Expert Answer:Indiana University Bloomington Estuary Food Webs R


Solved by verified expert:InstructionsYour essay answer should be clear and succinct, amounting to perhaps 3-5 sentences totaling 50 to 80 words; longer essays are strongly discouraged. It is recommended that you prepare your answer in a separate document from which you copy it into Canvas.Question 1 5 ptsDescribe the two major controls that play a role in the mixing of saltwater and freshwater in estuaries and how the relative importance of these two factors determines the resultant salinity characteristics of the estuary.A strong answer will describe the two major factors that determine the salinity characteristics of estuaries, noting the names given to the three types of estuarine circulation that are produced, and describing their characteristics in terms of both the changes in salinity from river to ocean and the extent of stratification within the estuary.Question 2 1 ptsWhich of the following types of estuary is most likely to be strongly stratified with stagnant bottom waters?FjordsDrowned river valley estuariesBar-built estuariesTectonic estuariesWide estuariesQuestion 3 1 ptsWhat is the major difference between food webs in estuaries and those in the open ocean?Sediment detritus serves as the basis of estuarine food websBenthic organisms rather than phytoplankton serves as the basis of estuarine food websThe role of fish is diminished in estuariesThe order of trophic levels is reversedThere are no major differences between food webs in estuaries and in the open oceanQuestion 4 3 ptsIdentify which label best describes the characteristics of each of the three specific locations (A, B, C) in the Google Earth images of coastal estuaries. (Individual options for answers can be used more than once.)Location A in Image 1 [ Choose ] Flood delta Salt marsh River delta Sand dunes Tidal flats Location B in Image 2 [ Choose ] Flood delta Salt marsh River delta Sand dunes Tidal flats Location C in Image 3 [ Choose ] Flood delta Salt marsh River delta Sand dunes Tidal flats

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Oceans & Global Environment
Module 15: Coastal Habitats
•Estuarine Food Webs:
• Lateral separation in wide estuaries leads to separation of
saline, brackish & fresh water and associated biota.
• Food webs based on mud & marsh plants detritus support
communities of particle consumers and their predators.
• Combination of tidal and mud flats and salt marshes.
• Estuarine flora adapted to brackish conditions.
Key Concepts?
mud flats
•Understanding Food Webs:
• Sediment detritus derived from
producers serves as the basis of
food webs of consumers & predators.
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Wide Estuaries
Lateral Separation
•Freshwater & seawater occur
parallel to shoreline .
Occurrence of
brackish & marine
species in wide
G131 Oceans &
Global Environment
by Coriolis
Food Webs
•Based on plants in
marshes & mudflats,
detritus & nutrients
from land run-off.
• Grazing & detrital chains.
Estuary with mudflats
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Water Exchange & Tidal Inlets
•Controlled by positions of sand spits & barrier
islands; influenced by strength of river influx,
tidal flow & longshore drift.
Estuaries at locations
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
where freshwater &
seawater mix
Salt Marshes
Mature salt
marsh with
sinuous tidal
•Grow in estuaries
where mixing
produces salty or
brackish waters and
where muds & sands
are sheltered by
barrier island.
• Salt marshes build up
Location of
salt marshes
tidal flats.
within tidal
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Estuarine Flora
Salt Marshes
•Combination of topography &
plant assemblages define salt
• Classification as low marshes or high
marshes built on mud & sand.
Salt marsh cross section
Variety of salt
marsh plants

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