Expert Answer:NUR 4827 Miami Dade Chapter 18 Leadership and Mana


Solved by verified expert:Instructions:Read the Motivation: What Makes You Tick? article.List five (5) different Extrinsic (external) and Intrinsic (internal) motivation factors for each of the the four (4) categories (Job Content, Work environment, Leadership, and benefits) Use the table below to help organize your answers. CategoriesExtrinsic(external)Intrinsic(internal)Job Content Characteristics1234512345Work Environment1234512345Leadership1234512345Benefits1234512345Answer the following questions:
The research in motivation in nurses suggest that excellent quality patient outcomes are possible when which condition exists?What types of employee characteristics can demotivators lead to?What is the term “organizational citizenship” related to and why is it so important in the employee’s role in motivation?Give a description of each of the three leadership styles?Why has the transformational leadership style of such importance when considering motivation in the workplace? How does empowerment fit into this aspect of ledadership?What is the difference between job satisfaction and motivation?Your paper should be:One – Two (1-2) pagesTyped according to APA style for margins, formatting and spacing standards References not older than 5 years

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What makes you tick?
By Debra Dunn, MSN, MBA, RN, CNOR
Motivation is a state of mind, an attitude, or a way
of thinking that inspires individuals to go above and
beyond rather than simply performing a job or task
well.1 Being motivated also results in better work
performance.2 Individuals are motivated by both
extrinsic or intrinsic rewards. However, extrinsic
rewards can only go so far. Without the internal
component, a person’s level of motivation is not likely to last.
Motivation is derived from internal urges—needs,
desires, wishes, drives, ideas, and emotions—that
prompt a person to action and result in specific
behaviors.3 Although external stimuli can increase
the level of motivation, it is the inner urge that actually motivates a person.4 Motivation is the driving
force behind a person’s intensity, direction, and
persistence toward attaining a goal.5
From a manager’s perspective, motivation results
in the employee acting in a manner that helps
achieve departmental and organizational aims. It is
to the manager’s advantage to understand employees’ personal desires and needs and help them
meet those needs while working better and more
Motivation is very complex and can be difficult
to understand when predicting behavior. First,
38 OR Nurse 2015 March
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
March OR Nurse 2015
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Motivation: What makes you tick?
motivation is highly situational: what motivates one
person in one situation may not necessarily motivate
that person in a different situation. Second, people
react differently to the same motivational factors.
Third, people may not even be aware of what motivates them, which happens when motivation occurs
at the subconscious level. Finally, motivation can be
positive with a strong level of commitment or negative such as when the person is motivated to do “just
enough” to be adherent but is not very engaged.3,6
Although some individuals may be more motivated
than others, everyone is motivated to some extent.6
Nurses focus on the delivery of effective and efficient patient care with excellent quality outcomes;
however, these outcomes are directly related to a
nurse’s willingness to apply knowledge and skills in
his or her work. Research shows enhanced patient
outcomes when employees are motivated to perform at their highest levels.5,7
Incentives: Extrinsic
and intrinsic factors
Understanding motivational factors is important to
design systems with the correct incentives in place to
encourage motivation.8 It is important to recognize
that motivation is not the same as incentive. With
incentives, the same input is expected to yield greater outputs. With motivation, more inputs are needed
to change the outputs of work performance, an
employee’s attitude, and behavior. Incentives are
external in nature, while motivation is the expression
of an individual’s inner, personal needs.3
Intrinsic motivation is an internal sense of satisfaction due to some sort of achievement, such as
performing a job well. This internal desire or drive is
expressed as behavior designed to accomplish a goal.
Extrinsic motivation is the same as intrinsic motivation except that the motivator is external to the individual. An example of a combined effect is when
someone is recognized for a job well done (extrinsic),
resulting in an increased sense of self-worth, selfesteem, and self-confidence (intrinsic). This symbiotic
reaction increases the likelihood the employee will
be willing to take on new challenges and contribute
new ideas in the future. Extrinsic rewards can only
go so far when they do not match an employee’s
internal needs. For example, compensation is rarely
the number one motivating factor that gets an individual out of bed in the morning to go to work.2
Creating a type of environment where employees
can grow and contribute is more of a motivator than
financial gain because most employees want to feel
they are part of something bigger than themselves.
They want to learn, evolve, and create new and
exciting things in their workplace.1-3,9,10
The desire to excel on the job comes from within
when an employee is internally incentivized to reach
for a goal.2 Although external motivational forces
have their benefits and should not be discounted,
they are subject to each employee’s individual, intrinsic concerns, and the individual needs to “buy into”
them for them to have a positive impact.2
Many employees rate motivating factors such as
good working relationships with colleagues, training
opportunities, and environmental factors (such as,
good physical conditions) as more important than
income.8 A review of 12 empirical studies of motivation found that seven major job characteristics were
important determinants of motivation. These are the
work itself, healthy relationships with others, workplace conditions, opportunities for personal development, pay/rewards, management practices, and
organizational policies.8 Two other important factors
include being given choices and being involved in
decision making.9 Managers need to identify each
employee’s intrinsic motivators and align these needs
with the needs of the department. Managers are
key people who can help their employees behave
in ways that positively meet their personal, internal
needs as well as perform at higher levels and
work more effectively with others.2 (See Extrinsic and
intrinsic motivational factors.)
Demotivators decrease employees’ desires to contribute positively to the organization. Managers
must find demotivators within their departments
and work to eliminate them. If a demotivator is an
employee who thrives on complaining, for example,
the manager should allow that employee 5 minutes
to air a grievance and then ask that person to suggest a solution. This moves the conversation away
from the drama and toward the harmony of moving forward.
Managers also can cause demotivation when
they micromanage, play favorites, pass their work
off to their staff, display coercive types of control,
and are manipulative.2,3,6 Demotivation can lead to
frustration, hostility, laziness, defensiveness, selfdoubt, judgment of others, inflexibility, misplaced
40 OR Nurse 2015 March
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors
Job content characteristics
External factors
Internal factors
• Challenging nature of the work
• Skill variety–degree to which a job utilizes a
mix of employee knowledge, skills, and abilities
• Task identity–degree to which job involves completing a
complete project versus a piece of work
• Task significance–degree to which job makes a recognizable
impact or contribution
• Ability to provide quality care
• Job enlargement–makes job structurally bigger; improves
job horizontally
• Opportunity to advance
• Career development opportunities that cultivate skills
(professional growth)
• Authority level
• Level of job control–influence in planning work and reviewing
results and setting standards for performance targets
• Clearly defined nursing roles and responsibilities
• Explicit in departmental or organizational goals
• Constructive and objective system of performance appraisal
and merit rating
• Meaningful work (skill variety, task
identity, and task significance)
• Job enrichment (challenging job)
• A sense that one’s expectations can
be filled
• Creativity opportunities
• Decision making
• Sense of control over work
• Setting own goals
• Job pride
• Delegated authority
• Sense of competence
• Perceived increased work
Work environment
• Well-defined and humanistic personnel policy
where the workforce is valued and their needs
and aspirations can be satisfied
• Good working relationships
• Teamwork
• Adequate staffing
• Culture that supports professional growth,
leadership development, and mentorship
• Enthusiastic and warm work environment where
ideas and goals can be shared
• Staff included on councils
• Increased power and authority
• Autonomy
• Empowerment
• Trusting
• Positive reinforcement
• Resources (tools, information, support)
to perform the job
• Pleasant physical conditions of environment
• Safe and respectful work environment
• Distributive justice
• Job security
• Sound and fair promotion and transfer policies
• Well-planned, need-based training, and development
• Strong interpersonal work
• Social acceptance
• Positive interactions with
• Minimal perceived environmental
• Set own work schedule and breaks
• Feelings of accomplishment and
making a difference; taking pride in
work performed
• Feel like valued member of team
• Professionalism
• Work-life balance with manageable
and suitable workloads
• Hardiness (resilience) — able to deal
with turbulent work environment
because see uncertainty in the
environment as challenging, not
threatening; ability to improvise
and adapt to significant change
March OR Nurse 2015
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Motivation: What makes you tick?
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors (continued)

Two-way communication that is respectful and open
Be a good listener–appreciate what others have to say
Maintain visibility
Demonstrate trust and respect
Show others that you value their perspectives–
seek their opinions and ideas and implement them
Show confidence in employee’s ability to perform
at a high level
Encourage participation in decision making
Delegation of responsibility
Help staff set ambitious goals and help them work toward
these goals–extend people beyond their comfort zone
Coaching, role modeling, mentorship
Eliminate obstacles for employees to succeed
Accurate, honest, and constructive feedback on work effectiveness; should be corrective but not punitive; also point out
the positive and provide encouragement
Honest praise; sincere compliments
Good performance rewarded adequately
Treat people consistently and fairly
Shows concern for employee as an individual
Provides rewards (bonuses, gift certificates, certificates of
appreciation, thank-you notes, day off with pay, parking
spot closest to facility for a month, articles in local paper or
internal newsletter)
• Sense of self-efficacy
• Recognition of efforts when successful, or when attempted to
improve effectiveness or productivity, or overcame an obstacle
• Earned respect
• Input is sought for decision making
• Feel empowered
• Autonomy–independence and
• Knowing what is expected to do
the job (preparedness)
• Knowledge of results (feedback)

Fair wages and salary administration
Financial incentives
Paid time off
Medical and life insurance benefits
Retirement pension
Location of facility
• Feel appreciated and rewarded
Bruce A. Manager’s Guide to Motivating Employees. 2nd ed. Madison, WI: McGraw-Hill; 2011;
Callicutt D, Norman K, Smith L, Nichols A, Kring D. Building an engaged and certified nursing workforce. Nurs Clin North Am. 2011;46(1):81-87;
Gambino KM. Motivation for entry, occupational commitment and intent to remain: a survey regarding registered nurse retention. J Adv Nurs.
Brady Germain P, Cummings GG. The influence of nursing leadership on nurse performance: a systematic literature review. J Nurs Manag.
Hahn JJ, Butz KP, Gavin JG, Mills RS, Welter CJ. Recognizing professional and volunteer activities. AORN J. 2004;79(5):1006-1010;
Lambrou P, Kontodimopoulos N, Niakas D. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital. Hum
Resour Health. 2010;8:26.;
Llanos EB. Motivating co-workers. Advance for Nurses, Northeast. 2013;28-30;
Mone E, Eisinger C, Guggenheim K, et al. Performance management at the wheel: driving employee engagement in organizations. J Bus Psychol.
Newcomb P, Smith A, Webb P. Relationship of nurse job satisfaction to implementation of a nursing professional practice model. Southern Online
Journal of Nursing Research.;
Peters DH, Chakraborty S, Mahapatra P, Steinhardt L. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional
analysis from two Indian states. Hum Resour Health. 2010;8(27):1-11;
Shermont H, Krepcio D, Murphy JM. Career mapping: developing nurse leaders, reinvigorating careers. J Nurs Adm. 2009;39(10):432-437;
Sledge S, Miles AK, van Sambeek MF. A comparison of employee job satisfaction in the service industry: do cultural and spirituality influences matter? Journal of Management Policy and Practice. 2011;12(4):126-145;
Utriainen K, Kyngäs H. Hospital nurses’ job satisfaction: a literature review. J Nurs Manag. 2009;17(8):1002-1010.
42 OR Nurse 2015 March
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
priorities, absenteeism, poor staff retention, low
productivity, and apathy.3 Managers can combat
demotivation by holding regular staff meetings,
soliciting feedback from employees, offering incentives, praising successful employees, celebrating victories, and showing concern about employees
beyond the workplace.
Multigenerational influences
Multigenerational differences among employees
need to be considered when discerning which
extrinsic and intrinsic factors might be more
likely to motivate certain people. Nurses raised
in different generations may respond differently
to extrinsic forces cultivated in the work area.
Understanding these additional differences will
help managers choose more appropriate actions to
motivate employees. It is important to always take
a closer look at where the individual “is coming
from” based on their age-group, which can offer
new ways to change attitudes and increase motivational levels.7
The employee’s role
Thoughts and behaviors, which are derived from
internal urges, result in actions to fulfill current or
future personal goals or desires. A sense of purpose
results when an employee’s activities align with his or
her values and beliefs. Employees should understand
and attend to their internal forces in order to build
on their motivation levels. The higher the need satisfied by an activity in the workplace, the greater the
motivation will be to perform that activity.2,11
Nurses have their own internal working styles
that drive them to achieve and satisfy personal
desires. These motivational forces can be positive,
neutral, or negative, which directly impact the level
of success nurses will have within the healthcare
facility. Positive internal motivational forces result
in “organizational citizenship” where the nurse is
results-oriented, believes the organization and the
nurse are part of an integrated unit, and views his
or her assigned tasks as a fundamental duty. Nurses
who feel neutral may function at a subsistence
level where they perform their required duties but
only at a minimal level. These nurses survive in the
organization but do not have any concern for longterm results. Finally, nurses who harbor negative
beliefs about themselves, their capabilities, the people around them, or how things are viewed in the
world will find their abilities to be successful to be
stunted and limited.4,11
Nurses should participate in the creation of their
workplace cultures by engaging in activities that
enhance the work experience. Nurses are responsible
to communicate professionally with their nurse leaders about what they need to complete their tasks efficiently and expertly.12 In other words, everyone has
an inherent responsibility to make their work experiences better for themselves and for their patients.
The manager’s role
Managers should seek to understand what motivates
each of their employees and then help them make
the connection between those inner drives and the
needs of the department.2 Nurses with greater internal needs for professional growth, for example,
might demonstrate a more positive response to job
enrichment than other nurses might.13 Nurses who
view their work as a 9-to-5 job might be more
enticed by financial rewards.
One of the characteristics of a leader is the ability
to influence the actions of others toward accomplishing specific goals. Before a manager can do this, however, he or she needs to be motivated. This internal
desire within the manager ultimately will ignite the
passion in the employees. A manager’s attitudes,
behaviors, and practices directly influence those of
the employees. If a leader is not motivated, how can
the staff be?2,3,14 Only when a leader understands his
or her own internal motivation can he or she more
readily understand the employees’ motivational forces and the best way to guide and motivate them.11
Employee motivation is of great concern to
leaders, as it directly impacts human behavior and
attitudes toward work. Just as employees have
certain desires the organization is expected to
satisfy, the organization also expects certain types
of behaviors from employees. The task for the
leader is to make the work more interesting, purposeful, and acceptable to employees so they perform it more enthusiastically and with a greater
sense of responsibility. Leaders need to search for
opportunities to create, develop, and improve processes and to enable others to act to feel competent and dedicated.
Employees are motivated to do a job well when
it helps them meet one or more of their personal
needs, aims, objectives, and values. The challenge
for managers is that different people have different
March OR Nurse 2015
Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Motivation: What makes you tick?
needs, and these needs change over time and
according to the context of the situation.2,12 “There is
no single magic wand to motivate employees, as
their needs and priorities of satisfaction differ. What
may motivate one may not motivate the other.”3
Managers can assist their nurses uncover their
motivational forces to reach their highest level of performance and productivity. A first step is to ask the
nurse what motivates him or her. If the answer lies
buried, then the manager needs to get to know the
nurse on a more personal level to learn these inner
desires. This also can be accomplished by observing
individual actions and behaviors and interpreting
them in terms of some underlying motivation.3
Motivated managers see their role as facilitators,
trainers, and coaches; they provide inspirational motivation through enthusiasm and challenge. These
managers clearly articulate a vision, encourage the
evolution of the individual and team spirit, and support goal achievement. Effective leaders develop and
maintain a trusting and positive motivational climate
so that nurses feel satisfied and motivated to consistently perform at their highest level of productivity.
This is accomplished by understanding nurses’ desires,
appealing to their sense of self-improvement and selfworth as human beings, and working to elevate their
level of effectiveness to accomplish departmental
goals. It is up to the manager to assist their nursing
staff to connect their intrinsic motives to the organization’s goals.2 Employees will surprise their managers
with their levels of motivation to perform high-quality
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