Solved by verified expert:You need to choose a field or research area for example communication , Public relations , advertising and so on Then pick an article written about a certain topic in this field and analysis it through answering the question below:1) What is the Research Area2) Research Question and Hypothesis3) Population and Sampling4) Categories5) Unit of Analysis6) Reliability of Coding7) Strategies for Coding and Statistical Test(s) to be Used.I will upload a ppt about coding just in case you need references to understand more.
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Week EIGHT (March 17– March 21)
Chapter 12: Quantitative Analysis of
Content analysis is a research
method that systematically
describes, categorizes, and/or make
inferences about communication
(Croucher & Cronn-mills, 2014)
• How often are older adults shown in television commercials?
• How much violence are children exposed to by watching television?
• What kinds of conflicts do employees have with one another at work?
• Researchers agree that content analysis should be
objective and systematic and meet the requirement
of generality (Berleson, 1952; Holsti, 1969)
• Manifest Content
• Latent Content
• Interpretation about the content that imply something
about the nature of the communicators or effects on
• Content analysis is an indirect way to make
inferences about people
• But for such inferences to have value, content
analysis must be objective
• That is, each step must be carried out according to
specific rules and procedures
Content analysis must be systematic in
both identifying content and interpreting
(Kaid & Wadsworth, 1989)
(1) Selecting the text or messages to be analyzed
(2) Selecting categories and units by which to analyze the text or
(3) Developing procedures for resolving differences of opinion in
(4) Selecting a sample for analysis if all the messages cannot be
(5) Coding the messages
(6) Interpreting the coding
(7) Reporting the results relative to the research questions or
(Kaid & Wadsworth, 1989; Riffe, Lacy, & Fico, 1998; Thayer, Evans, McBride, Queen, & Spyridakis, 2007).
• Areas, themes, groupings, classes, or types with explicit boundaries into
which units of content (data) are coded for analysis.
• What content categories produce the data needed to answer the objective of the
• Conducting a thorough review of the literature to determine what
categories other researchers have used
• Deductive content analysis: where you create categories based on previous research
• Inductive Content analysis: When you develop your own categories
• Intercoder reliability: two or more observers agree that
communication action has taken place and can identify
the action in the steam of interaction (Krippendorff,
• Scott’s pi
• Cohen’s kappa
• Cronbach’s alpha (Perfect agreement (1.0) to agreement
that is no better than would be expected by chance (0.0))
• Intercoder reliability of .90 is nearly always acceptable,
and .80 is acceptable in most situations. Intercoder
reliability of .70 is appropriate is some exploratory
studies and the lower end limit for acceptable coding
decisions (Lombar, Snyder-Duch, & Bracken, 2002).
• Refers to the appropriateness and adequacy of the
coding scheme for the text or messages being coded.
• Semantic Validity: what degree do the analytical
categories of the content coded have meaning for
individuals in a particular context?
What content can be analyzed?
Sources, senders, or receivers of messages
Functions or types of messages
Nonverbal cues or behaviors
Text messages or tweets
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