Expert Answer:IP addressing scheme for the Dreamz Inc. network


Solved by verified expert:research about the following: TCP/IP NOS and the services they provide Continuing with the scenario you worked with in Weeks 1–3, this week, you will complete the following tasks: If required, modify the plan created in Week 3 Project to accommodate suggestions and recommendations from your instructor and your own changes based on the readings and activities for this week. Color code your additions or modifications so that the changes are easy to identify. Prepare a preinstallation document that captures the requirements for the Dreamz Inc. network. Analyze and describe the cost factor for each hardware and software component of the network. Mention the IP classes that can be used in the private network of Dreamz Inc. and why. Design the IP addressing scheme for the Dreamz Inc. network. Assess whether additional IP addresses are required to connect to the Internet or the network can simply connect to the Internet. Give reasons for your answer. Design the IP addressing for hundred users on the third floor. You should use minimal number of IPs while designing. Use the class C addresses. Create eight IP subnets and each IP subnet should suffice for twenty-two users. Use the class B private IP addresses. Also, define the broadcast address for the fourth subnet. Prepare and post a 2- to 3-page report using Microsoft Word to document your work. It is important to pay close attention to the page limit. SUBMISSION DETAILS: Support your work with examples. Cite any sources in APA format. Requirements DETAILS: Ip Addressing Schemes, Ip Classes, ITS2103 Networking FUNDAMENTALS SU01


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A Report of a Network Model
Chernae Dalton
A Report of a Network Model
A network model contains a hybrid of hardware and software that transmits data from
one place to another. The hardware is aided by several physical types of equipment that transmit
signals from one location to another. The software has a lot of set of instructions that makes
services expected from network to occur.
I recommend The OSI Model for Dreamz Inc. It was established in 1947 and introduced
later in the 1970s. Below are the main reasons why I propose The OSI Model for the
organization. Firstly, it is certified by International Standards Organization (ISO) an international
body mandated to a worldwide mutual understanding on International Standards, for instance,
the Open Systems Interconnection model that allows two or more systems to communicate
without considering their physical locations (Zhao et al, 2018). For instance, an email sent from
P.C to I phone, where the P.C is compatible with Windows OS whereas I Phone is compatible
with OSI. The two systems work well with two different OS, but the emails can be retrieved in a
couple of seconds. This is important for Dreamz Inc organization to enhance communication in
all branches and departments in the headquarters. OSI model has the capability to impede
communication in two systems without necessarily shifting to the requirements of the already
established hardware and software.
Moreover, the OSI model is flexible, sturdy and able to exchange and make use of
information. The OSI model permits communication in all types of computer systems. This is
important to adopt new technologies that work better than the current one. Each layer represents
different sections of processing and/or separation of functions. This makes it be more effective at
diagnosing and resolving problems, therefore, has a simple task to identify the affected layer
through the signal gotten. This will enhance the easy management of network coverage for
Dreamz Inc. The model has a relevant design and engineering plan. It focuses on separation of
duties and functions thus specifying areas of concentration making one consider designing at
each layer.OSI model makes will make the organization have a large picture of the network and
also new technologies emerging are well understood.
Zhao, J., Bai, J., Zhang, Q., Yang, F., Li, Z., Zhang, X., … & Bai, R. (2018, December). The
Discussion about Mechanism of Data Transmission in the OSI Model. In 2018
International Conference on Transportation & Logistics, Information & Communication,
Smart City (TLICSC 2018). Atlantis Press.
Media access control (M.A.C) address spoofing
Chernae Dalton
Media access control (M.A.C) address spoofing
The choice of OSI Model by Dreamz Inc was very crucial since the model had the
capability to send a large volume of data to both internal and external users. Internal users are the
departments in the organization sharing the common information whereas external users are
organizations that partner with Dreamz Inc. The organizations can be within the same locality or
in a different locality, for instance, Computer A in U.K.
Many users think that communication between two computers seems to be insignificant.
However, there are a lot of activities that take place in the software and hardware for the final
output to be delivered. The OSI model is arranged hierarchically, where each of the layers
accesses layers situated beneath them and avail the major services. OSI model is grouped into
two groups including application-oriented and transport-oriented layers (Rayes & Salam, 2017).
Application-oriented layers
These refer to the upper layers of the OSI reference model. The three layers that make up
the application software include an application layer, presentation layer, and the section layer.
Layer 7-Application layer: It has direct touch with applications such as mail programs
and browsers. Data input and outputs take place here. The application layers form the link to the
OSI model’s upper levels and alert the features. For instance, email transfer starts by a user
typing the message into the input program which is accepted in the application software in data
packet form, a process called capsuling. The protocol applied is SMTP meant for emails which
mainly serves to move email along the application layer.
Layer 6-Presentation layer: The layer ensures that data is channeled in the required
format. This is the main duties performed by network communication. For instance, if it’s an
email transfer, the message is thus displayed. In the further end, a presentation header is added to
the total package. These protocols used are SSL/TLS that makes it easy for the email design to
be known and read as required.
Layer 5-Session layer: The main activity performed by the session layer is to arrange the
link between all the end systems. Special control mechanisms actions are experienced in this
layer which is meant to create and contain the link made. The most protocols used in this layer
are SMTP or FTP which controls the sessions by their own. Also, HTTP is used which is
Transport-oriented layers
The four layers that follow the three application-oriented layers are referred to as
transport-oriented layers. Therefore, one must know the difference between the transport layer,
the network layer, the data link layer, and the physical layer.
Layer-Transportation layer: The layer serves to connect the application-oriented layers
and the transport-oriented layers. The actual end-to-end connection and the communication
media used in various communication systems are seen in action. Also, step information is added
to the e-mail data. Normal network protocols are used such as TCP or UDP especially when the
port is controlled in data packets that are assigned to specific applications.
Layer 3-Network layer: In this layer, the data movement finally reaches the internet and
thus sensible addressing of the terminal types of equipment happens. The layer is assigned to
seven different unique IP addresses. A network header having data pertaining routing and data
control is summed to the data packet, for instance, the email. The protocols are applicable since
they concur with internet requirements like IP, ICMP, X.25, RIP, or OSPF.
Layer 2-data link layer: The layer serves to identify faults and ensure data moves with
zero errors. For this reason, data packets containing application presentation, session, transport,
and network headers are squeezed to a frame made of data link headers and data link trails.
Hardware is also addressed at this level. Moreover, the MAC addresses are used. Penetrating to
the transfer medium is aided by the protocols such net or PPP which serves well the intended
purpose due to compatibility.
Layer 1-Physical layer: This is where the data packet’s bit is changed into a physical
signal that corresponds to the meant transfer medium. The medium used to do the duties include
the copper wire, fiber optic cables, or air. The protocols used here majorly define the interface of
the transfer medium. The protocols and standards include DSL, ISDN, and Bluetooth, USB
(physical layer) or ethernet.
The above process describes how data can be channeled from one layer to another based
stating all the basic actions that are undertaken for the procedure to be successful. The example
used is the email transfer that has well elaborated on how the Dream Inc organization will link
with Computer A in U.K.
Summary Document
This is a summary document of the work done until week three. The best model recommended
for dream Inc model was the OSI model. Both hardware and software devices are elaborated, and
their use described clearly that will be used to design WAN and LAN for Dream Inc that will
enable the company to conduct extensive communication. Thereafter discussion is made on how
the data is transmitted in the seven layers of the OSI model, stating clearly the protocols used in
each layer and the reason for choosing them.
I will utilize the experience gained in designing the L.A.N and W.A.N since I have known the
software and hardware used in each network topology. I have also learned about the OSI model
that has enabled to conduct further research on why it is mostly preferred by intensive
organizations. I will also apply the knowledge gained especially the protocols used on the
transfer of data in each layer of the OSI model.
While completing certain labs in 1-3 there were some difficulties. I see noticed there are a few
things I need to learn more about such as Connect Fiber Optic Cables, Troubleshoot Physical
Connectivity 1, and Configure Routing. Lab 3 was very difficult and lab 2 was somewhat easy to
complete. Lab 1, to me, was just basic tests to see what I know already.
Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2017). The Internet in IoT—OSI, TCP/IP, IPv4, IPv6 and Internet
Routing. In Internet of Things From Hype to Reality (pp. 35-56). Springer, Cham.
Hardware and software selection for Dream Inc
Hardware and software selection for Dream Inc
The hardware and the software work as a system to transmit data from one point to
another in an organization. The hardware is supported by physical tools that ferry information
hints from one point to another. On the other hand, the software has got commands that facilitate
the transmission of information. The network for Dream Inc will be effective and efficient if
recommended types of software and hardware for both LAN and WAN is selected compatible
with the OSI Model.
Local Area Network (LAN) refers to two or more connected stations including the PCs,
Servers, computers and many others, in the same locality area, sharing data and peripheral
services (Rainoff, 2019). The hardware components to build LAN include PCs/Working stations
and servers, Network Interface Card (NIC), Cabling and connectors such as coaxial cable and
BNC connector, and Hub, concentrator and more sophisticated network devices such as Bridge,
LAN Switch and Router. The suggested software for LAN includes NIC Drivers, Network
Operating System for servers like Novell@Neware 4.1, Network Operating System for clients
like client Microsoft, Networking protocol software like TCP/IP and application software such as
emails and internet web browser.
Wide Area Network (W.A.N) refers to a computer network that covers a large proportion
of land. It consists of two or more L.A.N established. The hardware and software components
together with their roles are discussed below (Wilkins, 2016). Network Interface Card serves to
connect the device and device to the network. Also serves to permit information passing between
the computers. Wireless Access Point (WAP) that is connected to the network via a cable meant
to send and receive the wireless signal. Modem serves to convert digital to analog signals and
vice versa. The router can connect LAN to WAN by sending a message between networks using
the topology by selecting the recommended path. Hub connects numerous computers to the
network through one link. Signals gotten on any port are transmitted to other ports. Switch gets
data, looks at it keenly and sends it back to the required port. Gateway links and passes packets
among two or more network segments that utilize different communication protocols. The
Bridge links and passes packets among two or more network segments that utilize equal
communication protocol. Repeater served to strengthen a signal when going through a network
cable. The server takes over all aspects of the computers, for instance, the printer and internet
I suggest the use of Cable tester and most specifically the media tester to solve network
problems in the department. It is a hardware tool used to troubleshoot connectivity issues. The
cable tester is also referred to as media tester. I recommended it because it has a range of tools
recommended to determine whether the cables functions well or not. The media tester enables
the administrator to test the part of the cable that is likely to be affected. Most probably 100%
percent accuracy is guaranteed by media tester.
I suggest the use of wireless media including the radio frequencies, microwave, satellite
and infrared. The specification is an extension to the 802.11 standards innovated by IEEE meant
for wireless network technology. I have chosen it because it permits several numbers of devices
to use the same internet connection in a local network. Also, they permit the sharing of files and
resources ideal for Dream Inc.
Rainoff, M. (2019). System Information – Networking, LAN, Local Area Network, NIC,
Network Interface Card, Hub, Bridge, LAN Switch, Router, Network Management,
SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol, RMON, JAVA, JAVA-based Network
Management System, RMON software probe, Mbp. Retrieved from
Wilkins, A. (2016). Hardware & Software Needed For LAN and WAN – ppt download.
Retrieved from

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