Expert Answer:Negotiation and Conflict Resolution presentation

  

Solved by verified expert:the project is MD 355 Underpass.Every week i present a part of project in one or two slide.this week subject is Negotiation and Conflict Resolution.one or two slide briefly in power point .
negotiation_and_conflict_resolution_2019.pdf

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Negotiation and Conflict
Resolution
CEGR400: Project Management
Dr. Gbekeloluwa B. Oguntimein
LEARNING OBJECTIVES FOR
MODULE # 10
❚ Upon completion of this module the student would be
able to:
❚ differentiate between the types of negotiation
processes.
❚ identify the benefits of partnering and developing a
charter.
❚ identify the objectives of a win-win agreement.
❚ identify types of conflicts during the project life cycle.
❚ anticipate types of conflicts during the project life
cycle.
NEGOTIATION & CONFLICT
RESOLUTION
❚ CONFLICTS ARE COMMON.
❚ THERE ARE THREE TRADITIONAL
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
❙ THE PROJECT TEAM
❙ THE CLIENT
❙ THE FUNCTIONAL AND SENIOR
MANAGEMENT
❚ ISSUES – E.G. BELIEF, FEELINGS, OR
BEHAVIOR
NEGOTIATION & CONFLICT
RESOLUTION (cont’d)
❚ PRODUCES FRUSTRATION
❚ CAN GENERATE
COLLABORATION TO SOLVE A
PROBLEM
❚ WIN – WIN NEGOTIATION IS
THE OBJECTIVE
TYPES OF CONFLICTS
❚ THERE ARE THREE TRADITIONAL
CATEGORIES OF CONFLICITS
❙ GOAL-ORIENTED
❙ AUTHOURITY-BASED
❙ INTERPERSONAL
CONFLICTS ARE HIGHEST DURING THE PROJECT
BULDING STAGE
SCHEDULE AND TECHNICAL CONFLICTS ARE
MOST FREQUENT AND SERIOUS IN THE
PROJECT BULDUP AND MAIN PROGRAM
STAGES AND SCHEDULING CONFLICTS DURING
THE PHASE-OUT STAGE
Project Conflicts by category
and Parties–at-Interest
Parties at –
Interest
Goals
Authority
Interperso
nal
Project Team
Schedules Technical
priorities
Personalit
y
Client
Schedules Technical
priorities
Functional and Schedules Technical
Senior
priorities Administrati
Management
Labor cost ve
Personalit
y
NEGOTIATION:
❚ SETTLING DIFFERENCES
❚ COMPROMISING
❚ BARGAINING
OBJECTIVE – PRODUCE A SOLUTION
THAT PROVIDES GAINS
AND MINIMIZES LOSSES FOR ALL
PARTIES GAIN TRUST.
PRINCIPLES OF NEGOTIATION
❚ SEPARATE PEOPLE FROM THE
PROBLEM
❚ FOCUS ON INTERESTS, NOT
POSITIONS
❚ KEEP EGO OUT OF THE PROBLEM
❚ INVENT OPTIONS FOR MUTUAL GAIN
❚ REINFORCE WIN – WIN
PRINCIPLES OF NEGOTIATION
(cont’d)
❚ NOTE:
❙ NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE
INTERESTS OF THE PERSON THE
PM IS NEGOTIATING WITH:
❘ BETWEEN THE PM & FM
❘ BETWEEN THE PM & CLIENT
❘ BETWEEN THE PM & SENIOR
MANAGEMENT
PARTNERING:
❚ INVOLVES COOPERATION &
HELPFULNESS
❚ HELPS ESTABLISH A COOPERATIVE
TEAM
PROJECT CHARTER
❚ The project charter provides the initial
understanding of the needs that the
product, service, or result, will fulfill.
❚ This information is used in later processes
to collect requirements, define the scope,
identify stakeholders, and provide input to
the project management plan.
Project Charter (cont’d)
❚ Depending on the nature, size, and
complexity of the project the charter
may contain all the listed elements, or
may contain additional information
such as the initial project organization,
functional areas that are involved
related projects, etc.
❚ Charter should be tailored to the needs
of the project.
Charter Contents
❚ Project purpose or justification
❚ Project description
❚ Project and product high-level
requirements
❚ Acceptance criteria
Charter Contents (cont’d)





Measurable project objectives
Success criteria
Summary milestones schedule
Summary budget
Project manager authority.
AGREEMENT:
❚ CLEAR MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING AND
COMMITMENT ABOUT EXPECTATIONS
❚ ROLES & GOALS
❚ A BASIS FOR TRUST
❚ CAN START SMALL
❚ OPEN & NEGOTIABLE AT ANY TIME
CHANGE
❚ Projects are bound to change no matter the
amount of planning (Scope change).
❚ Causes of change are:
❙ Error in planning or Technological uncertainty
❙ Client /user request
❙ Change in mandate e.g. change or enactment of a
new law.
COMMUNICATION:
❚ CLEAR COMMUNICATION FOR WINWIN
❚ REQUIRES EMPATHY
❚ CLARIFY EXPECTATIONS OF ROLES
& GOALS
IN DEVELOPING WIN – WIN
AGREEMENTS:
❚ SPECIFY DESIRED RESULT. DON’T SUPERVISE
METHOD.
❚ HEAVY ON GUIDELINES, LIGHT ON PROCEDURES.
❚ INVOLVE PEOPLE IN SETTING PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS.
❚ REACH UNDERSTANDING ON POS. & NEG.
CONSEQUENCES.
❚ WHERE DO WE FIND CONFLICT IN A PROJECT?
POTENTIAL CONFLICTS DURING
THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE:
❚ PROJECT FORMATION
❙ SETTING UP THE PROJECT
❙ DEVELOPING OBJECTIVES
❙ NEED COMMITMENTS/PRIORITIES
❙ DEVELOPING COSTS
❚ PROJECT BUILD – UP
❙ DEVELOPING A TECHNICAL PLAN(S)
❙ TECHNICAL ISSUES
❙ NEED PM & FM COOPERATION
POTENTIAL CONFLICTS DURING
THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE:
❚ MAIN PROGRAM:
❙ SCHEDULING
❙ ANY CATCH – UP
❙ TECHNICAL CONFLICTS (LINKAGES
BETWEEN TECHNOLOGIES)
❚ PROJECT PHASEOUT
❙ SCHEDULING
❙ PERSONALITY CONFLICTS
Conflict Management
❚ According to Blake & Mouton (1964),
there are five basic modes for handling
conflicts.
❚ Each strategy can be considered as being
high, medium, or low on two dimensions:
❙ Importance of the task or goal, and
importance of the relation between the
people having conflict.
Conflict Management (cont’d)
Technique/Mode Situation
Confrontation
Mode
Problem Solving
Treating the
problem as the
conflict and
working together
to solve it
Strategy
If there is time
Both task and the
and trust
relationship are of
When the
high importance
objective is to
learn.
If you have
confidence in the
other’s ability
When you need a
win-win solution
Technique
Situation
Strategy
Collaborating
Incorporating
multiple view
points and coming
to consensus on a
solution
If you want to
maintain and build
good relationships
When you need
buy in to the
solution
If the situation is
complex
When you need
the best possible
resolution
The relationship is
of high importance
and task is of
medium
importance
Technique/Mode Situation
Strategy
Compromise
mode
PM uses a give and
take approach to
resolve the
conflict, bargaining
and searching for
solutions that will
bring some degree
of satisfaction to
all parties in
conflict
Both task and the
relationship are of
medium
importance.
When both parties
need to win
When you can’t in.
Equal relationship
To maintain
relationship
When the stakes
are moderate
To avoid a fight
Solve conflicts
Technique/Mod
e
Situation
Strategy
Smoothing
mode or
accommodating
mode
PM emphasizes
areas of
agreement deemphasizes or
avoids areas of
differences
To reach an
overarching goal
To maintain
harmony.
When any solution
will be adequate.
When you will lose
anyway.
To create goodwill.
The relationship is
of high importance
and task is of low
importance
Technique/Mod
e
Situation
Strategy
Forcing mode
Win-lose
approach;
Imposing the
resolution on the
other party
When you are
right
In a do or die
situation.
High stakes.
To gain power.
If relationship is
not important.
When time is of
essence
The task is of high
importance and
the relationship is
of low importance.
Technique/Mode
Situation
Strategy
Withdrawal mode
PM retreats from actual
or potential
disagreement.
Used as cooling off
period
When you can’t win.
When the stakes are
low.
To preserve neutrality or
reputation.
If the problem will go
away
Both task and the
relationship are of low
importance
Conflict management (cont’d)
❚ Effective project managers often use
confrontation mode for resolution of conflict
which focuses on a win-win problem solving
approach , and all parties work together to
find the best way to solve the conflict instead
of the other four modes.
❚ The project manager should create an
environment that encourages and maintains
the positive and productive aspects of
conflict.

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