Expert Answer:LAB EXPERIMENT 5. Crystals

  

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LAB EXPERIMENT
5. Crystals
Purpose(s):

The purpose of this lab experience is to investigate factors related to formation of salt, sugar
and water crystals
Principle(s):







The boiling point of a solution is raised in direct proportion to the number of particles in the
solution.
The freezing point of a solution is lowered in direct proportion to the number of particles in
the solution.
The solubility of sugar and salt vary greatly and influence the number of particles able to be
dissolved in a water solution.
End products of sugar cookery are dependent upon relationships among sugar, water,
interfering agents, temperature, and agitation.
Interfering agents and agitation can prevent sugar crystals formation or reduce the size of
crystals.
As temperature of sugar-water mixture rises, the viscosity increases and moisture content of
the end product decreases.
Ice crystal formation is dependent upon interfering agents and temperature.
Lab Experiment D: Ice Crystals and Interfering Agents (in bold)
Objective(s):

To evaluate the effect of interfering agents on ice crystal size and freezing temperature.
Material(s):
On the food cart/fridge:
• Half & Half Milk
• Egg Substitute
• Vanilla Extract
• Rock Salt
• Ice from Ice Machine
• Gelatin
• Sugar
• Whole milk
• Corn starch










In your kitchen:
• 2-Ice Cream Makers
Recipe 1: Custard Ice Cream with Gelatin (New Machine)
118 ml
Half & Half Milk
1
1-2qt Saucepan
1 Wooden Spoon
Liquid Measuring Cups
Nesting Measuring Cups
Calibrated Measuring Spoons
Mixing Bowl
Display Bowls
Dietetic scale
Cold and warm water
Thermometer
236 ml
¼c
67. g
2 tsp
½ tbsp
1 tbsp
Whole Milk
Egg Substitute
Sugar
Vanilla Extract
Gelatin
Cold Water
Procedure(s):
1. Wash the drum, dasher and lid from the ice cream machine with hot, soapy water.
2. Rinse first with hot water to remove soap.
3. Wipe dry the outside of the drum to prevent the water on the outside to freeze making the drum
stuck on the ice cream maker.
4. Allow the inside of the drum, dasher and lid to air dry for a few minutes.
5. Soften gelatin in water.
6. Follow the formula above; mix the first 5 ingredients in mixing bowl.
7. Add gelatin mix and mix together all the ingredients in a saucepan. Cook gently until mixture
thickens enough to coat a wooden spoon.
8. Allow mixture to cool to at least 85 °F. Put it on a tray with ice to accelerate the cooling process.
9. Put the mixture in the drum.
10. Do not fill more than 2/3 to 3/4 full.
11. Put lid on drum and assemble the ice cream freezer.
12. Set up the timer and start churning (it may take 30 – 45 min)
13. Once mix is not runny, place ice cream in bowls, nestled in crushed ice. Serve enough samples for
everyone to taste. Label and display samples
14. Based on the table in the results section, instruct 5 students to evaluate your product. Register
and discuss their answers on the results section.
Recipe 2: Cooked Custard Ice Cream with Cornstarch (New Machine)
118 ml
236 ml
¼c
67 g
2 tsp
½ tbsp
1 tbsp
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Half & Half Milk
Whole Milk
Egg Substitute
Sugar
Vanilla Extract
Cornstarch
Warm Water
Wash the drum, dasher and lid from the ice cream machine with hot, soapy water.
Rinse first with hot water to remove soap.
Rinse again with boiling water.
Allow a few minutes to air dry.
Place a three ice cream machine parts in the freezer until you are ready for their use.
Soften cornstarch in water.
Follow the formula above; mix the first 5 ingredients in mixing bowl.
Add cornstarch mix and mix together all the ingredients in a saucepan. Cook gently until
mixture thickens enough to coat a wooden spoon.
Allow mixture to cool to at least 85 °F. Put it on a tray with ice to accelerate the cooling process.
Put the mixture in the drum.
Do not fill more than 2/3 to 3/4 full.
Put lid on drum and assemble the ice cream freezer.
Set up the timer and start churning (it may take 30 – 45 min)
Once mix is not runny, place ice cream in bowls, nestled in crushed ice. Serve enough samples for
everyone to taste. Label and display samples
Based on the table in the results section, instruct 5 students to evaluate your product. Register
1
and discuss their answers on the results section.
Result(s)
Table: Evaluation of Food Product
Describe appearance, mouthfeel and flavor using descriptive words from the table at the end of the lab handout.
Sample
Appearance
mouthfeel
Flavor
Rate of Melting
(1 = melts fastest;
5 = melts slowest
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
2: Cooked custard
1
with cornstarch + new
2
machine
3
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
1: Cooked custard
with gelatin+ new
machine
Question(s)
1. Define emulsifier in your own words. Provide a discussion of two examples of
emulsifiers that are often used in ice cream production.
2. Define stabilizer in your own words. Provide a discussion of two examples of stabilizers
that are often used in ice cream production.
1
Descriptive Words for Appearance, Texture, Tenderness and Flavor of Foods
Appearance
Texture/Mouthfeel
Tenderness
1
Flavo
r
Clear
Limp
Flat
Heig
ht
Appealin
g
Appetizin
g Color
Shape
Cloudy
Opaque
Shiny
Dull
Sheen
Gloss
y
Roug
h
Bruise
d
Pitted
Spotty
Bright
Asymmetric
al Burnt
Creamy
Curdled
Dry Fine
Frothy
Grainy
Level
Luminesce
nt Moist
Pale
Pebble
d
Rounde
d Size
Shape
Sparkin
g
Sticky
Symmetric
Brittle
Crisp
Coarse
Chew
y
Curdle
d Firm
Frothy
Grainy
Gumm
y
Lump
y
Moist
Mushy
Creamy
Rubbery
Slimy
Syrupy
Soft Smooth
Spongy
Springy
Melted
Viscous
Thick Hard
Stringy
Adhesive
Velvety
Body Brittle
Chewy
Compact
Consistent
Crusty
Elastic
Flaky Gritty
Limp Mealy
Moist
Mushy
Pastry
Porous
Al
dente
Crisp
Crunch
y Firm
Stringy
Tender
Tough
Chewy
1
Acid
Aroma
Astringe
nt
Balance
d Bitter
Bland
Bold
Burnt
Concentrate
d Dull
Earthy
Eggy
Fishy
Flat
Foul
Fragra
nt
Fresh
Fruity
Harsh
Offflavor
Insipid
Mild
Nutty
Pasty
Rancid
Salty
Sharp
Soapy
Sour
Spicy
Stale
Strong
Sweet
Tart
Tasteles
s Yeasty
Watery
Weak
Putrid
Group Members Names
Topic: Sensory Evaluation
Lab Experiment C: Dairy and Non-Dairy Frozen Desserts
Introduction:
Sensory evaluation of food is a test method used by the food industry to evaluate food quality,
compare the company products with competitors, evaluate the acceptability of new products or
verify that reformulated products are as acceptable as the previous formulas. On sensory
analysis, people evaluate food based on their senses and personal preference (Brown, 2019).
Frozen desserts have traditionally being dairy or water based but recently more plant based, nondairy frozen desserts have become more and more popular with big names on the frozen dessert
arena creating non-dairy frozen desserts which taste is well liked by consumers.
Objectives: To determine the difference between dairy and non-dairy frozen desserts and see
which type of frozen dessert is the best.
Materials:







5 spoons for serving
16 x 5 Dixie cups
1 qt. vanilla reduced fat ice cream
1 qt. French vanilla premium ice cream
1 qt. no sugar added vanilla ice cream
1 qt. soy milk ice cream
1 qt. vanilla non-dairy (almond) ice cream
Methods:
We made a list of the ingredients that were available for our sensory test based on dairy
and non-dairy frozen desserts. The list of ingredients was displayed so that the students were
able to see what desserts that they tasted. Each member of our kitchen tasted each frozen dessert
that we had so that we were familiar with how each one tasted before we tested the other students
from other kitchens. We prepared the samples by spooning each of the frozen desserts in
separate Dixie cups and organized them in our freezer based on their type. As each student came
to test the different types of frozen desserts, one of us recorded the data from each participant
and another person gave the participants the prepared samples, which were placed in our
kitchen’s freezer in order to prevent the desserts from melting. Once all tests were finished, we
put away the frozen desserts and cleaned our kitchen.
Results/Calculations:
Table 1. Summary of the evaluation of dairy and non-dairy ice cream*
Product
Reduced fat vanilla
ice cream
Premium French
Vanilla ice cream
Flavor
Mouthfeel
Temperature
(perceived by
the tongue)
Sweet,
Creamy,
Cold
vanilla, milky thick
Sweet,
Heavy,
Cold
French
creamy
vanilla,
vanilla
Non-dairy (almond) Nutty,
Watery ,
Cold
vanilla ice cream
almond,
thick, light
walnut
No sugar added
Vanilla
Very thick,
Cold
vanilla ice cream
(unsweet)
thick
Soy milk vanilla ice Sweet
Grainy,
Cold
cream
(not vanilla
creamy, light
tasting),
dough,
vanilla
*This table includes results from our kitchen and 5 taste testers
Preference
(1 lowest-5
highest) +
SD
3.8 + 1.5
3-digit
code
051
4.8 + 0.4
478
3.2 + 1.2
269
3.0 + 1.1
927
2.5 + 1.5
024
Discussion:
According to our results, vanilla reduced fat ice cream, premium French vanilla ice
creams were the most preferred, and subjects claimed they were the sweetest. While on the other
hand, the non-dairy soy ice cream was the least preferred. We think many people such as our
group preferred the vanilla reduced fat ice cream just because it was so sweet and creamy. We
were expecting the reduced fat ice cream to be plain and the least sweet but it was the opposite. It
was interesting to research how reduced fat actually means more sugar added to products.
According to the study done by Sugarstacks (2014) reduced fat does not necessarily mean less
sugar than regular fat foods since low fat foods usually have more added sugars to account for
the lack of fat. On this study, the original version of Oreos cookies had less sugar than the
reduced fat version. Another article from WebMD (2016) mentions that fat free can be tasteless,
which is why food companies add flour, sugar, salt, and thickeners, which results in added
calories. As fat is being removed from food products, additives like cornstarch, refined
carbohydrates and sugar are added to make up for flavor and mouthfeel (Zaladonis, 2015).
No sugar added, almond-based and soy-based ice creams were the least preferred perhaps
because tasters perceived an unexpected after taste (almond-like or soy-like) or because the ice
cream was not as sweet as expected. In conclusion, reduced fat and reduced sugars do not
necessarily mean healthier since much of these foods are heavily refined.
Questions:
1.
Compare the flavors of the dairy and non-dairy frozen desserts.
The dairy based ice cream was preferred over the non-dairy one. The dairy ice cream had a
smoother more satisfying mouth feel and taste than the ice cream made with non-dairy milk. The
non-dairy ice creams, which were made of soy and almond milk, did not have as much of a rich
taste as the dairy-based ones and the soy and almond flavors were there. Also the texture of nondairy ice creams had a light watery feel that was not as satisfying on the taste buds as the ice
creams made of milk.
2.
What role does fat content play in dairy and non-dairy frozen desserts? Discuss effect on
flavor, texture/mouth-feel, weight, and consistency
Taste and flavor of food affects people’s preference in what they desire to eat. Fat content in
frozen desserts gives a savory mouth feel that satisfies the taste sensors (Brown, 2017). The thick
mouth-feel given by fat brings out a smoother creamier flavor as it evenly spreads out on the
tongue (Brown, 2017). This explains why the vanilla premium ice cream had the highest rating
on the hedonic scale since it had the highest amount of fat.
References:
Brown, A. C. (2019). Understanding food: principles and preparation. Boston: Cengage
Learning.
Sugarstacks. (2014). How much sugar in reduced fat foods? Retrieved from
http://www.sugarstacks.com/lowfat.htm
WebMD. (2016). Low-fat diet: Why fat-free isn’t trouble-free. Retrieved from
https://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/low-fat-diet#1
Zaladonis, C. (2015). Why you shouldn’t buy reduced fat foods. Retrieved from
https://spoonuniversity.com/lifestyle/why-you-shouldnt-buy-reduced-fat-foods

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