Expert Answer:Indiana University Coastal Evolution Shape of Delt

  

Solved by verified expert:Quiz InstructionsYour essay answer should be clear and succinct, amounting to perhaps 3-5 sentences totaling 50 to 80 words; longer essays are strongly discouraged. It is recommended that you prepare your answer in a separate document from which you copy it into Canvas.Question 1 5 ptsWhat three factors play a significant role in controlling the shape and configuration of deltas and what effect does each have when it dominates?A strong answer will explain the three influential factors that affect the shape of deltas at the mouth of major rivers, describing named examples that exemplify the dominance of each of the three characteristics and why they are representative.Question 2 5 ptsFor each of the images (A to E) of coastlines captured from Google Earth select the description that best represents the specific coastal feature or engineering modification, and the direction of sand movement resulting from longshore drift evident in the image where appropriate. The ocean is at the bottom of each image.Image AImage BImage CImage DImage EImage A [ Choose ] A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from left to right A barrier island inlet with no evidence of longshore drift A tidal inlet with an ebb-tide delta A series of breakwaters A series of groins with no evidence of longshore drift A series of groins with longshore drift from right to left A tidal inlet with a flood-tide delta A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from right to left A sand spit A series of groins with longshore drift from left to right Image B [ Choose ] A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from left to right A barrier island inlet with no evidence of longshore drift A tidal inlet with an ebb-tide delta A series of breakwaters A series of groins with no evidence of longshore drift A series of groins with longshore drift from right to left A tidal inlet with a flood-tide delta A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from right to left A sand spit A series of groins with longshore drift from left to right Image C [ Choose ] A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from left to right A barrier island inlet with no evidence of longshore drift A tidal inlet with an ebb-tide delta A series of breakwaters A series of groins with no evidence of longshore drift A series of groins with longshore drift from right to left A tidal inlet with a flood-tide delta A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from right to left A sand spit A series of groins with longshore drift from left to right Image D [ Choose ] A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from left to right A barrier island inlet with no evidence of longshore drift A tidal inlet with an ebb-tide delta A series of breakwaters A series of groins with no evidence of longshore drift A series of groins with longshore drift from right to left A tidal inlet with a flood-tide delta A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from right to left A sand spit A series of groins with longshore drift from left to right Image E [ Choose ] A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from left to right A barrier island inlet with no evidence of longshore drift A tidal inlet with an ebb-tide delta A series of breakwaters A series of groins with no evidence of longshore drift A series of groins with longshore drift from right to left A tidal inlet with a flood-tide delta A barrier island inlet with longshore drift from right to left A sand spit A series of groins with longshore drift from left to right
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Oceans & Global Environment
Module 14: Dynamic Shorelines
•Beach Budgets:
• Balance of erosion, transport & deposition.
• Circulation cells reflect coastline divisions of sand budgets.
• Evolution of coastlines via sand transports.
• Engineering approaches to control longshore drift & prevent
erosion – groins, breakwaters & seawalls.
Coastal
engineering:
beach
• Beach replenishment by importation of sand.
Key Concepts?
replenishment
•Understanding Sand:
• Sources, movement & sinks.
• Controls (natural & man-made) on
longshore drift, including coastline modification.
G131 Oceans &
Global Environment
Beach Profile & Characteristics
Shoreline Divisions Related to Tides
•Offshore, Nearshore, Foreshore & Backshore.
•Features tend to parallel coastline.
• Longshore bars & troughs.
• Summer &
winter berms in
foreshore
(seasonal high
tide crests).
• Sand dunes in
backshore.
G131 Oceans & Global
Environment
Longshore bar
height = low tide
Beach Sand Inputs & Outputs
Budgets of Sand for Specific Locations
•Assessment of sand supply from rivers,
erosion, longshore transport & losses from
beach (offshore, alongshore & by wind).
Components
of sand
movement
Determines beach
stability & fate
Hypothetical
negative budget
= net erosion
Coastal Circulation Cells
Assessment of Sediment Budgets
•Cells.
• Begin & end
with rocky
headlands.
• Sand moved
by longshore
transport &
transported
offshore into
submarine
canyons.
G131 Oceans & Global Environment
Discrete Cells
Southern California
Inlets & Outlets Along Beaches
Function of Tides & Longshore Drift
•Determine site
of deposition of
sand as deltas
(ebb & flood),
or in spits.
Tidal inlet
Strong tides:
deposition as
deltas
Growth of sand spit
Ebb
delta
Displacement
down current
Sand
Spits
Grow by
deposition
of sand
Spits are
formed by
longshore
drift
Effects of Longshore Transport
Beach
Evolution
•Changes
in barrier
islands
from
longshore
transport
or sea
level rise.
G131 Oceans &
Global Environment
Sand deposition
Longshore drift
Sea level change
Coastline Modification
Seawall
strengthens
wave erosion
Groin traps longshore drifting sand
Breakwater
influences sand
deposition
Jetties & inlets result in sand deposition
Groins
‘Protect’ Beaches
•Limited longshore
transport of sand.
New construction
of groins banned
along many
coastlines
(e.g. N. Carolina)
Engineered approach
to sand retention,
but starves other
locations
Provide evidence
of direction of
longshore
transport
Examples of Groins
Effect of
breakwaters
Padre Island
‘renourishment’
Sand & pebble accumulation
from longshore drift
Padre Island
Padre Island
Barrier Island
Vary seasonally
Upward
growth
Longshore currents
converge near center
Crosssection
G131 Oceans &
Global Environment
Padre Island
Beach “renourishment” by
Army Corps of Engineers
Sand dredged
Before
“renourishment”
Sand piped to
depositional site
Sand redistribution
new sand
“Renourishment”
in progress
Cape Cod, Massachusetts
Longshore Drift
•Direction varies because
of wave refraction.
Longshore
current
varies in
direction
G131
Oceans &
Global
Environment
Formation
during ice
age
Sea Level Changes
Coastlines Shift
Faster rate of sea level
rise while ice age
glaciers were melting
•Position of
shoreline is
affected by sea
level change.
•Lower sea level
during glaciations
18kyr ago
(Last glacial
maximum)
G131 Oceans &
Global Environment
Distant
(?) future

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