Expert Answer:MAMP 509A Adler University Gulf War Syndrome

  

Solved by verified expert:[6.1] Gulf War Syndrome and Agent Orange Exposure DiscussionExplain the primary issues relating to the U.S. Governments handling of the Gulf War Syndrome and the issues relating to the handling of the Vietnam period Agent Orange exposure on the veteran population. Use the readings and references to support your discussion.250 words to include references and citationsKilshaw, S. (2008). Gulf War Syndrome: A Reaction to Psychiatry’s Invasion of the Military? (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 32(2), 219–237. https://doi-org.ezproxy.adler.edu/10.1007/s11013-0…
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Adler School of Professional Psychology
M.A. in Military Psychology (online)
MAMP 509
Department of Defense and
VA Health Care Systems
“Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) from
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
The Signature Injury
of the
Iraq/Afghanistan War”
Presentation By…
Joseph E. Troiani, Ph.D., CADC
Director – M.A. Military Psychology (online)
Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology
Founder of Military Psychology @ Adler
Adler School of Professional Psychology
Commander, United States Navy (retired)
troia@adler.edu
Creation of the Term
“Shell Shock”

Because the military thought it
unfitting to diagnose combat
soldiers with a hysteria (female
illness) the military decided to
create a new term “shell shock” for
a soldier’s symptoms in order to
differentiate a male’s constellation
of combat trauma symptoms from a
women’s known hysteria.
Shell Shock…
The cause of “shell shock”
was attributed to the
shock waves emanating
from exploding shells
which the military
concluded caused actual
physiological damage to
soldiers in close proximity,
even though the bodies
did not sustain external
injuries.
Shell Shock Victims…
Traumatic Brain Injury
Cause of TBI’s
Improvised Explosive Device (IED)
Improvised Explosive
Device (IED) Attacks
IED Attacks on the
United States Military
Aftermath of IED Attacks
The Threat of
Improvised Explosive Devices


The improvised explosive devices or IEDs
as they are referred to are easily
constructed from common and available
materials.
IEDs are the major cause of death and
injury in the Iraq/Afghanistan war along
with what had been referred to as the
Global War on Terrorism (GWOT).
Why the Use of
Improvised Explosive Devices

Low-cost

Easily Disguised

Hard to spot while traveling at convoy
speeds.

Low Risk of Exposure or Detection

An Efficient Psychological Warfare Tactic
IED Components
Explosives
Chemical Agents
IED Design
Examples of IED Disguises:
Vehicles-borne IEDs

VBIEDs can be
trucks, taxis,
stolen police cars,
broken military
equipment, mobile
food carts, etc.
Examples of IED Disguises:
Canisters

Soda cans, water
bottles, MRE
packs, water
heaters, propane
tanks, etc.
Examples of IED Disguises:
Roadside Debris

Cement pieces,
dead animals,
trash, gravel piles,
tires, car parts,
toys, soccer balls,
etc.
Examples of IED Disguises:
Pipes

Guardrails,
irrigation ditches,
oil and gas lines,
power conduits,
sewage pipes, etc.
Examples of IED Disguises:
Bags

Plastic bags,
burlap sacks,
garbage, plastic
sheeting, blankets,
etc.
Examples of IED Disguises:
Packages

Boxes, wood
crates, ammo
boxes, coffins, etc.
Suicide Bombers
Chapter 13 “Traumatic
Brain Injury (TBI)”


Bret A. Moore, Psy.D., ABPP is a
former active duty U.S. Army
Psychologist and a two-tour
veteran of Operation Iraqi
Freedom. During his 27 months
in Iraq he earned the Bronze
Star.
Carrie H. Kennedy, Ph.D., ABPP
is a Commander in the Medical
Service Corp of the U.S. Navy.
She is currently serving at the
Naval Aerospace Medical
Institute.
Four Types of Blast Effects…


Primary: What happens to the human body
because of the highly pressured blast wave
itself.
Secondary: Refers to when a person is
thrown in the air because of the blast and then
injures themselves because of the impact
against an object or the ground.
Blast Effects Continue…


Tertiary: Is the damage done when other
things are thrown in the air because of the
force of the blast and then hits the person.
Quaternary: Includes other kinds of injuries
related to an explosion (e.g. being burned or
inhaling toxic fumes).
Types of Traumatic Brain Injury


Penetrating: The outer layer of the
meninges is pierced by shrapnel, bullets
or other objects.
Severe: It is characterized by a confused
state which last more than 24 hours, loss
of consciousness for more than 24 hours,
and memory loss for more than seven
days,
Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center
Between January 1, 2001 and
September 30, 2013 more than 265,000
United States military personnel have
suffered traumatic brain injury of which
most were mild concussions.
Some 26,250 however suffered
penetrating head wounds
or brain injuries.
Saved Not Cured
Brain-Injured Vets Search for Solace
“Advances in battlefield medicine
keep alive troops with
severe head wounds, but there
are still no cures.”
The Wall Street Journal
February 20, 2014
Symptoms of a TBI Injury








Headaches
Dizziness
Unsteadiness on the Feet
Slurred Speech
Confusion
Memory Problems
Attention Problems
Slowed Thinking
Symptoms Continued…








Mental and Physical Fatigue
Lowered Frustration Tolerance
Irritability
Apathy or Poor Motivation
Depression
Disturbance in Sleep
Nausea
Vomiting
If We Don’t Ask…
They Won’t Tell



It is important for treatment providers to
recognize that traumatic events leave
their imprints on patients.
The experience of combat may compound
the effects of previous trauma.
If clinicians don’t inquire about the
effects of a traumatic event, many
patients will not discuss them.
Behavioral Health Treatment
Programs and Trauma Issues




Treatment programs should routinely assess
patients for histories of traumatic events and for
the diagnosis of PTSD.
Treatment programs should offer therapeutic
experiences designed to focus on histories of
trauma and of PTSD.
Treatment programs should be able to screen and
access for TBI.
Treatment programs should be prepared to
address the needs of veterans.
“When we forget our warriors our society
will begin to crumble.”
Sir Winston S. Churchill
The
Tongue and Quill

AFH 33-337
27 May 2015
Air Force Core Values
Integrity First, Service Before Self, and Excellence in All We Do.
Acknowledgement
The Tongue and Quill has been a valued Air Force resource for decades and many Airmen from
our Total Force of uniformed and civilian members have contributed their talents to various
editions over the years. This revision is built upon the foundation of governing directives and
user’s inputs from the unit level all the way up to Headquarters Air Force. A small team of Total
Force Airmen from the Air University, the United States Air Force Academy, Headquarters Air
Education and Training Command (AETC), the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC), Air
National Guard (ANG), and Headquarters Air Force compiled inputs from the field and rebuilt
The Tongue and Quill to meet the needs of today’s Airmen. The team put many hours into this
effort over a span of almost two years to improve the content, relevance, and organization of
material throughout this handbook. As the final files go to press it is the desire of The Tongue
and Quill team to say thank you to every Airman who assisted in making this edition better; you
have our sincere appreciation!
–The Tongue and Quill Team
BY ORDER OF THE
AIR FORCE HANDBOOK 33-337
SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE
27 MAY 2015
Communications and Information
THE TONGUE AND QUILL
ACCESSIBILITY: Publications and forms are available for downloading or ordering on the
e-Publishing website at http://www.e-publishing.af.mil.
RELEASABILITY: There are no releasability restrictions on this publication.
OPR: SAF/CIO A6SS
Supersedes: AFH33-337, 1 August 2004
Certified by: SAF/CIO A6SS
(Col Heather L. McGee)
Pages: 378
The men and women of the United States Air Force must communicate clearly and effectively to
carry out our missions. Although we live in an era of rapid personal and mass communication
that was barely imagined just a few years ago, our Air Force still requires face-to-face briefings,
background papers, and staff packages to keep the mission moving forward. This handbook,
together with Air Force Manual (AFMAN) 33-326, Preparing Official Communications,
provides the information to ensure clear communications—written or spoken.
Send recommended changes or comments using AF Form 847, Recommendation for Change of
Publication, to the Air Force Cyberspace Strategy & Policy Division (SAF/CIO A6SS) at
USAF.pentagon.saf-cio-a6.mbx.a6ss-workflow@mail.mil. Ensure that all records created as a
result of processes prescribed in this publication are maintained IAW AFMAN 33-363,
Management of Records, and disposed of IAW the Air Force Records Disposition Schedule
(RDS) in the Air Force Records Information Management System (AFRIMS). The use of the
name or mark of any specific manufacturer, commercial product, commodity, or service in this
publication does not imply endorsement by the Air Force.
SUMMARY OF REVISIONS
This edition has been substantially revised to 1) standardize the format and layout for readability;
2) improve the organization of chapters and content within each chapter; 3) provide additional
material on preparing to write and speak, writing with focus, communicating to persuade,
research, meetings, briefings and listening; 4) clarify guidance for Air Force written products
with formatted examples for each product; 5) add information on Air Force written products such
as awards, decorations and performance reports; and 6) update guidance for electronic
communications.
The Tongue and Quill
AFH 33-337, 27 MAY 2015
Table of Contents
PART I: COMMUNICATION BASICS ……………………………………………………………………….. 1
Plain Language Requirement: It’s the Law ………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Plain Language in the Air Force: Be Clear, Concise and Specific ………………………………………………… 2
CHAPTER 1: A Basic Philosophy of Communication ……………………………………………………. 3
What Do We Mean by Communication? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Communication, Teamwork and Leadership……………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Principles of Effective Communication ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5
CHAPTER 2: Seven Steps to Effective Communication (Overview) ………………………………. 8
Preparing to Write and Speak (Steps 1-4) …………………………………………………………………………………… 9
Drafting, Editing, and Feedback (Steps 5-7) ……………………………………………………………………………… 11
Seven Steps to Effective Communication: Quick Reference List ………………………………………………… 13
PART II: PREPARING TO WRITE AND SPEAK ……………………………………………………… 14
CHAPTER 3: Step 1 (Analyze Purpose and Audience) ………………………………………………… 15
Key Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
What Is My Purpose? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Drafting a Purpose Statement ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Analyzing Purpose: Other Issues …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Audience Analysis: The Human Factor……………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Tips For Success ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
CHAPTER 4: Step 2 (Research Your Topic) ……………………………………………………………….. 23
Start Smart ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
Getting Data………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
Search Engines and Databases ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Evaluate Your Sources …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
Useful Online Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
CHAPTER 5: Step 3 (Support Your Ideas) …………………………………………………………………. 41
The Logic of Arguments: Fundamentals ………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
Evidence: Proving Your Point ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Characteristics of Good Supporting Evidence……………………………………………………………………………. 45
Logical Errors: Flawed Arguments …………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
Arguments, Truth and Persuasion ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
CHAPTER 6: Step 4 (Organize and Outline) ………………………………………………………………. 53
Organizing: Finalizing Your Purpose Statement and Bottom Line ………………………………………………. 54
The Outline: Why Do I Need One? …………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
Outlining the Body: Pick a Pattern ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
– ii –
The Tongue and Quill
AFH 33-337, 27 MAY 2015
PART III: WRITING WITH FOCUS …………………………………………………………………………. 63
CHAPTER 7: Step 5 (Draft) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
Drafting: Basic Philosophy…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
Drafting Effective Paragraphs …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
Drafting Effective Sentences …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
Overcoming Writer’s Block ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
CHAPTER 8: Step 6 (Edit) …………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
Editing vs. Feedback ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
Editing Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
Editing Efficiently: A Three-Step Approach …………………………………………………………………………….. 93
Drafting Basics: Did You Apply Them? ………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
Common Grammar Traps ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
Common Writing Errors ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
CHAPTER 9: Step 7 (Fight for Feedback and Get Approval) ……………………………………. 103
Fighting For Feedback ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
Getting Approval: Staff Coordination ……………………………………………………………………………………. 106
PART IV: FACE-TO-FACE COMMUNICATION ……………………………………………………. 110
CHAPTER 10: Air Force Speaking …………………………………………………………………………… 111
Verbal Communication ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
Non-Verbal Communication …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113
Overcoming Anxiety: Some Simple Steps ……………………………………………………………………………… 114
Common Nonverbal Quirks ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
Delivery Formats: Impromptu, Prepared and Manuscript …………………………………………………………. 115
Preparing Your Slides…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
CHAPTER 11: Effective Listening Strategies …………………………………………………………….. 123
Understanding Hearing and Listening …………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
Informative, Critical and Empathic Listening ………………………………………………………………………….. 125
Better Listening …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
Overcoming Barriers to Listening ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
PART V: WORKPLACE CHALLENGES ………………………………………………………………… 133
CHAPTER 12: Electronic Communications and Social Media …………………………………… 134
Electronic Mail (E-Mail) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
Social Media ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
Instant Messaging (IM) and Texting ………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
Telephones, Voice Mail and Fax ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
Electronic Communications Glossary …………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
– iii –
The Tongue and Quill
AFH 337, 27 MAY 2015
CHAPTER 13: Meetings …………………………………………………………………………………………… 155
Planning an Effective Meeting ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
Running Your Meeting …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
Group Dynamics and Fun ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
PART VI: DOCUMENT STANDARDS …………………………………………………………………….. 163
CHAPTER 14: The Official Memorandum ……………………………………………………………….. 165
The Heading Section …………………………………………………………………….. …
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