, Bono, & Patton, 2001)
• Organizational commitment (Riketta, 2002)
• Work engagement (Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002)
Negative work attitudes include:
• Cynicism (Wanous, Reichers, & Austin, 2000)
• Disengagement (Robison, 2010)
Each of these five attitudes has been shown to be a significant predictor of work performance.
Importantly, the “softer” and less tangible nature of attitudes makes them harder to measure.
However, these specific attitudes have scientifically designed, valid, and reliable measures
that can be incorporated within performance appraisal systems, and well-supported HR initiatives can be used to develop and manage these attitudes.
© 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
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Section 6.1
What Is Job Performance?
Employees with negative attitudes express these attitudes in their behavioral patterns and
adversely influence their coworkers, which in turn depresses employee morale and team
spirit, triggers employee conflicts, and reduces efficiency, quality, and performance. On
the other hand, employees who are satisfied with their jobs are generally more committed to fulfill their tasks and responsibilities efficiently. In addition, they are more likely to
get involved and actively engaged in job activities. Employees with positive attitudes can
also create a “cheerleader effect” that transfers their positive energy to other individuals
and creates a favorable atmosphere that promotes work engagement, commitment, and
productivity.
Performance appraisal systems that account for attitude recognize that employees with positive attitudes are valuable assets, and these systems provide the means to properly recognize
and reward these employees for these attitudes. They also provide mechanisms to identify
negative attitudes, diagnose their causes, and design corrective action plans.
3. Work Behaviors
Performance is often visualized in terms of productivity and efficiency. However, the following elements of performance should also be considered in evaluations of employee
performance:




Coaching, mentoring, or supporting new coworkers
Sharing skills and experience
Promoting a friendly work environment and a healthy team spirit
Abiding by and encouraging others to follow organizational norms, regulations, and
procedures
• Assisting employees with their emotional and
­personal problems
These are all forms of positive performance that go above
and beyond the call of duty. They are not explicit role
expectations and are rarely, if ever, formally recognized or
rewarded by an organization. These work behaviors are
known as ­organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)
(Organ, 1988). OCBs are very challenging to evaluate
because they are very subjective in nature. Furthermore,
they require the assessor to analyze and evaluate multiple
subjective parameters simultaneously, processes that introduce bias and inaccuracy. Moreover, this evaluation does not
provide the employee with specific feedback necessary for
their development.
Lee and Allen (2002) identify two types of OCBs:
individual-oriented and organization-oriented behaviors.
­
­Individual-oriented OCBs are targeted toward another individual; an example is helping a coworker with a difficult task.
­Organization-oriented OCBs are targeted toward the organization; for example, conserving office supplies and speaking highly of one’s employer in a social setting constitute
Michael Blann/Digital Vision/Thinkstock
Organizational citizenship
behaviors include promoting a
friendly work environment and
supporting one’s coworkers.
© 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
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What Is Performance Appraisal and Why Is It Important?
Section 6.2
organization-oriented OCBs. OCBs are particularly relevant to a holistic performance appraisal
system: they make a significant difference in the quality of employees’ service. Customers are
more likely to be satisfied when they do business with organizations where employees go above
and beyond their standard duties, rather than offering a bare minimum of effort. Systems in
today’s organizations that measure performance appraisal, compensation, and reward, therefore, also need to measure and assess OCBs. However, OCBs are by definition behaviors that go
above and beyond the call of duty. Formalizing, measuring, and rewarding these behaviors can
defy that definition and turn them into performance expectations, which can represent an added
pressure on employees to practice them as an obligation (Cain, 2014).
Some work behaviors can also be counterproductive. Bennett and Robinson (2000, p. 556)
define counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) as “voluntary behavior of organizational members that violates significant organizational norms, and in doing so, threatens the
well-being of the organization and/or its members.” Examples of CWBs include physical violence, verbal aggression, harassment, theft, intentionally producing lower quantity or quality,
wasting resources or supplies, sabotaging organizational property, leaking confidential information, or refusing to help coworkers (Robinson & Bennett, 1995).
Many things can prompt these behaviors—e.g., environmental conditions such as work
stressors, perceptions of injustice, or situational frustration. These behaviors hinder the
organization’s ability to achieve its goals and objectives and can have serious implications on
performance. That’s why it is critical for an organization to take necessary actions to detect,
assess, and correct counterproductive behaviors (Spector, Fox, & Domagalski, 2005). Thus,
addressing CWBs should also be an integral component of performance appraisal systems.
4. Team Performance
There are several approaches for measuring team performances because it is more than the
sum of the individual performances of the team members. Some approaches focus on individuals and their contributions to the team, while other approaches focus on the team as
a unit, including the synergies, added effectiveness, productivity, problem-solving capabilities, and innovation realized as a result of collaboration across team members (McCann &
­Aldersea, 2002). One major issue with evaluation of teams is that of “free riders” or “social
loafers” who make only minimal contributions to team productivity but enjoy equal rewards
to those making greater contributions, and this suggests that individual contributions to
team performance must be assessed and recognized. Finally, not all teams are created equal.
That is, different teams such as work or service teams, project teams, and network teams will
require different emphasis at both the individual and team levels (Cascio & Aguinis, 2011).
6.2 What Is Performance Appraisal and Why Is It
Important?
Performance appraisal is the process through which employee performance is assessed,
feedback is provided to the employee, and corrective action plans are designed. Figure 6.1
outlines the performance appraisal process and positions it within the strategic HRM process.
Various sections and discussions in this chapter elaborate on those linkages.
© 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
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Section 6.2
What Is Performance Appraisal and Why Is It Important?
Figure 6.1: Performance appraisal
Strategic HR
planning
Benefits and
benefit
administration
Job analysis
and job design
Attraction and
recruitment of
talent
Compensation
Selection and
job fit
Training and
development
Performance
appraisal/
management
Defining
performance
Developing
action plans
Selecting
performance
measures
Assessing
validity &
reliability
Providing
feedback
Measuring
performance
Ensuring
legal
compliance
Although the main objective of performance appraisals is to evaluate employees’ work performance, performance appraisals are also important for organizations because they reflect
the effectiveness and efficiency of achieving organizational goals and objectives. Organizations use performance appraisals for many purposes including:
© 2015 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution.
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Common Performance Appraisal Methods
Section 6.3
• Managing salaries, wages, and pay adjustments
• Providing performance feedback for employees and communicating points of
strength and weakness
• Determining job placement decisions such as promotions, demotions, and transfers
• Justifying employee disciplinary
actions such as termination or
dismissal
Performance appraisals are often linked to
such incentive systems as bonuses, which
sustain a culture of rewarding employees
based on their job performance rather than
their seniority. However, poorly prepared
performance appraisals can negatively
Cultura Limited/Cultura Limited/Superstock
affect high performers because they may Performance appraisals evaluate an
not be fairly rewarded, which can ultimately employee’s performance and provide
destroy their morale and sense of trust in management with both strengths and areas
organizational practices. Moreover, well- for further training.
prepared and documented performance
appraisals can protect organizations from
litigation and claims of discriminatory practices. Finally, performance appraisals can provide
the necessary information for assessing training needs and designing the appropriate training and development initiatives to meet those needs.
6.3 Common Performance Appraisal Methods
Organizations commonly use many valid and reliable performance appraisal methods. Different methods provide different types of information. Some measures are objective and some
are subjectiv …
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