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Internet Technologies and
Information Services
Recent Titles in Library and Information Science Text Series
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Young Adult Literature in Action: A Librarian’s Guide, Second Edition
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Children’s Literature in Action: An Educator’s Guide, Second Edition
Sylvia M. Vardell
INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES AND
INFORMATION SERVICES
Second Edition
Joseph B. Miller
Library and Information Science Text Series
Copyright 2014 by ABC-CLIO, LLC
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except
for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission
in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Miller, Joseph B., 1952Internet technologies and information services / Joseph B.
Miller. — Second edition.
pages cm. — (Library and information science text series)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-61069-473-5 (pbk: alk. paper)
1. Libraries and the Internet. 2. Libraries—Information
technology. I. Title.
Z674.75.I58M55 2014
020.285’4678—dc23
2014013761
ISBN: 978-1-61069-473-5
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Libraries Unlimited
An Imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC
ABC-CLIO, LLC
130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911
Santa Barbara, California 93116-1911
This book is printed on acid-free paper
Manufactured in the United States of America
To my wife Susan, for a lifetime of love and support
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Contents
Preface …………………………………………………………………… xvii
Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………..xxi
PART 1: Internet Technologies
1·Introduction …………………………………………………….. 3
The Internet and the Changing IT World …………………….. 3
The Internet Defined ………………………………………………. 5
A Brief History of the Internet …………………………………… 5
Administration of the Internet ………………………………….. 7
Net Neutrality ……………………………………………………… 8
IT Foundations ………………………………………………………. 9
Computers: The Binary Machine …………………………….. 9
Client–Server Architecture ……………………………………. 13
The Internet and Technology Trends ……………………….. 13
Computing to Connecting …………………………………….. 13
Bandwidth ……………………………………………………….. 14
Going Mobile in a Post-PC World ……………………………. 15
There’s an App for That ………………………………………. 15
The Cloud ………………………………………………………… 16
Big Data…………………………………………………………… 16
Going Open Source …………………………………………….. 16
Internet-Based Collaboration ……………………………….. 17
The Long Tail ……………………………………………………. 17
The Internet of “Everything” …………………………………. 17
Summary ……………………………………………………………. 19
viii
Contents
Notes………………………………………………………………….. 20
References…………………………………………………………… 20
2·The World Wide Web…………………………………………. 23
The Development of the Web…………………………………… 23
Key Web Technologies: URLs, HTTP, and HTML …………. 25
The Invisible Web: Below the Surface ……………………….. 26
Web 2.0 ………………………………………………………………. 27
The Mobile Web ……………………………………………………. 27
The Social Web …………………………………………………….. 28
Blogs and RSS ……………………………………………………… 29
Wikis …………………………………………………………………… 29
Social Networking Sites …………………………………………. 29
Virtualization, Grids, and Clouds ……………………………. 30
Virtual Machines and Virtualization ………………………… 30
Grids …………………………………………………………………… 32
Cloud Computing ………………………………………………….. 33
Cloud Architecture …………………………………………….. 34
Cloud Application Examples ……………………………….. 35
Extending the Browser ………………………………………….. 36
Using the Web ……………………………………………………… 37
Information Seeking ………………………………………………. 37
eCommerce ………………………………………………………….. 37
The Web and Traditional Media………………………………. 38
Education …………………………………………………………….. 39
Summary ……………………………………………………………. 40
References…………………………………………………………… 40
3·Network and Connection Technologies ……………….. 43
Network Basics ……………………………………………………. 43
The OSI Network Reference Model …………………………… 44
Key Concepts and Terminology ……………………………….. 45
Network Hardware ……………………………………………….. 46
The Network Interface……………………………………………. 46
Packet Forwarding and Routing Hardware ………………. 46
Wired Network Topologies………………………………………. 47
Wireless Networks ………………………………………………… 50
Protocols: Rules for a Common Language …………………. 51
Ethernet……………………………………………………………… 52
Virtual Private Networks ………………………………………… 54
Proxy Servers ………………………………………………………. 54
Connecting to the Internet……………………………………… 55
The Internet Service Provider (ISP) …………………………… 55
Modems……………………………………………………………….. 56
Analog Phone Service: POTS and PSTN ……………………. 57
Broadband Services ………………………………………………. 57
Leased Telephone Lines …………………………………….. 58
Integrated Services Digital Network……………………… 58
Digital Subscriber Line ……………………………………….. 59
Contents ix
Cable Broadband ………………………………………………. 59
Satellite Internet Service …………………………………….. 60
Fiber Options: FiOS Internet, U-Verse, and
Google ……………………………………………………………… 60
Wi-Fi Broadband ……………………………………………….. 61
Mobile and Cellular Data Services …………………………… 62
Mobile Phones ………………………………………………………. 62
Mobile Layers……………………………………………………….. 63
Data Services ……………………………………………………….. 64
Broadband Technologies and the Digital Divide …………. 65
Summary ……………………………………………………………. 66
References…………………………………………………………… 67
4·Internet Technologies: TCP/IP …………………………… 69
Packet Switching and TCP/IP …………………………………. 69
IP Packet Address Headers …………………………………….. 71
ARP ……………………………………………………………………. 74
TCP, UDP, and ICMP …………………………………………….. 74
IP Addressing ………………………………………………………. 76
Private IP Addresses, NAT, and APIPA …………………….. 79
IPv6 …………………………………………………………………….. 80
Managing IP Address Assignments …………………………. 80
Routing and Subnet Masks ……………………………………. 83
Firewalls and Proxy Servers ……………………………………. 87
The Domain Name System……………………………………… 87
Domain Name Registration …………………………………….. 88
DNS Lookups ……………………………………………………….. 90
TCP/IP, System Layers, and OSI……………………………… 91
Command Utilities for TCP/IP ………………………………… 92
Summary ……………………………………………………………. 93
References…………………………………………………………… 93
Additional Reading ……………………………………………….. 94
5·Higher-Level Internet Protocols: Making
the Internet Work ……………………………………………. 95
Email: SMTP, POP, IMAP ……………………………………….. 96
Real-Time Internet Connections ……………………………… 98
Telnet and TN3270 ……………………………………………….. 99
RTP and IRC ………………………………………………………… 99
File Management with FTP …………………………………… 100
Protocols for Information Services …………………………. 100
The Gopher Protocol …………………………………………….. 101
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol ……………………………. 101
HTTP and Statelessness …………………………………… 105
HTTP Secure……………………………………………………. 106
SNMP and LDAP …………………………………………………. 107
Summary ………………………………………………………….. 107
References…………………………………………………………. 108
Additional Reading ……………………………………………… 108
x
Contents
6·Internet-Connected Devices and Security……………109
Security Issues for PCs and Mobile Devices …………….. 111
TCP/IP and Ports ……………………………………………….. 112
Internet Client Programs and Security ……………………. 113
Internet Server Security ………………………………………. 114
Threats and Issues ……………………………………………… 115
Viruses, Worms, and Trojans ……………………………….. 115
Rootkits ……………………………………………………………… 117
Spam and Phishing ……………………………………………… 117
Hoaxes ………………………………………………………………. 120
Fake Sites, Pharming, and Honeypots …………………… 120
Cookies and Web Bugs ………………………………………… 120
Bots and Spyware ………………………………………………. 121
Wi-Fi Eavesdropping and Spoofing ………………………… 121
Mobile Device Threats ………………………………………….. 122
Anatomy of an Attack ………………………………………….. 122
Security Responses …………………………………………….. 124
Antivirus Programs ……………………………………………… 124
Firewalls, Proxies, Routers, and VPN …………………….. 124
OS and Office Application Updates ………………………… 125
Password Security ………………………………………………. 125
Warning Signs of a Problem ………………………………….. 127
Security “Top-Ten List” ………………………………………… 129
Summary ………………………………………………………….. 129
References…………………………………………………………. 130
PART 2: Building the Web
7·Web Design and Graphics………………………………….135
Web Design Overview ………………………………………….. 135
Design Teams for Website Development …………………. 136
Site Mission and Audience ……………………………………. 138
General Design Guidelines …………………………………… 139
Key Elements of Web Design ………………………………… 140
User Experience Design ……………………………………….. 143
Web 2.0 and Design …………………………………………….. 143
Mobile 2.0 and Design …………………………………………. 145
Responsive Design ………………………………………………. 146
Tips for Mobile Designers …………………………………….. 146
Apps vs. Website …………………………………………………. 147
Site Planning ……………………………………………………… 147
Schematics …………………………………………………………. 147
Layout ……………………………………………………………….. 149
Site Organization ………………………………………………… 151
Hypertext …………………………………………………………… 153
Navigation ………………………………………………………….. 153
Typography and Fonts …………………………………………. 154
Graphics and Color in Design ……………………………….. 155
Analog to Digital………………………………………………….. 156
Color Use……………………………………………………………. 157
Contents xi
Image Symbolism ………………………………………………… 158
Image Maps ……………………………………………………….. 158
Hardware and Graphics ………………………………………. 158
Graphic Types …………………………………………………….. 159
Color Schemes ……………………………………………………. 161
Resolution Issues ………………………………………………… 162
Graphic File Formats …………………………………………… 163
Using Images and Multimedia in Web Pages …………… 165
Accessibility ………………………………………………………. 166
Usability and Findability ……………………………………… 168
Design and the Lowest Common Denominator …………. 168
Summary ………………………………………………………….. 169
References…………………………………………………………. 170
8·Web Publishing with the Hypertext
Markup Language ……………………………………………173
Markup Languages ……………………………………………… 174
The Hypertext Markup Language …………………………… 175
The HTML 4.01 Specification ………………………………… 176
Physical vs. Logical Markup …………………………………. 178
Elements, Tags, and Attributes……………………………… 179
Deprecated Tags and Attributes ……………………………. 180
Inline and Block-Level Elements ……………………………. 180
Using HTML: Common Tags …………………………………. 181
Images and HTML……………………………………………….. 182
The Hypertext Reference ………………………………………. 183
Relative vs. Absolute References …………………………… 184
Tables ……………………………………………………………….. 187
Forms ………………………………………………………………… 187
Image Maps ……………………………………………………….. 192
Framesets and Frames ………………………………………… 193
Inline Frames ……………………………………………………… 194
Hypertext Links and Frames ………………………………… 196
The Base Tag ……………………………………………………… 196
XHTML……………………………………………………………… 196
Mobile Markup Languages……………………………………. 197
WML ………………………………………………………………….. 197
XHTML-MP …………………………………………………………. 198
HTML5 ……………………………………………………………… 198
Key Differences: HTML5 vs. HTML 4.01 …………………. 199
Major Advances with HTML5 ………………………………… 200
Summary ………………………………………………………….. 201
References…………………………………………………………. 201
Additional Reading ……………………………………………… 202
9·Controlling Presentation with Styles ………………… 203
The Box Model …………………………………………………… 205
CSS Positioning ………………………………………………….. 206
xii
Contents
Adding Styles to HTML ………………………………………… 206
External Style Files ……………………………………………… 207
Embedded Styles ………………………………………………… 208
Inline Styles ……………………………………………………….. 208
CSS Syntax and Rules …………………………………………. 208
CSS Rules ………………………………………………………….. 208
CSS Classes……………………………………………………….. 209
Pseudo-Classes…………………………………………………… 211
Sizing and Color Units in CSS ……………………………….. 211
Understanding the Cascade ………………………………….. 213
HTML5 and CSS3 Modules …………………………………… 214
CSS3 Modules …………………………………………………….. 214
CSS Hacks and Shortcuts ……………………………………. 215
Responsive Design and CSS …………………………………. 216
Putting IT Together: A CSS Example ………………………. 219
Summary ………………………………………………………….. 225
References…………………………………………………………. 225
10·Introduction to Web Programming .. …
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