Expert Answer:Indiana University Bloomington Biological coastlin

  

Solved by verified expert:InstructionsYour essay answer should be clear and succinct, amounting to perhaps 3-5 sentences totaling 50 to 80 words; longer essays are strongly discouraged. It is recommended that you prepare your answer in a separate document from which you copy it into Canvas.Please note that your answers to all questions must reflect your own work in your own choice of words. No collaboration is permitted in the submission of this assignment.Question 1 5 ptsWhat factors control the transition from low marsh to high marsh in estuarine settings and what is the long-term effect of this process?A strong answer will emphasize the critical role of water flow in salt marshes, the nature of the changes in sediment substrate from low to high marsh, and how coastlines change as marshes expand, noting how specific physical factors can influence this development.Question 2 3 ptsMatch the three locations (A, B, and C) in the image to the descriptors that best match their characteristics.Location A in the image [ Choose ] Reef crest (algal ridge) Lagoon Fringing reef Patch reefs Atoll Location B in the image [ Choose ] Reef crest (algal ridge) Lagoon Fringing reef Patch reefs Atoll Location C in the image [ Choose ] Reef crest (algal ridge) Lagoon Fringing reef Patch reefs Atoll Question 3 1 ptsWhat characteristic of ocean waters is typically regarded are a limiting factor for the occurrence of coral reefs?Ocean waters where the temperature exceeds 20 °COcean waters where the temperature exceeds 15 °COcean waters where the annual temperature variation is less than 3 °COcean waters where the salinity exceeds 36 ‰Ocean waters where the salinity is less than 34 ‰Question 4 1 ptsWhich of the following organisms is one of the top predators (tertiary consumers) in the trophic pyramid of a coral reef?OctopusesSea urchinsParrot fishesSea anemonesBrittle stars
15._coral_reefs_and_atolls.pdf

15._salt_marshes_and_mangroves.pdf

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Oceans & Global Environment
Module 15: Coastal Habitats
•Coral Reefs and Atolls:
Coral reef
• Formation and features of coral reefs.
• Biology & food chains of reef organisms.
• Trophic levels within reef ecosystems.
• Global locations of coral reefs.
• Evolution of atolls from fringing reef
• to barrier reef to atolls.
Key Concepts?
•Understanding Reefs:
• Reef structure – biological & physical.
• Temperature constraints on occurrence.
• How atolls develop from reefs.
Atoll
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Coral Reefs
Topographic Features
•Cross-section of algal ridge,
buttress zone & lagoon.
Coral reef: cross section different corals at
different depths of face
Algal ridge pounded
by breakers &
furrows in buttress
zone, with lagoon
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Coral Reefs
Lagoons with coral mounds: patch reefs
Branching coral
Brain coral
Branching coral
Atolls with
central lagoons
Flat branching coral
Coral Polyps
Carbonate Cups
•Coral polyps feed or
have photosynthetic
zooanthellae.
Brain coral with
algal zooanthellae
Feeding
polyps
Zooanthellae
provide sugar & O2
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Coral Reefs
Four-Level Trophic Pyramid
•Producers & hierarchy of consumers.
Coral reef: trophic
relationships
Sequence
of feeding/
predation
Global Distribution of Corals
Limited by waters with
temperature of >20°C
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Development of Atolls
Fringing Reef to Barrier Reef to Atoll
Formation
of atolls
(proposed
by Charles
Darwin)
volcanic
islands
with
fringing
reefs that
grow
upward as
island
subsides
G131 Oceans &
Global Environment
Fringing reef
Barrier reef
Atoll
Reefs & Atolls
Atoll
Barrier reef
Atoll
Bora-bora
Reef
Oceans & Global Environment
Module 15: Coastal Habitats
•Salt Marshes and Mangroves:
• Salt marshes dominate brackish conditions (esp. Spartina).
• Low salt marshes (wet, mud-dominated) become high salt
marshes (drier, sand-dominated) as channels infill.
• Mangroves thrive in coastal tropical waters, trap sediment
with their root systems., changing coastlines.
Key Concepts?
•Developing Coastlines:
Salt
marsh
• Temperate salt marshes &
tropical mangroves change
coastlines as they trap sediments.
• Low marshes evolve into high marshes.
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Estuaries
Salt Marshes
Mature salt
marsh with
sinuous tidal
channels
•Grow in estuaries
where mixing
produces salty or
brackish waters and
where muds & sands
are sheltered by
barrier island.
• Salt marshes build up
Location of
behind
salt marshes
tidal flats.
within tidal
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
estuaries
Estuarine Flora
Salt Marshes
•Combination of topography &
plant assemblages define salt
marshes.
• Classification as low marshes or high
marshes built on mud & sand.
Salt marsh cross section
Variety of salt
marsh plants
Evolution of Salt Marsh
Rates of Sedimentation Decrease
Excellent
drainage as low
marsh develops
Good drainage
as high marsh
develops
Poor drainage as
entire system
becomes high
marsh
Marshlands
Initiation
Development
•Longshore drift
protects cove
from waves &
facilitates marsh
growth.
Developing
Mature
Sediment Core
Salt Marshes & Mangroves
Latitudinal Distribution
•Salt marshes occur at mid- & high latitudes
•Mangroves prevalent at low latitudes.
Salt marshes at
high latitudes
Mangroves at
low latitudes
Green: salt marshes
Blue: mangroves
Salt marshes at
high latitudes
Mangroves
Low Latitude
•Dense tree
growth with lush canopy
on muddy soils
with sediment detritus.
Mangroves – intertwined prop
roots provide habitats for many
invertebrates & fish.
Seedlings grow on parent branches
G131 Oceans & Global Environment

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