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Solved by verified expert:PART I(45)Choose three of the following and write a paragraph defining the term and explaining its historical significance. A strong identification will define basic information about the term (who, what, when, where, why) AND, importantly, indicate its significance in early American history .JeremiadsPopéLimited MonarchyGeorge Whitefield Cherokee and the deerskin tradePART II (55)Your essay should answer the prompt in full, bringing together material from primary sources, textbook, lectures, and films. It must include at least four specific examples drawn from lectures as well as the assigned readings in Give Me Liberty and Voices of Freedom. In general, the more historical context and use of primary source references, the better.The Revolutionary War emerged within the late colonial period amid Enlightenment discussions on natural rights, representation, and the common good. Explain how social, political, and economic events and ideas lead to the outbreak of war from 1763 to 1776.The essay should be at least 4 pages long, MLA Format w/ cite sheet at the end.If you Don’t have the text book Give Me Liberty and Voices of Freedom, let me know Ill take some pics for you.
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America and Europe Prior to 1492
Week 1, Lecture 2
Theme: Encounters
Agenda
● Pre-Contact Native North American World
● Agriculture: New Societies and New Stresses in North
America
● Pre-Contact European World
I. Native North American World Prior to 1492
Beringia, 30,000 years ago…
●sea levels lowered as huge
glaciers formed
●Asia and North America
joined by a huge
subcontinent of grasslands
called…. Beringia
●hunter-gatherer migrations
I. Native North American World Prior to 1492
Paleo-Indians: 15,000-7,000 BCE
Clovis People
● independent travelling bands
● Developed sophisticated stone
spearheads to hunt
BUT…
● Ice Age ended: water levels rose
& submerged Beringia
● Climatic change also diminished
large mammals and thus much of
hunter-gatherers’ food supply
I. Native North American World Prior to 1492
Archaic Indians: 7,000-1,000BCE
●experiment with harvesting plants
●By 5,000 BCE farming emerges
in the Americas
II. Agriculture: New Societies and New Stresses
The Three Sisters:
◦ Beans
◦ Corn
◦ Squash
How might the “three sister”
agriculture change cultural practices?
● Less Migratory
● Dependent on weather conditions




Cultivate food surplus
Specialization and hierarchies emerge
Crop failure meant devastation to population
Emergence of regional culture and variations
“America Before Columbus” Documentary
● How did specific
crops shape distinct
American cultures?
● Why did agriculture
help develop
powerful societies?
Regional Cultures:
Mesoamerica and Peru (Aztecs, Maya, Incas)
Aztecs
Maya
Inca
Regional Cultures:
Mississippi River Valley
Cahokia: 1200 CE, 20,000 people
● permanent communities along the
Mississippi Valley floodplains
● built giant earthen mounds with
monumental temple
● Centers like Cahokia, linked vast
river transportation systems of the
Mississippi River
Regional Cultures:
Southwest
Anasazi and Hohokam cultures
● 900-1200 CE, planned towns
with large multiple family
dwellings in local canyons
● constructed dams and canals
to gather and distribute water
● conducted trade from central
Mexico to Mississippi River
Valley
Regional Cultures:
Pacific West
● densely populated region
● hundreds of distinct groups in
independent villages
● lived primarily by fishing
hunting sea mammals,
salmon, and gathering wild
plants and nuts
Regional Cultures:
Eastern Woodlands
Algonquians and Iroquois Confederacy
● Lived on the three sisters,
fished and hunted deer,
turkeys, and other animals
● Towns and Villages
● In the 1400s, various
confederations emerged
Regional Connections: Widespread Trade
III. Europe Prior to 1492
● Europeans’ world centered around
the Mediterranean Sea
● T and O Map:
○ Europeans believed in an island
world conception
○ God had fashioned the world to
be like this
III. Europe Prior to 1492
● Increase in population & cultivation
between 1000 and 1300 CE
● Advances in technology
● Society run by feudal obligations and
control
● Ate bread and porridge, supplemented
with seasonal vegetables and occasional
piece of meat or fish
● Infectious disease like Black Plague
constantly threatened communities
So… how & why did Europeans successfully
make contact across the Atlantic in 1492?
1. Commercial Expansion,
Crusades, & Renaissance:
a. Crusades enabled Europeans access
trade goods in Asia & Middle East
b. Adopted Asian technologies and
expanded economic growth
c. Contact with Muslim civilization
provided access to classical antiquity,
which triggered period known as the
Renaissance
“You, constrained by no limits,
in accordance with your own
free will, shall ordain for
yourself the limits of your
nature.”
Pico Della
Mirandola,
Italian
humanist,
1486
2. Monarchical Alliances with Wealthy
Merchants
The Renaissance began amid the ruins
of the plague and a struggling
economy.
● Western European monarchs
began replacing aristocracy as
centers of power
● New monarchs allied with
increasingly wealthy merchants
who sought lucrative royal
contracts & trading monopolies
3. African Exploration and
Technological Advances
● Cut off from Mediterranean
mercantile interests, Portuguese
focused on trade along Atlantic
coast of Africa
● Caravel: new ship that
incorporated seafaring expertise of
Asia & the Muslim World to be
faster and more efficient
● Arab instruments for astronomical
calculation gave a competitive
edge
Take out a piece of paper..
● Write your name
● Identify ONE historical development that contributed
to the expansion of a pre-contact North American
society.
● Identify ONE historical development that contributed
to the expansion of a pre-contact European society.
Initial Encounters
Week 2, Lecture 3
Theme: Encounters
Agenda
● How were Europeans able to cross the Atlantic?
● What propelled Europeans to sail into the unknown?
● Mutual Misunderstandings
● Columbian Exchange
A European
State of
Mind
Christopher Columbus
to a Spanish official,
1492
As I know that you will be pleased at the great victory
with which Our Lord has crowned my voyage, I write this
to you, from which you will learn how in thirty-three days,
I passed… to the Indies with the fleet which the most
illustrious king and queen, our sovereigns, gave to me …
And there I found very many islands filled with people
innumerable, and of them all I have taken possession for
their highnesses, by proclamation made and with the
royal standard unfurled, and no-opposition was offered to
me. To the first island which I found, I gave the name San
Salvador, in remembrance of the Divine Majesty, Who has
marvelously bestowed all this … and so to each [island] I
gave a new name
HOW WERE EUROPEANS ABLE TO CROSS THE
ATLANTIC AND INVADE THE AMERICAS?
Ship building, Maps, Navigation
Origins of Slavery in the Atlantic
In the 1400s, Spanish & Portuguese
negotiated commercial treaties
with African rulers to:
● construct small, fortified
trading posts on the coast
● secure commercial relations
with African kingdoms who had
gold, ivory, pepper & slaves
Example:
Canary Islands
Guanche people: 30,000 lived on
the islands in 1400
● descendants of North Africans
who migrated there in 2000
BCE
● lost contact with the continent
and lacked metallurgy
knowledge
Canary Islands: Important Testing
Ground for Colonization
● Spanish & Portuguese justified
conquest of Gaunche because they
were not civilized or Christian
Held some advantages:
● Military advantages over Guanche who
fought on foot with stone weapons
● Most Deadly: Exposed Guanche to new
diseases, causing thousands to die
from epidemics
Canary Islands: Important Testing
Ground for Plantation System & Slavery
● Spanish & Portuguese established sugar
plantations on the islands
○ Plantation System: a large tract of
privately owned land worked by many
slaves to produce a high-value commodity
for export to an external market
● Began importing Africans to work the sugar
plantations
○ After 1450, expanded the slave trade in
West Africa
II. WHAT PROPELLED EUROPEANS TO SAIL
INTO THE UNKNOWN?
Push and Pull Factors:
● Spanish monarchs completed “Reconquista” in
1492 and now willing to sponsor expeditions
● bankers & merchant sponsors wanted to
circumvent Muslim hold on Eastern trade
● Spanish monarchs granted special rights to
those who would go & plunder for luxury goods
● Religious devotion/conversion
Conquistadors:
●Independent military contractors in
pursuit of profit
●not funded explicitly by the crown (even
though the crown did rely on their
conquests for land and wealth)
EX: Hernán Cortés and
Montezuma II
How could this have occured?
● Ineffective Iron and Gunpowder Technology… but added
psychological warfare
● Fanged dogs
● Local allies
● Epidemic disease
III. MISUNDERSTANDINGS:
PRINT CULTURE
●In 1430s, printing with
movable type invented,
contributing to rapid spread of
information in Europe
●information sent back about
the Americas reveal
misunderstandings Europeans
held about the Americas
SUPER FUN Primary Source Activity
Individually, take a moment to look over the document(s)
Then, in groups, address the following:
● Identify any confusing language or images
● Based on what you know about the initial encounter period,
what is the perspective of the author? Who is the audience?
● Who or what might be misunderstood? Why?
Misunderstandings: Native Perspectives:
Native Oral Tradition of the First Arrival of Europeans on Manhattan Island
(1610), recorded in 1818
“[E]spied at a great distance something remarkably large floating
on the water, and such as they had never seen before…. At length
the spectators concluded that this wonderful object was moving
towards the land and that it must be an animal or something else
that had life in it; it would therefore be proper to inform all the
Indians on the inhabited islands of what they had seen… that they
might send off in every direction for the warriors… These arriving
in numbers …concluded it to be a remarkably large house in
which the Mannitto (the Great or Supreme Being) himself was
present, and that he probably was coming to visit them. By this
time the chiefs were assembled at York island, and deliberating in
what manner in which they should receive their Mannitto on his
arrival. Every measure was taken to be well provided with plenty
of meat for a sacrifice”
Misunderstandings: Gender
Indians Planting Corn, from Theodor de Bry, Great Voyages
(1590
IV. COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
Columbian Exchange: two-way
traffic of plants, animals, and
microbes
● In Europe, diverse plant goods
contributed to population
increase
● In the Americas, new diseases
killed off vast amounts of the
population quickly
Impact: Virgin soil epidemics
Virgin Soil Epidemic: population at risk if
they have had no previous contact with
the diseases that strike them, leaving
them immunologically almost defenseless
Example: Smallpox
● Europeans exposed to disease
throughout life & built up
partial immunity
● Native Americans never been
exposed to this disease before
● RESULTING in epidemics and
great devastation
Impact: Consumption &
Cultural Associations
Initially, Europeans viewed chocolate and tobacco as
vile…
● Chocolate: “more a drink for pigs than a drink for
humanity.”
● Tobacco: “ the Devil could [not] vomit something
more pestilent”
By 1590s, change in how Europeans interpret and
market the goods based on own values
● Chocolate: more readily embraced by Europeans
because of its association with sacredness
● Tobacco: still viewed as diabolical
Take out a piece of paper…
● Write your name
● Write down one thing you learned today
● write down one thing that still confuses you or you have questions about
EMPIRES:
TRADE,
CONVERT,
SETTLE
Week 3, Lecture 4
Theme: Encounters
Agenda
● Empire Building: Goals of Colonization
● Spanish Encounters
● French Encounters
I. Empire Building: Goals of Colonization
● colonialism: the process whereby one
political entity expands by taking over
and settling new territories
○ Transfer of people
○ Mercantilist economic structure
○ Force the original people in the
region to come under the legal and
economic system of the colonizer
1689 Map of Imperial Control
II. Spanish Encounters:
Enrich and Extend Empire
Example: Santa Fe
Juan de Onate: led expeditions in 1598 to
establish
a permanent settlement in northern
Encomienda:
Spanish
Empire…
wheregiven
PueblobyIndians
lived
● feudal
land grant
Spanish
Santacrown
Fe: Recalled in 1609 to reduce violence in
the borderlands & found a new town
● holder granted a certain number of
● to decrease tensions, colonists were
indigenous people to work the land
ordered to raise own crops, reduce garrison
and whoforbade
had to pay
numbers,
fromthem
more exploration
the Spaniard,
in turn, was
to
●● Isolation
and prohibitive
costssupposed
of overland
provide military
protection,
encourage
transportation
made
most colonists
Christian conversion
impoverished
● prosperity confined to small elite
Santa Fe
Spanish Encounters: Religion & Franciscan
Missionaries
Spanish hoped the mission system would
consolidate control over the interior Native
inhabitants more cheaply & securely than soldiers
The Franciscans demanded much from their
converts:
● obliterated & replaced circular kivas
● smashed, burned, or confiscated sacred katsina
images
● Native people expected to master Christianity &
dress, cook, and talk like Spaniards
Spanish Encounters: Native Population
SO, why would Natives convert?
● Some chiefs hoped to bolster own
power at the expense of rival native
villages
● Inability of traditional shamans to
shield their people from devastating
new diseases
III. French Encounters: Trade and
Convert
EX: Quebec (1603)
Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec:
○far enough from Iroquois for French
to feel safe & also good strategic
location for trade
○remained weakly held colonial region
○cold & isolated
French Encounters: Colonial Structure
French Empire based on:
● religious conversion and fur trade
● Dependent on alliances and personal
connections with Native populations for trade &
survival
○ Young men sent to make contact & live with
distant Native communities–often marrying
into families to gain direct access to pelts
Cultural Brokers: Native women who married
French men acted as a go-between the two cultures
French Encounters: Jesuits & Native
Population
Black Robe (1991)
-Who are the cultural brokers?
-How are Native people portrayed?
-How does colonialism function here?
Take out a piece of paper..
1. Write your name
1. Compare the Spanish and French trade dealings, religious
conversion efforts, OR specific native interactions. What
might the differences be reveal about their distinct imperial
efforts?
ENGLISH
EMPIRE:
TRADE,
CONVERT,
SETTLE
Week 3, Lecture 5
Theme: Encounters
Agenda
● Latecomers to the Imperial Contest
● English Encounters: Trade, Convert Settle
● Varieties of English Colonialism
○ Chesapeake (Ex. Virginia)
○ New England (Ex. Massachusetts)
I. Latecomers to the
Imperial Contest
At first, plans mirrored Spanish & Portuguese
● Converting “uncivilized” Native Americans
● Seeking out material gains
Contrasting interests shaped development of
two of the earliest British colonies
● Jamestown, Virginia (1607): emphasized
commercial interests
● Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630): retained
deeply religious orientation
II. English Encounters:
Colonial Structure & Investment
Colonial structure
● decentralized colonial administration
● founded by charter companies
Joint Stock Companies and Investors:
● Sold stock to finance voyage, promising
a return on the investment
● Investors wanted to gain wealth just like
the Spanish and French
● Anxious about failure
English Encounters: Protestantism & Native Population
Official state religion: Church of England
● Believed in individual, direct relationship
with God
● Essential for men and women to read
the word and be converted to
Christianity
Instead of going to Native communities,
Protestants made the Natives come to them
● Praying towns: schools and communities
where Indians made to act like English
III. VARIETIES OF ENGLISH COLONIALISM
Chesapeake: Virginia and Maryland
English Settlement:
Jamestown, VA
● 1607: 3 ships, funded by the
Virginia Company, landed on
the mouth of a great river
○ The English colonists were
not farmers …and ⅔ died
within the year
○ Ran out of food and supplies
SUPER. FUN. Primary Source Activity
You will be divided into groups and assigned a group number.
Odd #s:
● Identify key instructions and expectations from the Virginia Company for
the settlers.
● Draw the Virginia Company’s vision for the Jamestown settlement based
on the precise directions they gave the colonists.
Even #s:
● Identify what happened to the initial settlers in Jamestown based on the
primary source accounts.
● Draw the realities of day-to-day survival in the Jamestown settlement
from the descriptions.
Jamestown, VA
● Initially, Powhatan gave
English supplies to establish
trade networks
● Colony only shipped back cider
and wood during first years
UNTIL ….
John Rolfe & Tobacco
(1611)
Pocahontas/ Rebecca
Varieties of English Colonialism:
The Chesapeake: Virginia (1607) and Maryland (1632)
Economy: Tobacco (staple crop)
Religious Life: Everyone paid taxes to church,
Settlement Patterns: Land granted under
regardless of proclaimed faith
headright system and tended to settle near
● river
Maryland
accesswas Catholic colony
few European
● Population:
Virginia wasimmigrant
Anglican, society,
but because
parishes
women,
reliedmany
on kinship
networks
because
were so&large,
worshiped
at home
of
high death
ratesto church
instead
of going
Labor Source: initially indentured servants &
then slaves by end of 17th C
Who is coming to Virginia?
Excerpt of
passengers
on board The
Abraham of
London,
leaving from
London to
Virginia in
1635
Adwell Kathryn 33
Allen Thomas 31
Archdin Tho 18
Brewitt George 18
Britton Jo 23
Brunch Jo 13
Bullar Jo 32
Burnett Jo 24
Clanton Jo 26
Clark Jo 20
Clements Tho 30
Davies Emanuell 19
Dobell Henry 20
Downs Will 24
Farrell Simon 19
Fisher W 25
Flower Tho 32
Freeman William 48
Greene Riger 24
Gregorie Alexander 24
Griffith Edward 33
Harrison Robert 32
III. Varieties of English Colonialism: New England colonies
English Settlement: Massachusetts
Pilgrims: Plymouth Colony, 1620
● Wanted to separate completely
from the Church of England
Puritans: Massachusetts Bay
Colony, 1630
● Wanted to reform the Church of
England and create a “purified”
English society in America
New England: Massachusetts
Economy: “subsistence plus” farming
Settlement Patterns: Open Field Village & focus
on community life
Population: whole families came together,
maintaining balanced sex ratio
Religion: most were Puritans
● Emphasized predestination
● locally organized and controlled church
● Membership was exclusive
Who is coming to Massachusetts?
Crosse John 50
Bernard/Barnard John 30
Crosse Anne 38, wife of
Bernard Phebe 27, wife of John
Excerpt of
John
Bernard John 2,
passengers on Bernard Samuel 1
Cutting, William 26
board Elizabeth, Blomfield William 30
Cutting, Richard 6, stepchild
leaving Ipswitch, Blomfield Sarah 25, wife of William
of Henry Kemball
Day Robert 30
Suffolk, England Blomfield Sarah 1 child of William
Day Mary 28, wife of Robert
Bradstreet Humphrey 40,
April 1634 for
Massachusetts Bradstreet Bridget 30, wife of Humphrey
Bradstreet Anna 9
Bay Colony
Bradstreet John 3
Bradstreet Martha 2
Bradstreet Mary 1
Clearke John 22
Take out a piece of paper…
● Write your name
● What is ONE way New England settlement differed from the
Chesapeake? Think about religion, settlement motivations, climate,
population, etc.
SLAVERY,
RACE, AND
EMPIRE
Week 4, Lecture 6
Theme: Imperial Conquest and Colonial
Thought
Agenda
● Why did African slavery emerge in the Americas?
● What was the experience of slavery?
● Primary Source Activity!!
● Race
I. Why did African Slavery Emerge in the
Americas?
1. Slavery existed in many regions
◦ War captives
◦ Just war
◦ EX: Pequot War (1637)
2. Forms of Unfree Labor
Unfree labor: people cannot freely
sell their labor because of one’s legal
status, contractual obligations,
destitution, etc
● Servitude in England
● Indentured Servitude
Unfree Labor: Indentured Servitude
Indentured servant: individual who signed
If most indentured servants
a labor contract to work for someone for
were
in their
20s when
they
an
allotted
time, typically
4-7 years.
arrived,
howa might
these

had to carry
pass if travelled

could not marry
conditions
impact them when/if

contracts
could
be bought
and sold in
they
gained
their
freed …
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